1
Motivation & Emotion
Introduction
Dr James Neill
Centre for Applied Psychology
University of Canberra
2015
Image source
2
1. Unit outline
2. Introduction (Ch 1)
Lecture 1:
Overview
3
Unit outline
4
Teaching staff
Dr. James Neill
(convener, lecturer & tutor)
5
Contacting James Neill
 Face to face: Before or after tutorials
and lectures or by appointment.
 Office hours: 15:30-1...
6
Integrate
theories and
current research
towards explaining the role of
motivation and emotions
in human behaviour.
Learn...
7
1. Drives and instincts
2. Theories of motivation,
consciousness, and volitional
behaviour
3. Self-control and self-regu...
8
1. There are optional on-campus
activities (lectures and tutorials)
2. You can choose f2f or virtual tutorials
3. Lectur...
9
1. Lectures: Wednesdays
13:30-15:30 12B2
Weeks 1-7, 9-13
2. Tutorials: Wed or Thu fortnightly
T1 Wed 18:00 9A2 W 1, 3, 5...
10
Textbook
Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding
motivation and emotion (6th ed.).
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
11
Textbook:
5th
to 6th
edition changes
 3 new chapters:
 Mindsets (Ch 9)
 Individual Emotions (Ch 14)
 Interventions ...
12
Equipment and materials
1. Computer + internet
2. Audio headset
(Microphone + earphones)
3. Webcam/video camera
(option...
13
Unit websites
1. Moodle:
http://learnonline.canberra.edu.au/course/view.php?id=13744
2. Wikiversity:
http://en.wikivers...
14
 12 x 2 hour weekly lectures based on
the 17 Reeve (2015) textbook chapters
~1st
half about motivation
~2nd
half abo...
15
1. Introduction
2. Assessment task skills
3. Brain & physiological needs
4. Psychological & implicit
motives
5. Extrins...
16
7. Nature of emotion
8. Aspects of emotion
9. Individual emotion
10. Unconscious motivation
11. Growth psychology
12. I...
17
1. 6 x 2hr x fortnightly tutorials
2. Structure
1. ~20% content review
2. ~50% activities
3. ~30% assessment task skill...
18
1. Introduction + Wiki editing
2. Needs
3. Self & goals
4. Emotion
5. Individual emotions &
unconscious motivation
6. G...
19
Tutorial attendance
1. Tutorial attendance is strongly
recommended but not compulsory.
2.Tutorials provide hands-on ski...
20
1. Book chapter (50%):
Due 9am Mon Week 12
2. Multimedia (20%)
Due 9am Mon Week 13
3. Quizzes (30%)
Due 9am Mon Week 14...
21
Workload
Task Expected time involved
Book
chapter
(50%)
~50 hours: 8 hours to learn "how", 20
hours research, 22 hours ...
22
Graduate attributes 1
1. Professional
1. Communicate effectively
2. Initiative and drive, use organisation skills
to pl...
23
Graduate attributes 2
2. Global citizens
1. Adopt an informed and balanced
approach across professional and
internation...
24
Graduate attributes 3
3. Lifelong learners
1. Adapt to complexity, ambiguity and
change by being flexible and keen to
e...
25
Book chapter - Task
 Author an interesting, well-written,
freely available, online, self-
improvement book chapter abo...
26
1. Theme
2. Topic
3. Location
4. Licensing
5. User name
Book chapter – Guidelines
6. Academic integrity,
independence, ...
27
Book theme
Motivation and Emotion:Motivation and Emotion:
Understanding and improving our
motivational and emotional li...
28
Topic examples - Motivation
 How can we be more or less motivated
to do X?
(e.g., exercise, eat healthily, overeat)
 ...
29
Topic examples - Emotion
 How can we experience more or less
of emotion A? Why do we experience
emotion B and what can...
30
1. Theory (30%): Effective use of key
theoretical concepts, critical thinking &
application of theory.
2. Research (30%...
31
https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion/Book/2015
 Sign up or negotiate topic:
 One topic per author.
...
32
https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion/Book/2015
 Proposed topics – email the
convener:
 Proposed top...
33
Create a stand-alone, online,
multimedia presentation about the
same topic as the book chapter.
Max. 3 mins.
Multimedia...
34
Multimedia – Guidelines
1. Topic overview
2. Style
3. Format
4. Location
5. Equipment
6. Length
7. Copyright
8. Attribu...
35
1. Structure and content (25%): Well-
designed, logical content which
overviews the chapter content
2. Communication (5...
36
Best aspects?
“Choosing our own topic and writing a chapter
that was meaningful to us, using a new medium
that extended...
37
Quizzes - Task
 Online quizzes about each of the
17 textbook chapters
 Equally-weighted 10-item
multiple-choice quizz...
38
Quizzes – Guidelines
1. Attempts
2. Availability
3. Content
4. Academic integrity
5. Reviewing results
6. Time limit
7....
39
1. W03 – Sign up for chapter topic
2. W04 (Fri) – Census day - Final date to
withdraw without penalty
3. W08 - Mid-seme...
40
Questions?
41
Introduction
Reading:
Reeve (2015), Ch 1, pp. 1-25 Image source
42
Activity:
What is motivation and emotion?
1. Write your own definition of:
1. “motivation” = ?
2. “emotion” = ?
2. Shar...
43
What is motivation?
"motivation"
and “emotion”
have a
common root
in the Latin
verb:
movere
(to move)
"motivation"
and ...
44
Motivation = Energy + Direction
Processes that give behaviour
energy and direction.
Processes that give behaviour
energ...
45
Motivational science:
Illustration of a theory
Reality
(In all its complexity)
Applications;
Recommendations
(How to su...
46
Motivational reasons to exercise
Reeve (2009), Table 1.1
47
Two perennial questions
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 6-9)
What causes
behaviour?
“Why did she do that?”
“Why do people do ...
48
Specific questions that constitute
the core problems to be solved in
motivation study
1. What starts behaviour?
2. Why ...
49
Sources of motivation
Based on Reeve (2009, 2015, Figure 1.2, pp. 8-9, 9)
Needs
Cognitions
Emotions
External
events
Int...
50
Measuring motivation:
Expressions of motivation
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 12-15)
Behaviour
Psycho-
physiology
&
brain
a...
51
Seven
behavioural
expressions
of motivation
and emotion
Based on Reeve (2015, Table 1.2, p. 13)
Effort
Persistence
Late...
52
Extent of engagement:
Four inter-related aspects
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 1.3, p. 13)
.
Extent of
engagement
Behavi...
53
Brain & physiological activity as
expressions of motivation and
emotion
Based on Reeve (2015, Table 1.3, p. 14)
Brain a...
54
Self-report
1. People can typically self-report their
motivation (e.g., via interview or
questionnaire)
2. Questionnair...
55
Ten themes in the study of motivation
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 16-25)
Motivation
benefits
adaptation.
Motives direct
a...
56
Motives vary over time & influence
the ongoing stream of behaviour
Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.4, p. 15)
Motivation i...
57
Stream of behaviour and changes in the
strength of its underlying motives
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 1.6, p. 20)
58
Framework to understand
the study of motivation
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 1.4, p. 16)
Antecedent
conditions
●
Enviro...
59
Using motivational theories
to solve practical problems
Based on Reeve (2009, p. 22)
Practical
problem
Given what I kno...
60
Framing the practical problem:
Understanding the motivational
agent
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1)
•What is the phenomena?...
61
Theoretical understanding of
problem to be solved
Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1)
•What is the model? (theory)
•Why does it...
62
To get a better overview of
motivation and emotion
1. Read the 17 Reeve (2009) chapter
summaries
2. Look through the mo...
63
References
 Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation
and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
 Reeve, J. (2015). ...
64
Open Office Impress
 This presentation was made using
Open Office Impress.
 Free and open source software.
 http://w...
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Introduction to motivation and emotion

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  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_gemma_and_mehmet.jpg
    Image by: Mehmet Karatay, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Mehmet_Karatay
    Image license: GFDL, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License
    Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on Reeve (2009) .
    Wednesday 12 August, 2015, 12:30-14:30, 12B2
    7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G
    Centre for Applied Psychology
    Faculty of Health
    University of Canberra
    Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia
    ph: +61 2 6201 2536
    [email_address]
    http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source:
    http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Motivation_and_Emotion_Scrabble.jpg
    Image author: James Neill, Jtneill, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Jtneill
    Image license: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yellowpin.svg
    License: Public domain
    http://ucspace.canberra.edu.au/display/7125/Contacts
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source:
    http://media.johnwiley.com.au/product_data/coverImage300/66/EHEP0002/EHEP000266.jpg
    Image author: Wiley
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    Image author: Wiley
  • Image source:
    http://media.johnwiley.com.au/product_data/coverImage300/66/EHEP0002/EHEP000266.jpg
    Image author: Wiley
    Image source: http://media.johnwiley.com.au/product_data/coverImage300/80/EHEP0031/EHEP003180.jpg
    Image author: Wiley
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Headset_icon.svg
    Image license: Public domain
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    Image license: Public domain
  • Image source: https://coCreatmmons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Book_designed_by_Benny_Forsberg_from_the_Noun_Project.svg
    License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
    Author: Benny Forsberg, http://thenounproject.com/foppa/
  • Image source:http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nuvola_apps_edu_film.png
    Image by: Arek1979, http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedysta:Arek1979
    Image license: GFDL, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Lesser_General_Public_License
  • Source: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion/Evaluation#2012
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
  • Image source:
    http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Motivation_and_Emotion_Scrabble.jpg
  • Timing: Suggest 1 min for each of 1, 2, and 3, with 2 mins for #4
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Running_Samburu_Boy.jpg
    Image author: Erik (HASH) Hersman, http://www.flickr.com/people/18288598@N00
    Image license: CC by A 2.0, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:One_hand_handstand.jpg
    Image by: AR22, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:AR22
    Image license: CC-by-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  • Based on Reeve (2015), Figure 1.1 Illustration of a Theory
  • Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 1.1 illustrates the function and utility of a good theory.
  • Motivation is concerned with the processes that give behavior its energy and direction.
    Four processes are capable of giving behaviour its energy and direction.
  • Based on Reeve (2009), Table 1.2 Seven behavioural expressions of motivation and emotion
  • Based on Reeve (2015), Figure 1.3 Four Interrelated Aspects of Engagement.
  • Based on Reeve (2015), Table 1.3. Five Psychophysiological Expressions of Motivation and Emotion
    Brain activityActivation of brain structures such as the amygdala (fear) or prefrontal cortex (setting goals).
     
    Hormonal activityChemicals in saliva or blood, such as cortisol (stress) or catecholamines (fight‑or‑flight reaction).
     
    Cardiovascular Contraction and relaxation of the heart and blood vessels
    activity (attractive incentives, difficult/challenging tasks).
     
    Ocular activityEye behavior—pupil size (extent of mental activity), eye blinks (changing cognitive states), and eye movements (reflective thought).
     
    Electrodermal Electrical changes on the surface of the skin (expression of threat activity or stimulus significance).
     
    Skeletal activityActivity of the musculature, as with facial expressions (specific emotion) and bodily gestures (desire to leave).
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:One_hand_handstand.jpg
    Image by: AR22, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:AR22
    Image license: CC-by-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  • Based on Reeve (2009), Table 1.3
    Brain activityActivation of brain structures such as the amygdala (fear) or prefrontal cortex (setting goals).
     
    Hormonal activityChemicals in saliva or blood, such as cortisol (stress) or catecholamines (fight‑or‑flight reaction).
     
    Cardiovascular Contraction and relaxation of the heart and blood vessels
    activity (attractive incentives, difficult/challenging tasks).
     
    Ocular activityEye behavior—pupil size (extent of mental activity), eye blinks (changing cognitive states), and eye movements (reflective thought).
     
    Electrodermal Electrical changes on the surface of the skin (expression of threat activity or stimulus significance).
     
    Skeletal activityActivity of the musculature, as with facial expressions (specific emotion) and bodily gestures (desire to leave).
  • Based on Reeve (2009), Table 1.4, p. 15
  • Based on Reeve (2015), Figure 1.6. Stream of Behaviour and the Changes in the Strength of Its Underlying Motives
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:One_hand_handstand.jpg
    Image by: AR22, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:AR22
    Image license: CC-by-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  • Introduction to motivation and emotion

    1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Introduction Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2015 Image source
    2. 2. 2 1. Unit outline 2. Introduction (Ch 1) Lecture 1: Overview
    3. 3. 3 Unit outline
    4. 4. 4 Teaching staff Dr. James Neill (convener, lecturer & tutor)
    5. 5. 5 Contacting James Neill  Face to face: Before or after tutorials and lectures or by appointment.  Office hours: 15:30-16:30 Wed (after lectures) in lecture weeks (12D12)  Open discussion: Moodle discussion forum, Wikiversity talk page (jtneill), Twitter (jtneill) #emot15  Private message: Moodle message or email james.neill@canberra.edu.au  Phone: 02 6201 2536
    6. 6. 6 Integrate theories and current research towards explaining the role of motivation and emotions in human behaviour. Learning outcomes
    7. 7. 7 1. Drives and instincts 2. Theories of motivation, consciousness, and volitional behaviour 3. Self-control and self-regulation 4. Structure and function of emotions 5. Relationships between emotion and cognition 6. Regulation of emotions Syllabus
    8. 8. 8 1. There are optional on-campus activities (lectures and tutorials) 2. You can choose f2f or virtual tutorials 3. Lectures and tutorials are recorded, with accompanying notes 4. It is possible to successful achieve the learning objectives via f2f, virtual, or blended engagement → your choice Flexible delivery mode
    9. 9. 9 1. Lectures: Wednesdays 13:30-15:30 12B2 Weeks 1-7, 9-13 2. Tutorials: Wed or Thu fortnightly T1 Wed 18:00 9A2 W 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 T2 Thu 10:30 9A2 W 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12 T3 Wed 18:00 9A2 W 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13 T4 Wed 20:30 Vir W 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13 T5 Thu 10:30 9A2 W 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 13 Timetable
    10. 10. 10 Textbook Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    11. 11. 11 Textbook: 5th to 6th edition changes  3 new chapters:  Mindsets (Ch 9)  Individual Emotions (Ch 14)  Interventions (Ch 17)  2 chapters removed:  Personality characteristics (Ch 13)  Conclusion (Ch 16)  Greater emphasis on neuroscience  More emphasis on practical applications (chapter feature boxes)  10 recommended readings added to each chapter  Expanded Instructor Manual/Test bank
    12. 12. 12 Equipment and materials 1. Computer + internet 2. Audio headset (Microphone + earphones) 3. Webcam/video camera (optional) Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Headset_icon.svg
    13. 13. 13 Unit websites 1. Moodle: http://learnonline.canberra.edu.au/course/view.php?id=13744 2. Wikiversity: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion These sites are open access – i.e., freely and openly available without financial or other barriers. Note: What you share is public. Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Headset_icon.svg
    14. 14. 14  12 x 2 hour weekly lectures based on the 17 Reeve (2015) textbook chapters ~1st half about motivation ~2nd half about emotion  Lecture video and audio will be recorded and accessible via Echo360 (via Moodle site). Lectures
    15. 15. 15 1. Introduction 2. Assessment task skills 3. Brain & physiological needs 4. Psychological & implicit motives 5. Extrinsic motivation & goal setting 6. Mindsets, control, & the self Lectures - Topics
    16. 16. 16 7. Nature of emotion 8. Aspects of emotion 9. Individual emotion 10. Unconscious motivation 11. Growth psychology 12. Interventions and conclusion Lectures - Overview
    17. 17. 17 1. 6 x 2hr x fortnightly tutorials 2. Structure 1. ~20% content review 2. ~50% activities 3. ~30% assessment task skills 3. Virtual tutorials are recorded and available via Moodle Tutorials
    18. 18. 18 1. Introduction + Wiki editing 2. Needs 3. Self & goals 4. Emotion 5. Individual emotions & unconscious motivation 6. Growth psychology Tutorials - Topics
    19. 19. 19 Tutorial attendance 1. Tutorial attendance is strongly recommended but not compulsory. 2.Tutorials provide hands-on skills and activities which are directly related to the assessment exercises. 3. Non-engagement in tutorials will make successful completion of the assessment exercises more difficult.
    20. 20. 20 1. Book chapter (50%): Due 9am Mon Week 12 2. Multimedia (20%) Due 9am Mon Week 13 3. Quizzes (30%) Due 9am Mon Week 14 Assessment - Overview
    21. 21. 21 Workload Task Expected time involved Book chapter (50%) ~50 hours: 8 hours to learn "how", 20 hours research, 22 hours preparation. (With 100 students, this is equivalent to one person working full-time for 3 years!) Multimedia (20%) ~10 hours: 2 hours to learn "how", 6 hours preparation, 2 hours to record & finalise. Quizzes (30%) ~93 hours: 12 lectures (x 2 hours each; 24 hours), 6 tutorials (x 2 hours each; 12 hours), 17 chapters (x ~3 hours each; 51 hours) and 6 hours completing the quizzes.
    22. 22. 22 Graduate attributes 1 1. Professional 1. Communicate effectively 2. Initiative and drive, use organisation skills to plan and manage workload 3. Up-to-date and relevant knowledge and skills 4. Use creativity, critical thinking, analysis and research skills to solve real-world and theoretical problem
    23. 23. 23 Graduate attributes 2 2. Global citizens 1. Adopt an informed and balanced approach across professional and international boundaries 2. Communicate effectively in diverse cultural and social settings 3. Make creative use of technology in learning and professional lives
    24. 24. 24 Graduate attributes 3 3. Lifelong learners 1. Adapt to complexity, ambiguity and change by being flexible and keen to engage with new ideas 2. Be self-aware 3. Evaluate and adopt new technology
    25. 25. 25 Book chapter - Task  Author an interesting, well-written, freely available, online, self- improvement book chapter about a specific, unique motivation or emotion topic.  Consider how psychological theory and research knowledge can be used to help people live more effective motivational or emotional lives.
    26. 26. 26 1. Theme 2. Topic 3. Location 4. Licensing 5. User name Book chapter – Guidelines 6. Academic integrity, independence, & collaboration 7. Length 8. Feedback & peer review 9. Submission
    27. 27. 27 Book theme Motivation and Emotion:Motivation and Emotion: Understanding and improving our motivational and emotional lives using psychological science Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Book_designed_by_Benny_Forsberg_from_the_Noun_Project.svg
    28. 28. 28 Topic examples - Motivation  How can we be more or less motivated to do X? (e.g., exercise, eat healthily, overeat)  What motivates people to do Y and what can be suggested? (e.g., body modification, pole dancing)  What is the Z model/theory and how can it be used? (e.g., goal setting, willpower)
    29. 29. 29 Topic examples - Emotion  How can we experience more or less of emotion A? Why do we experience emotion B and what can be done about it? (e.g., happiness, jealousy, emotional intelligence)  What is the effect of (emotion) C on (emotion) D? (e.g., anger on health, health on happiness)  What is the E model/theory and how can it be used? (e.g., Emotion-Focused Therapy, Schacter-Singer theory of emotion, Lövheim cube of emotion)
    30. 30. 30 1. Theory (30%): Effective use of key theoretical concepts, critical thinking & application of theory. 2. Research (30%): Key peer-reviewed research discussed in relation to theoretical aspects of the topic. 3. Written expression (30%): Interesting and readable, logical structure, interactive learning features, APA style. 4. Social contribution (10%): Helping others to improve book quality. Logged. Book chapter - Marking criteria
    31. 31. 31 https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion/Book/2015  Sign up or negotiate topic:  One topic per author.  Some possible topics are available – you can sign up anytime to free topics.  You are encouraged to suggest your own topic (via email).  Lecture 1-2 and Tutorial 1: Discuss/expand the table of contents  You should have signed up for a topic by the end of Week 3. Book chapter - Topic sign up 1
    32. 32. 32 https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion/Book/2015  Proposed topics – email the convener:  Proposed topics must have a title and subtitle  The subtitle should be in the form of a question(s)  The target audience should be laypeople (not specialists) – and the chapter should contribute to improving their lives  Topics must be unique (not already covered on Wikiversity)  Sign up to Wikiversity and include your username Book chapter - Topic sign up 2
    33. 33. 33 Create a stand-alone, online, multimedia presentation about the same topic as the book chapter. Max. 3 mins. Multimedia - Task
    34. 34. 34 Multimedia – Guidelines 1. Topic overview 2. Style 3. Format 4. Location 5. Equipment 6. Length 7. Copyright 8. Attribution 9. Links
    35. 35. 35 1. Structure and content (25%): Well- designed, logical content which overviews the chapter content 2. Communication (50%): Clear, well- paced, engaging communication of ideas 3. Production quality (25%): Clear picture and sound. Informative title, description, license, etc. Multimedia - Marking criteria
    36. 36. 36 Best aspects? “Choosing our own topic and writing a chapter that was meaningful to us, using a new medium that extended our skills. Learning to use the Wiki, and writing in this way was more relevant to real life than an essay. Really engaging unit!” Worst aspects? “did not like at all the focus on wikiversity and multimedia/social media aspect... overly challenging to be learning the content as well as the medium.” Student feedback (2011)
    37. 37. 37 Quizzes - Task  Online quizzes about each of the 17 textbook chapters  Equally-weighted 10-item multiple-choice quizzes. Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ambox_blue_question.svg
    38. 38. 38 Quizzes – Guidelines 1. Attempts 2. Availability 3. Content 4. Academic integrity 5. Reviewing results 6. Time limit 7. Weighting
    39. 39. 39 1. W03 – Sign up for chapter topic 2. W04 (Fri) – Census day - Final date to withdraw without penalty 3. W08 - Mid-semester break 4. W08 (Fri) – Final date to withdraw without incurring fail grade 5. W12 (Mon 9am) - Book chapter due 6. W13 (Mon 9am) - Multimedia due 7. W14 (Mon 9am) - Quizzes due 8. W16 (Fri 3pm) – Results released Key dates
    40. 40. 40 Questions?
    41. 41. 41 Introduction Reading: Reeve (2015), Ch 1, pp. 1-25 Image source
    42. 42. 42 Activity: What is motivation and emotion? 1. Write your own definition of: 1. “motivation” = ? 2. “emotion” = ? 2. Share and discuss your definitions with someone else. 3. Modify/improve your definitions 4. Let's hear some definitions …
    43. 43. 43 What is motivation? "motivation" and “emotion” have a common root in the Latin verb: movere (to move) "motivation" and “emotion” have a common root in the Latin verb: movere (to move) Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Running_Samburu_Boy.jpg, CC-by-A 2.0
    44. 44. 44 Motivation = Energy + Direction Processes that give behaviour energy and direction. Processes that give behaviour energy and direction.  Energy (Strength): Behaviour is relatively strong, intense, and persistent  Direction (Purpose): Behaviour is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal  Energy (Strength): Behaviour is relatively strong, intense, and persistent  Direction (Purpose): Behaviour is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:One_hand_handstand.jpg, CC-by-SA 3.0
    45. 45. 45 Motivational science: Illustration of a theory Reality (In all its complexity) Applications; Recommendations (How to support and enhance motivation and emotion in applied settings) Theory (Created by motivational psychologists) Hypo- theses (Derived from theory) Data (To test the adequacy of each hypothesis) Based on Reeve (2015), Figure 1.1 Representation Application
    46. 46. 46 Motivational reasons to exercise Reeve (2009), Table 1.1
    47. 47. 47 Two perennial questions Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 6-9) What causes behaviour? “Why did she do that?” “Why do people do what they do?” ? Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? “Why does a person behave one way in a particular situation at one time yet behave in a different way at another time?” “What are the motivational differences among individuals, and how do such differences arise?”
    48. 48. 48 Specific questions that constitute the core problems to be solved in motivation study 1. What starts behaviour? 2. Why is behaviour sustained over time? 3. Why is behaviour directed towards some goals yet away from others? 4. Why does behaviour change its direction? 5. Why does behaviour stop? 1. What starts behaviour? 2. Why is behaviour sustained over time? 3. Why is behaviour directed towards some goals yet away from others? 4. Why does behaviour change its direction? 5. Why does behaviour stop? Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 6-7)
    49. 49. 49 Sources of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, 2015, Figure 1.2, pp. 8-9, 9) Needs Cognitions Emotions External events Internalmotives Motivation = Processes that give behavior its energy and direction. These processes lead to energised, goal- directed and persistent (motivated) action. Externalmotives
    50. 50. 50 Measuring motivation: Expressions of motivation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 12-15) Behaviour Psycho- physiology & brain activations Engage- ment Self-report
    51. 51. 51 Seven behavioural expressions of motivation and emotion Based on Reeve (2015, Table 1.2, p. 13) Effort Persistence Latency Choice Probability of response Facial expressions Bodily gestures
    52. 52. 52 Extent of engagement: Four inter-related aspects Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 1.3, p. 13) . Extent of engagement Behaviour Emotion Cognition Agency • On-task behaviour • Effort • Persistence • Presence of interest, enjoyment, enthusiasm • Absence of distress, anger, anxiety, frustration ● Using sophisticated learning strategies ● Seeking conceptual understanding rather than surface knowledge ● Self-regulation, such as planning • Contributing constructively into and changing the environment for the better •Asking questions •Expressing preferences
    53. 53. 53 Brain & physiological activity as expressions of motivation and emotion Based on Reeve (2015, Table 1.3, p. 14) Brain activity Hormonal activity Cardiovascular activity Ocular activity Electrodermal activity Skeletal activity
    54. 54. 54 Self-report 1. People can typically self-report their motivation (e.g., via interview or questionnaire) 2. Questionnaires are easy to administer but there can be a lack of correspondence between what people say their motivations are and people's behavioural and physiological expressions. 1. People can typically self-report their motivation (e.g., via interview or questionnaire) 2. Questionnaires are easy to administer but there can be a lack of correspondence between what people say their motivations are and people's behavioural and physiological expressions. Based on Reeve (2015, p. 15)
    55. 55. 55 Ten themes in the study of motivation Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 16-25) Motivation benefits adaptation. Motives direct attention. Motive strengths vary over time and influence the stream of behaviour. Types of motivation exist. Motivating others requires effort to be successful. To flourish, motivation needs supportive conditions. There is nothing so practical as a good theory. Motives are intervening variables. We are not always consciously aware of motives. Motivation study reveals what people want.
    56. 56. 56 Motives vary over time & influence the ongoing stream of behaviour Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.4, p. 15) Motivation is a dynamic process (always changing, always rising and falling) rather than a discrete event or static condition. How motives influence behaviour for a student sitting at a desk Note: The number of asterisks in column 4 represents the intensity of the aroused motive. One asterisk denotes the lowest intensity level, while five asterisks denote the highest intensity level.
    57. 57. 57 Stream of behaviour and changes in the strength of its underlying motives Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 1.6, p. 20)
    58. 58. 58 Framework to understand the study of motivation Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 1.4, p. 16) Antecedent conditions ● Environment al events ● Social contexts Motive status Energising, directing, and sustaining: Behaviour Enagement Brain activity Psychophysiolo gy Self-report Changes in Life Outcomes • Performance • Achievement • Learning • Adjustment • Skill, Talent • Well-being Needs Cognitions Emotions
    59. 59. 59 Using motivational theories to solve practical problems Based on Reeve (2009, p. 22) Practical problem Given what I know about human motivation & emotion Proposed solution/ intervention, if any e.g., • Student dropout • Mediocre performance • Theories • Empirical findings • Practical experience • Do I have a strong reason to believe that my proposed intervention will produce positive benefits? • Do no harm
    60. 60. 60 Framing the practical problem: Understanding the motivational agent Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1) •What is the phenomena? •What is its opposite? •Where does it come from? •Is it malleable or fixed? •What does it related to, or predict? Identifying the motivational agent underlying the problem (e.g., goals, efficacy, or helplessness)
    61. 61. 61 Theoretical understanding of problem to be solved Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 1) •What is the model? (theory) •Why does it work? •How does it work? (diagram?) •How does it change? What causes it to change? •Under what conditions does it change? •Where do high and low levels come from?
    62. 62. 62 To get a better overview of motivation and emotion 1. Read the 17 Reeve (2009) chapter summaries 2. Look through the motivation and emotion textbooks in short loan in the library 3. Check out past issues of the journal, “Motivation and Emotion” 4. Explore the 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2014 books on Wikiversity 1. Read the 17 Reeve (2009) chapter summaries 2. Look through the motivation and emotion textbooks in short loan in the library 3. Check out past issues of the journal, “Motivation and Emotion” 4. Explore the 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2014 books on Wikiversity
    63. 63. 63 References  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    64. 64. 64 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html
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