1
Motivation & Emotion
Dr James Neill
Centre for Applied Psychology
University of Canberra
2015
Image source
Growth motiva...
2
Growth motivation &
positive psychology
Reading:
Reeve (2015)
Ch 15
(pp. 431-465)
Humanistic psychology
argues that reje...
3Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 431-432)
 Holism & positive
psychology
 Holism
 Positive psychology
 Self-actualisation
 H...
4
Evolution of paradigms in
psychology
1st
force: Psychoanalytic
2nd
force: Behaviourism
3rd
force: Humanistic
4th
force: ...
5
Some related terms
Humanistic psychology
Gestalt psychology
Existential psychology
Positive psychology
Spiritual psychol...
6
Holism &
positive
psychology
7
Holism
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 434)
 Human motives are integrated wholes
(rather than a sum of parts).
 Personal grow...
8
Maslow on holism
"A damaged organism isn't satisfied
just to be what is is, merely damaged.
It strives, presses, and pus...
9
Positive psychology
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 434-435)
 Focuses on proactive building of
personal strengths and
compete...
10
Seligman on the science of
positive psychology
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FBxfd7DL3E (23:43 mins)
11
Self-actualisation
12
Self-actualisation
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 435)
Autonomy
Greater mindfulness
Courage to create
Realistic appraisals
Op...
13
Maslow on self-actualisation
“Human beings seem to be
far more autonomous and
self-governed than modern
psychological t...
14
Maslow on self-actualisation
“The study of crippled, stunted,
immature, and unhealthy specimens
can yield only a crippl...
15
The farther reaches of human
nature (Maslow, 1971)
Maslow's final book – (he died from a heart
attack whilst jogging in...
16
Maslow's study of self-actualised people
"My investigations on self-actualization were
not planned to be research and d...
17
Maslow's study of self-actualised people
Based on Maslow (1971)
 Maslow used “biographical analysis” of
people he cons...
18
Characteristics of self actualising people
Based on Maslow (1971)
1. Acceptance of self, of others, of nature
2. Identi...
19
Peak experiences
“Peak experience is a kind of
transpersonal and ecstatic state,
particularly one tinged with themes of...
20
Peak experiences
 “Peak experiences are transient moments
of self-actualization.” (Maslow, 1971, p. 48)
 The highest ...
21
Maslow on peak experiences
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TkqQX896WiA (4:02 mins)
22
Self-actualisation
Only 1% of people
self-actualise!
(Maslow)
Why?
Hierarchy of human needs
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 435-436)
Three themes about the nature of human needs (Maslow, 1943, 19...
24
Behaviours that
encourage self-actualisation
Based on Reeve (2015, Table 15.1, p. 438) and Maslow (1971, pp. 44-49)
 M...
25
Actualising
tendency
26Based on Reeve (2015, p. 439)
Actualising tendency
 “The organism has one basic tendency
and striving – to actualize, m...
27Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 439-440)
Organismic valuing process
 Innate capability for judging whether a specific
experie...
28
Organismic valuing process
The OV process may include any of the following principles:
 Authenticity: Getting away fro...
29
Process of actualisation
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 15.2, p. 442)
Actualising
tendency
and
organismic
valuation
proce...
30
Fully functioning individual
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 15.3, p. 445)
Emergence
Onset of innate
desire, impulse,
or m...
31
Humanistic
motivational
phenomena
32Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 445-447)
Autonomy causality orientation
 Relies on internal guides
(e.g., needs, interests)
...
33Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 445-447)
Control causality orientation
 Relies on external guides
(e.g., social cues)
 Pays ...
34
Growth-seeking vs. validation-seeking
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 447-449)
Validation-seeking
Strivings for proving self-...
35
How relationships support
the actualising tendency
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 448-450)
 “The extent to which individual...
36
How relationships support
the actualising tendency
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 448-450)
Qualities of supportive interpers...
37
How relationships support
the actualising tendency
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 448-450)
Ways of supporting the actualisin...
38
Two forms of discussion
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 451-453)
 How much of human nature is inherently
evil?
 Why do some...
39
Humanistic theorists' views
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 451-453)
 Evil is not inherent in human nature. It
arises only w...
40
Positive
psychology &
growth
41
Positive psychology & growth
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 453-460)
Positive
psychology
• Looks at people’s mental
health a...
42
Positive psychology & growth
Based on Reeve (2015, Table 15.3,
Personal strengths investigated as the subject matter of...
43
Nature and structure of
subjective well-being
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 15.6, p. 455)
Subjective
well-being
Presence...
44
The broaden-and-build
theory of emotions
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 15.6, p. 455)
Positive
emotions
Open-mindedness
B...
45
Illustrative personal strengths:
Optimism
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 457-458)
 A positive attitude or a good mood
assoc...
46
Illustrative personal strengths:
Meaning
Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 441-443)
 A sense of purpose, internalised
values, ...
47
Viktor Frankl (1946):
Man's Search for Meaning
 Part 1: Describes his experiences as a Jew in
Auschwitz, a World War I...
48
Viktor Frankl (1946):
Man's Search for Meaning
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fD1512_XJEw (4:22 mins)
49
Illustrative personal strengths:
Eudaimonic well-being
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 456-457)
 Greek meaning “good spirit”...
50
Criticisms
51
Criticisms
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 462-463)
People possess potentials to harm
themselves and others.
Humanistic view ...
52
Interventions
53
Happiness exercises from
positive psychology therapy
1. Gratitude visit.Write a letter or visit and share about
your gr...
54
Sensory awareness exercise
1. Brainstorm a list of your favourite
sources of pleasure for each sense
(sight, sound, tou...
55
Summary and conclusion
(Ch 17)
Next lecture
56
References
 Maslow, A. H. (1971/1976). Farther
reaches of human nature. New York:
Penguin.
 Reeve, J. (2009). Underst...
57
Open Office Impress
 This presentation was made using
Open Office Impress.
 Free and open source software.
 http://w...
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Growth motivation and positive psychology

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  • Image source:
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USA_10090_x10105_Antelope_Canyon_Luca_Galuzzi_2007.jpg
    Image author: Luca Galuzzi, - http://www.galuzzi.it
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Lucag
    Image licence: Creative Commons Share-alike 2.5, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/deed.en
    Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on instructor resource slides from Wiley.
    Wednesday 28 October, 2015, 12:30-14:30, 12B2
    7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G
    Centre for Applied Psychology
    Faculty of Health
    University of Canberra
    Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia
    ph: +61 2 6201 2536
    [email_address]
    http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion
  • pp. 418-419 Reeve (2009) discusses Ford (1991) who found that adults who had a greater discrepancy with their childhood temperament had greater maladjustment. Hence, it is important to follow your true nature or “inner guides”.
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paul_Signac_Le_Pin_Saint_Tropez.jpg
    Image by: Paul Signac
    Image license:Public domain
  • Transpersonal experiences may be defined as "experiences in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond (trans) the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or cosmos".[1]
    Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, self beyond the ego, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance and other sublime and/or unusually expanded experiences of living.
    - from Wikipedia article on Transpersonal psychology
  • The subject matter of humanistic psychology and positive psychology is similar, however positive psychology embraces a scientific, evidence-based approach to the enhancment of human psychological strengths and well-being (Reeve, p. 420)
    Transpersonal experiences may be defined as "experiences in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond (trans) the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or cosmos".[1]
    Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, self beyond the ego, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance and other sublime and/or unusually expanded experiences of living.
    - from Wikipedia article on Transpersonal psychology
  • Along with existentialism and gestalt psychology, holism asserts that …
    Any event that affects one system affects the whole person
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AWater_drop_001.jpg
    Image licence: CC-by-A 2.0
    Image author: José Manuel Suárez
  • Image source:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FBxfd7DL3E
  • “An ever-fuller realization of one’s talents, capacities, and potentialities.” (Maslow, 1987)
  • These two people were Ruth Benedict and Max Wertheimer.
  • Image source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TkqQX896WiA
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:OPP_logo_1_percent.svg
    Image author: Masur, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Masur
    Image license: Public domain
  • Despite its popularity, research has found very little empirical support for the need hierarchy (Reeve, 2009, p. 423). A simplified model is suggested based on research – Growth motives and defiiciency motives (the bottom 4 levels of the 5-level hierarchy)
  • Maslow further stresses the importance of intimate and fulfilling relationships.
  • Image source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fD1512_XJEw
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  • Growth motivation and positive psychology

    1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2015 Image source Growth motivation & positive psychology
    2. 2. 2 Growth motivation & positive psychology Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 15 (pp. 431-465) Humanistic psychology argues that rejecting one's nature in favour of social priorities puts personal growth and psychological well-being at risk. It is important to follow your true nature or “inner guides”. “If this essential core (inner nature) of the person is frustrated, denied, or suppressed, sickness results” (Maslow, 1968)
    3. 3. 3Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 431-432)  Holism & positive psychology  Holism  Positive psychology  Self-actualisation  Hierarchy of human needs  Encouraging growth  Actualising tendency  Organismic Valuing Process  Emergence of the self  Conditions of worth  Conditional regard  Fully functioning individual  Holism & positive psychology  Holism  Positive psychology  Self-actualisation  Hierarchy of human needs  Encouraging growth  Actualising tendency  Organismic Valuing Process  Emergence of the self  Conditions of worth  Conditional regard  Fully functioning individual  Humanistic motivational phenomena  Causality orientation  Growth- vs. validation seeking  Relationships  Freedom to learn  Self- & social definition  The problem of evil  Positive psych & growth  Happiness & well-being  Eudaimonic well-being  Optimism  Meaning  Positivity  Interventions  Criticisms  Humanistic motivational phenomena  Causality orientation  Growth- vs. validation seeking  Relationships  Freedom to learn  Self- & social definition  The problem of evil  Positive psych & growth  Happiness & well-being  Eudaimonic well-being  Optimism  Meaning  Positivity  Interventions  Criticisms Outline – Growth motivation & positive psychology
    4. 4. 4 Evolution of paradigms in psychology 1st force: Psychoanalytic 2nd force: Behaviourism 3rd force: Humanistic 4th force: Transpersonal
    5. 5. 5 Some related terms Humanistic psychology Gestalt psychology Existential psychology Positive psychology Spiritual psychology Transpersonal psychology
    6. 6. 6 Holism & positive psychology
    7. 7. 7 Holism Based on Reeve (2015, p. 434)  Human motives are integrated wholes (rather than a sum of parts).  Personal growth is the ultimate motivational force.  Stresses “top-down” master motives such as the self and its strivings toward fulfillment  Focuses on discovering human potential and encouraging its development  Human motives are integrated wholes (rather than a sum of parts).  Personal growth is the ultimate motivational force.  Stresses “top-down” master motives such as the self and its strivings toward fulfillment  Focuses on discovering human potential and encouraging its development
    8. 8. 8 Maslow on holism "A damaged organism isn't satisfied just to be what is is, merely damaged. It strives, presses, and pushes; it fights and struggles with itself in order to make itself into a unit again" (Maslow, 1971, p. 115) Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AWater_drop_001.jpg
    9. 9. 9 Positive psychology Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 434-435)  Focuses on proactive building of personal strengths and competencies  Seeks to make people stronger and more productive, and to actualise the human potential in all of us  Uses scientific methods to identify evidence-based methods  Focuses on proactive building of personal strengths and competencies  Seeks to make people stronger and more productive, and to actualise the human potential in all of us  Uses scientific methods to identify evidence-based methods
    10. 10. 10 Seligman on the science of positive psychology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FBxfd7DL3E (23:43 mins)
    11. 11. 11 Self-actualisation
    12. 12. 12 Self-actualisation Based on Reeve (2015, p. 435) Autonomy Greater mindfulness Courage to create Realistic appraisals Openness Self- realisation Self-actualisation is the desire: • for self-fulfillment, to actualise one's potential • to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. Motivation and personality (Maslow, 1954) Two fundamental directions that characterise self-actualisation as a process:
    13. 13. 13 Maslow on self-actualisation “Human beings seem to be far more autonomous and self-governed than modern psychological theory allows for.” Motivation and personality (1954), p. 123
    14. 14. 14 Maslow on self-actualisation “The study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy. The study of self-actualizing people must be the basis for a more universal science of psychology.” Motivation and personality (1954), p. 234
    15. 15. 15 The farther reaches of human nature (Maslow, 1971) Maslow's final book – (he died from a heart attack whilst jogging in 1970, at the age of 62)
    16. 16. 16 Maslow's study of self-actualised people "My investigations on self-actualization were not planned to be research and did not start out as research. They started out as the effort of a young intellectual to try to understand two of his teachers whom he loved, adored, and admired and who were very, very wonderful people ... I could not be content to simply adore, but sought to understand why these two people were so different from the run-of-the-mill people in the world.” Farther reaches of human nature (1971), p. 40
    17. 17. 17 Maslow's study of self-actualised people Based on Maslow (1971)  Maslow used “biographical analysis” of people he considered to be self- actualised, including some famous, some not so famous, some who were alive, and some who were not  Identified some common characteristics that set these people apart from others  Maslow used “biographical analysis” of people he considered to be self- actualised, including some famous, some not so famous, some who were alive, and some who were not  Identified some common characteristics that set these people apart from others
    18. 18. 18 Characteristics of self actualising people Based on Maslow (1971) 1. Acceptance of self, of others, of nature 2. Identification with the human species 3. Emphasis on higher level values 4. Perception of reality 5. Discrimination between means and ends, between good and evil 6. Resolution of dichotomies (conflicts) that plague most people 7. Autonomy and resistance to enculturation 8. Detachment and desire for privacy 9. Spontaneity, simplicity, naturalness 10. Problem-centering 11. Creativeness 12. Freshness of appreciation; rich emotions 13. High frequency of peak experiences 14. (Intimate) interpersonal relations 15. Democratic character structure 16. Philosophical, unhostile sense of humour 1. Acceptance of self, of others, of nature 2. Identification with the human species 3. Emphasis on higher level values 4. Perception of reality 5. Discrimination between means and ends, between good and evil 6. Resolution of dichotomies (conflicts) that plague most people 7. Autonomy and resistance to enculturation 8. Detachment and desire for privacy 9. Spontaneity, simplicity, naturalness 10. Problem-centering 11. Creativeness 12. Freshness of appreciation; rich emotions 13. High frequency of peak experiences 14. (Intimate) interpersonal relations 15. Democratic character structure 16. Philosophical, unhostile sense of humour Priority of values like truth, love, and happiness Internally controlled High involvement, productivity, and happiness High quality interpersonal relationships
    19. 19. 19 Peak experiences “Peak experience is a kind of transpersonal and ecstatic state, particularly one tinged with themes of euphoria, harmonization and interconnectedness. Participants characterize these experiences, and the revelations imparted therein, as possessing an ineffably mystical and spiritual (or overtly religious) quality or essence.” (Wikipedia, 2013) “Peak experience is a kind of transpersonal and ecstatic state, particularly one tinged with themes of euphoria, harmonization and interconnectedness. Participants characterize these experiences, and the revelations imparted therein, as possessing an ineffably mystical and spiritual (or overtly religious) quality or essence.” (Wikipedia, 2013)
    20. 20. 20 Peak experiences  “Peak experiences are transient moments of self-actualization.” (Maslow, 1971, p. 48)  The highest peaks include "feelings of limitless horizons opening up ..., the feeling of being simultaneously more powerful and also more helpless than … ever … before, the feeling of great ecstasy and wonder and awe, and the loss of placing in time and space" (p. 164)  All people are capable of peak experiences and learning how to cultivate conducive conditions.  “Peak experiences are transient moments of self-actualization.” (Maslow, 1971, p. 48)  The highest peaks include "feelings of limitless horizons opening up ..., the feeling of being simultaneously more powerful and also more helpless than … ever … before, the feeling of great ecstasy and wonder and awe, and the loss of placing in time and space" (p. 164)  All people are capable of peak experiences and learning how to cultivate conducive conditions.
    21. 21. 21 Maslow on peak experiences http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TkqQX896WiA (4:02 mins)
    22. 22. 22 Self-actualisation Only 1% of people self-actualise! (Maslow) Why?
    23. 23. Hierarchy of human needs Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 435-436) Three themes about the nature of human needs (Maslow, 1943, 1987) • The lower the need is in the hierarchy, the stronger and more urgently it is felt. • The lower the need is in the hierarchy, the sooner it appears in development. • Needs in the hierarchy are fulfilled sequentially from lowest to highest.
    24. 24. 24 Behaviours that encourage self-actualisation Based on Reeve (2015, Table 15.1, p. 438) and Maslow (1971, pp. 44-49)  Make growth choices (progression vs. regression or growth vs. fear)  Be honest (when in doubt)  Situationally position yourself for peak experiences  Give up defensiveness  Let the self emerge (listen to impulse voices rather than introjected voices)  Be open to experience (identify defenses and have the courage to give them up)  Make growth choices (progression vs. regression or growth vs. fear)  Be honest (when in doubt)  Situationally position yourself for peak experiences  Give up defensiveness  Let the self emerge (listen to impulse voices rather than introjected voices)  Be open to experience (identify defenses and have the courage to give them up)
    25. 25. 25 Actualising tendency
    26. 26. 26Based on Reeve (2015, p. 439) Actualising tendency  “The organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing self.” (Rogers, 1951)  Innate, a continual presence that quietly guides the individual toward genetically determined potentials  Motivates the individual to want to undertake new and challenging experiences  “The organism has one basic tendency and striving – to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing self.” (Rogers, 1951)  Innate, a continual presence that quietly guides the individual toward genetically determined potentials  Motivates the individual to want to undertake new and challenging experiences
    27. 27. 27Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 439-440) Organismic valuing process  Innate capability for judging whether a specific experience promotes or reverses growth.  Provides the interpretive information needed for deciding whether a new undertaking is growth- promoting or not.  If continued over time then a person will become more closely aligned with their natural values. In doing so, they will become more relaxed and at ease with their life.  Innate capability for judging whether a specific experience promotes or reverses growth.  Provides the interpretive information needed for deciding whether a new undertaking is growth- promoting or not.  If continued over time then a person will become more closely aligned with their natural values. In doing so, they will become more relaxed and at ease with their life.
    28. 28. 28 Organismic valuing process The OV process may include any of the following principles:  Authenticity: Getting away from defensive superficiality and being oneself.  Autonomy: Moving away from what you 'should' to and making your own decisions.  Internal locus of evaluation: Judgement based on one's own view, rather than seeking the approval of others.  Unconditional positive self-regard: Judging and accepting yourself as valuable and worthwhile, including all thoughts and emotional reactions.  Process living: Recognising that we are in a constant state of becoming and never reach a final end point.  Relatedness: Seeking close and deep relationships where you can truly appreciate and understand other people.  Openness to inner and outer experience: Being able to perceive and accept how others and oneself behaves and feels. The OV process may include any of the following principles:  Authenticity: Getting away from defensive superficiality and being oneself.  Autonomy: Moving away from what you 'should' to and making your own decisions.  Internal locus of evaluation: Judgement based on one's own view, rather than seeking the approval of others.  Unconditional positive self-regard: Judging and accepting yourself as valuable and worthwhile, including all thoughts and emotional reactions.  Process living: Recognising that we are in a constant state of becoming and never reach a final end point.  Relatedness: Seeking close and deep relationships where you can truly appreciate and understand other people.  Openness to inner and outer experience: Being able to perceive and accept how others and oneself behaves and feels. Based on ChangingMinds - http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/organismic_valuing.htm
    29. 29. 29 Process of actualisation Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 15.2, p. 442) Actualising tendency and organismic valuation process Emergence of the self → Need for positive self- regard Experience evaluated in accordance with the organismic valuing process Rogerian model of the process of self-actualisation Need for positive regard At birth Soon after birth Parental attitude Social relations Offering of conditional positive regard Offering of unconditio nal positive regard Experience evaluated in accordance with conditions of worth Conse- quence Congruence and the fully functioning person Incon- gruence
    30. 30. 30 Fully functioning individual Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 15.3, p. 445) Emergence Onset of innate desire, impulse, or motive Acceptance Desire, impulse, or motive is accepted “as is” into consciousness Expression Unedited communication of desire, impulse, or motive Fully functioning as the emergence, acceptance, and expression of a motive
    31. 31. 31 Humanistic motivational phenomena
    32. 32. 32Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 445-447) Autonomy causality orientation  Relies on internal guides (e.g., needs, interests)  Pays close attention to one’ s own needs and feelings  Relates to intrinsic motivation and identified regulation  Correlates with positive functioning (e.g., self-actualisation, ego development, openness to experience etc.)  Relies on internal guides (e.g., needs, interests)  Pays close attention to one’ s own needs and feelings  Relates to intrinsic motivation and identified regulation  Correlates with positive functioning (e.g., self-actualisation, ego development, openness to experience etc.)
    33. 33. 33Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 445-447) Control causality orientation  Relies on external guides (e.g., social cues)  Pays close attention to behavioural incentives and social expectations  Relates to extrinsic regulation and introjected regulation  Relies on external guides (e.g., social cues)  Pays close attention to behavioural incentives and social expectations  Relates to extrinsic regulation and introjected regulation
    34. 34. 34 Growth-seeking vs. validation-seeking Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 447-449) Validation-seeking Strivings for proving self-worth, competence, and likeability Growth-seeking Strivings for learning, improving, and reaching personal potential Vulnerability to mental health difficulties Field dependence Field independence
    35. 35. 35 How relationships support the actualising tendency Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 448-450)  “The extent to which individuals develop toward congruence and adjustment depends greatly on the quality of their interpersonal relationships.” (p. 436)  Relationships can be :  controlling (conditions of worth) or  autonomy-promoting (unconditional positive regard).  “The extent to which individuals develop toward congruence and adjustment depends greatly on the quality of their interpersonal relationships.” (p. 436)  Relationships can be :  controlling (conditions of worth) or  autonomy-promoting (unconditional positive regard).
    36. 36. 36 How relationships support the actualising tendency Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 448-450) Qualities of supportive interpersonal relationships Warmth Genuine- ness Empathy Interpers- onal acceptance Confirmation of the other person’s capacity for self- determination
    37. 37. 37 How relationships support the actualising tendency Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 448-450) Ways of supporting the actualising tendency Helping others Relating to others in authentic ways Promoting the freedom to learn Defining the self
    38. 38. 38 Two forms of discussion Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 451-453)  How much of human nature is inherently evil?  Why do some people enjoy inflicting suffering on others?  How much of human nature is inherently evil?  Why do some people enjoy inflicting suffering on others?
    39. 39. 39 Humanistic theorists' views Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 451-453)  Evil is not inherent in human nature. It arises only when experience injures and damages the person.  Both benevolence and malevolence are inherent in everyone.  Human nature needs to internalise a benevolent value system before it can avoid evil.  Evil is not inherent in human nature. It arises only when experience injures and damages the person.  Both benevolence and malevolence are inherent in everyone.  Human nature needs to internalise a benevolent value system before it can avoid evil.
    40. 40. 40 Positive psychology & growth
    41. 41. 41 Positive psychology & growth Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 453-460) Positive psychology • Looks at people’s mental health and the quality of their lives to ask, “What could be?” • Seeks to build people’s strengths and competencies
    42. 42. 42 Positive psychology & growth Based on Reeve (2015, Table 15.3, Personal strengths investigated as the subject matter of positive psychology, p. 453) Outcomes 1. Fostering personal growth and well- being 2. Preventing human sickness from taking root within the personality Building personal strengths
    43. 43. 43 Nature and structure of subjective well-being Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 15.6, p. 455) Subjective well-being Presence of positive affect Absence of negative affect High level of satisfaction
    44. 44. 44 The broaden-and-build theory of emotions Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 15.6, p. 455) Positive emotions Open-mindedness Broaden Take action Build Gains in mental, social, and physical resources
    45. 45. 45 Illustrative personal strengths: Optimism Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 457-458)  A positive attitude or a good mood associated with what one expects to unfold in his or her immediate and long-term future.  Related to better psychological & physical health, more health- promoting behaviors, greater persistence, and more effective problem solving.  A positive attitude or a good mood associated with what one expects to unfold in his or her immediate and long-term future.  Related to better psychological & physical health, more health- promoting behaviors, greater persistence, and more effective problem solving.
    46. 46. 46 Illustrative personal strengths: Meaning Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 441-443)  A sense of purpose, internalised values, and high efficacy are the motivational ingredients for cultivating meaning in life.  The act of creating meaning helps to prevent future sickness.  A sense of purpose, internalised values, and high efficacy are the motivational ingredients for cultivating meaning in life.  The act of creating meaning helps to prevent future sickness.
    47. 47. 47 Viktor Frankl (1946): Man's Search for Meaning  Part 1: Describes his experiences as a Jew in Auschwitz, a World War II Nazi concentration camp. Observed that those who had hope for the future (a reason to live) more likely to survive.  "He who has a Why to live for can bear almost any How" - Nietzsche  Part 2: Describes logotherapy (logos = greek for meaning). Understands psychopathology as a function of a lack of meaning. When connected with meaning, dysfunction tends to resolve.  Thus, life is not primarily a quest for pleasure or power, but a quest for meaning.  “Why do you not commit suicide?”  Part 1: Describes his experiences as a Jew in Auschwitz, a World War II Nazi concentration camp. Observed that those who had hope for the future (a reason to live) more likely to survive.  "He who has a Why to live for can bear almost any How" - Nietzsche  Part 2: Describes logotherapy (logos = greek for meaning). Understands psychopathology as a function of a lack of meaning. When connected with meaning, dysfunction tends to resolve.  Thus, life is not primarily a quest for pleasure or power, but a quest for meaning.  “Why do you not commit suicide?”
    48. 48. 48 Viktor Frankl (1946): Man's Search for Meaning https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fD1512_XJEw (4:22 mins)
    49. 49. 49 Illustrative personal strengths: Eudaimonic well-being Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 456-457)  Greek meaning “good spirit” or “human flourishing” (Aristotle)  Self-realisation  Relatedness satisfaction  Pursuit of self-endorsed goals  Greek meaning “good spirit” or “human flourishing” (Aristotle)  Self-realisation  Relatedness satisfaction  Pursuit of self-endorsed goals
    50. 50. 50 Criticisms
    51. 51. 51 Criticisms Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 462-463) People possess potentials to harm themselves and others. Humanistic view emphasises only one part of human nature. Unscientific concepts Humanistic theorists use a number of vague and ill- defined constructs. Unknown origins of inner guides How is one to know what is really wanted or what is really needed by the actualising tendency?
    52. 52. 52 Interventions
    53. 53. 53 Happiness exercises from positive psychology therapy 1. Gratitude visit.Write a letter or visit and share about your gratitude to someone who has been especially kind to you but never really thanked. 2. Three good things in life.Each day, write down three things that go well and identify the cause of each. 3. You at your best.Write about a time when you functioned at your best. Reflect on the personal resources that made that functioning possible. 4. Identify signature strengths.Identify up to five personal signature strengths and find a way to use each in a new way. 1. Gratitude visit.Write a letter or visit and share about your gratitude to someone who has been especially kind to you but never really thanked. 2. Three good things in life.Each day, write down three things that go well and identify the cause of each. 3. You at your best.Write about a time when you functioned at your best. Reflect on the personal resources that made that functioning possible. 4. Identify signature strengths.Identify up to five personal signature strengths and find a way to use each in a new way. Based on Reeve (2015, p. 461)
    54. 54. 54 Sensory awareness exercise 1. Brainstorm a list of your favourite sources of pleasure for each sense (sight, sound, touch, taste and smell). 2. Longer lists are associated with better well-being. 3. Give yourself at least one of your favourite sources of pleasure through each sense each day. 1. Brainstorm a list of your favourite sources of pleasure for each sense (sight, sound, touch, taste and smell). 2. Longer lists are associated with better well-being. 3. Give yourself at least one of your favourite sources of pleasure through each sense each day. Based on Burns, G. (1998). Nature-guided therapy: Brief integrative strategies for health and well-being.
    55. 55. 55 Summary and conclusion (Ch 17) Next lecture
    56. 56. 56 References  Maslow, A. H. (1971/1976). Farther reaches of human nature. New York: Penguin.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Maslow, A. H. (1971/1976). Farther reaches of human nature. New York: Penguin.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Note: Image credits are in the slide notes
    57. 57. 57 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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