Green exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in nature

  • 5,176 views
Uploaded on

Theory and research about the psychological effects of physical exercise in natural environments.

Theory and research about the psychological effects of physical exercise in natural environments.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
5,176
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5

Actions

Shares
Downloads
88
Comments
0
Likes
7

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Green exercise: The psychological effects of green exercise 14-15 August, 2009, Outdoor Recreation Industry Council Annual Conference, Sydney, NSW, Australia James T. Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra Presentation home page: http://wilderdom.com/wiki/Neill_2009_Green_exercise:_The_psychological_effects_of_exercising_in_nature Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sanchom/2963072255/ License:Creative Commons Share-Alike 2.0: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en By: sanchom: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sanchom/ Description: Explains green exercise theory and research, and overviews a recent field-based green exercise research study at the University of Canberra.
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg License: Public domain Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg License: CC-BY-A 2.5 Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg License: Public domain Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ProspectPark_Brooklyn_Nethermead.jpg License: Creative Commons License and GFDL Author: Garry R. Osgood
  • Image source: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/File:Mountain_bike_ParcoSibillini.jpg License: CC-by-A 3.0 Author: scattata da F.Grifoni per conto di Laura Fortunato (Archila') Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Conway_lake_canoeing.JPG License: Public domain Image source: License: Author: Image source: License: Author:
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/yogi/45950283/in/photostream License: CC-by-SA 2.0 Author: Yogi http://www.flickr.com/photos/yogi/ Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brean_Beach_Gill.jpg License: cc-by-sa-2.0 Author: Mike Powell from United States Image source: License: Author: Image source: License: Author:
  • Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/yogi/45950283/in/photostream License: CC-by-SA 2.0 Author: Yogi http://www.flickr.com/photos/yogi/ Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brean_Beach_Gill.jpg License: cc-by-sa-2.0 Author: Mike Powell from United States Image source: License: Author: Image source: License: Author:
  • 1. What kind of green exercise do you participate in? 1. Type of activity? 2. Length of time? 3. Location? 4. Intensity? 5. Alone or with others? 6. How "green" (natural) is the exercise? 7. Is it informally or formally organised? 2. Describe the experience(s) when you participate in green exercise. 3. What do you like / not like about green exercise? 4. How do you think the experience and effects of green exercise differ (if at all) from physical exercise in non-natural environments? 5. In the ideal world, how much and what type of green exercise would like to do? or What would be your 'ideal' green exercise experience? (Could be a one off or a routine) 6. If you don't do as much green exercise as you'd like to, why not? (What are the barriers?) 7. When you do do green exercise, what makes this possible? (What are the enablers?)
  • Viewing nature : positively associated with psychological well-being Being in nature: Being in the presence of nature Active participation/involvement with nature Ulrich's hospital study, posters in workplace reduced anger and stress Neighbourhood greenness related positively to mental health Outwood bound programs found to increase self-esteem, involvement in nature doesn’t always have to be active, e.g. gardening found to be psychologically beneficial
  • Viewing nature : positively associated with psychological well-being Being in nature: Being in the presence of nature Active participation/involvement with nature Ulrich's hospital study, posters in workplace reduced anger and stress Neighbourhood greenness related positively to mental health Outwood bound programs found to increase self-esteem, involvement in nature doesn’t always have to be active, e.g. gardening found to be psychologically beneficial
  • Urbanisation: Increasing numbers of people living in urban environments and the development of theory and research about the restorative effects and benefits of nature on mental and physical well-being
  • Horse riding, cycling, bushwalking etc.
  • Talk about Procedure By state we mean how participants felt at the actual time of exercise
  • yet there is merit that any reductions in stress and anxiety in the population is a good thing
  • yet there is merit that any reductions in stress and anxiety in the population is a good thing
  • Louv’s nature-deficit disorder

Transcript

  • 1. James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra Green Exercise: The psychological effects of exercising in nature Outdoor Recreation Industry Council Annual Conference August 14-15, 2009
  • 2. Do not try this at home
  • 3. Overview
    • What is green exercise?
    • 4. Effects of nature
    • 5. Effects of exercise
    • 6. Green exercise research
    • 7. Future directions
  • 8. What is green exercise? Physical exercise performed in (relatively) natural settings .
  • 9. Examples of green exercise
  • 10. Examples of green exercise
  • 11. Examples of green exercise
  • 12. What about your green exercise?
    • What kind of green exercise do you participate in? Type of activity? For how long? Location? Intensity? Alone? Naturalness? Formal or informal?
    • 13. What happens to you when you participate in green exercise.
    • 14. What do you like / not like about green exercise?
    • 15. How does a green experience differ (if at all) from other exercise?
    • 16. How much and what type of green exercise would you ideally like to do? What would be your 'ideal' green exercise experience?
    • 17. What are the barriers to you doing more green exercise?
    7. When you do do green exercise, what makes this possible? (What are the enablers?)
  • 18. Effects of exercise
    • 15 to 30 minute plus bouts of moderate intensity aerobic exercise are associated with well-demonstrated physical and psychological health benefits (mood, anxiety, stress).
    • 19. But some studies show benefits from less intense exercise.
  • 20. Mechanisms for exercise effects
    • Mastery (self-efficacy)
    • 21. Distraction
    • 22. Neurobiological (endorphins; norepinephrine)
    • 23. Thermogenic changes
    • 24. Cardiovascular conditioning
  • 25. Effects of nature
    • Viewing nature
    • 26. Being in presence of nature / nature contact
    • 27. Active participation and involvement with nature
  • 28. Mechanisms for nature effects
    • Nature-deficit disorder / psycho-evolutionary theory
    • 29. Restorative theories
      • Psychophysiological stress recovery theory: Affective and aesthetic response to visual stimuli
      • 30. Attention restoration theory: Recovery from directed attention fatigue
  • 31. Effects of green exercise? Are there synergistic benefits from participating in physical activities whilst at the same time being directly exposed to nature?
  • 32. Green exercise research studies: Jules Pretty http://www.julespretty.com
  • 33. Green exercise research: Pretty et al.'s (2005) treadmill study
    • 100 participants: 4 experimental groups and 1 control group
    • 34. Participants run on a treadmill for 20 minutes whilst viewing a range of rural or urban scenes displayed on a screen and complete a number of questionnaires pre- and post-exercise.
  • 35. Green exercise research: Pretty et al.'s (2005) treadmill study Pleasant Unpleasant Urban Urban-Pleasant Urban-Unpleasant Rural Rural-Pleasant Rural-Unpleasnat
  • 36.
    • All groups reduced blood pressure and increased self-esteem.
    • 37. Pleasant scene groups improved mood and self-esteem.
    • 38. Only those who viewed rural pleasant scenes reported reductions in all 3 measures of blood pressure
    Green exercise research: Pretty et al.'s (2007) treadmill study
  • 39.
    • 10 pre-existing outdoor activity groups
    • 40. Mood and self-esteem improved pre- to post-activity
    • 41. No sig. effects of:
      • Type of activity
      • 42. Exercise intensity
      • 43. Exercise duration
    Green exercise research: Pretty et al.'s (2007) field study
  • 44. Aim of the current study
    • Partially replicate and extend Pretty et al.'s (2007) field study
    • 45. Examine the effects of green exercise on stress and anxiety
    • 46. Examine the impact of:
      • Type of exercise
      • 47. Exercise duration
      • 48. Exercise intensity
      • 49. Greenness (naturalness)
  • 50. Method
    • 101 participants from 8 pre-existing outdoor exercise groups
      • Road cycling, Mountain running, Orienteering, Cross-country running, Boxercise, Mountain biking, Kayaking, Bushwalking
    • PSS (stress) and STAI (anxiety)
    • 51. Borg Scale used to measure intensity
  • 52. The green exercise groups In the “bush capital” of Australia, 2008
  • 53. Stress 10-item scale about current stress level
  • 54. Anxiety 20-item scale about current anxiety level
  • 55. Greenness rating scale Rating scale about perceived environmental naturalness
  • 56. Duration Range = 10 to 220 mins, N = 84 Average = 90 mins
  • 57. Ideal duration Much About Much shorter the same longer Ideally, would you preferred for this experience to have been? 37% longer 4% shorter 59% same
  • 58. Intensity: Borg scale
  • 59. Intensity Light Hard Very hard Somewhat hard Average = 14.7
  • 60. Ideal intensity Much About Much less the same more Ideally, would you have preferred this experience to have been? 62% more 4% less 34% same
  • 61. Greeness Average = 8.2
  • 62. Ideal greeness 0% 50% 100% Natural Natural Natural What degree of naturalness would you have preferred? 93% more 0% less 7% same
  • 63. Anxiety & stress
    • Overall, moderate sig. reductions in stress and anxiety levels following green exercise ( d = .47).
    • 64. Similar results for stress and anxiety
  • 65. Changes in anxiety by group No change
  • 66. Effects of predictors
    • Duration and intensity were not associated with changes in stress and anxiety.
    • 67. Greenness was sig. negatively related to change in anxiety,
      • i.e., the greener the perceived environment, the greater the reported anxiety reductions
      • 68. a small, sig. effect
  • 69. Discussion
    • There are positive outcomes for most groups, however the two running groups did not appear to reduce stress or anxiety perhaps due to the high intensity and somewhat competitive nature of the exercise.
  • 70. Discussion
    • Overall, results are congruent with Pretty et al.’s (2005, 2007), indicating green exercise has positive effects on psychological well-being irrespective of duration or intensity.
    • 71. Perceived greenness and pleasantness helped to explain anxiety reductions.
  • 72. Discussion
    • Participants reported that they would have preferred longer, more intense exercise experiences in more natural environments.
  • 73. Recommendations
    • Incorporate pleasant natural exercise spaces and trails into urban areas – which allow for several hours of experience and are as natural as possible.
    • 74. Further test the relative contributions of exercise, nature, and synergistic effects of green exercise.
  • 75. Future of green exercise
  • 78. Limitations
    • Sample: Participants were already engaged in green exercise – self-selected, may not be representative of the general population.
    • 79. Subjectivity of self-ratings
  • 80. Future directions
    • Larger, more diverse sample
    • 81. Indoor vs. outdoor exercise
    • 82. Experimental design
    • 83. Other psychological outcomes?
    • 84. Psychological processes?
    • 85. Long-term effects of sustained green exercise participation?
    • 86. Qualitative
  • 87. More information
    • Green exercise (Wikiversity)
  • 88. References Mackay, G. J. S., & Neill, J. T. (2009). The effect of “green exercise” on state anxiety and the role of exercise duration, intensity, and greenness: A quasi-experimental study . Manuscript submitted for publication. Pretty, J., Peacock, J., Sellens, M., & Griffen, M. (2005). The mental and physical health outcomes of green exercise. International Journal of Environmental Health Research , 15 , 319-337. Pretty, J., Peacock, J., Hine, R., Sellens, M., South, N., & Griffen, M. (2007). Green exercise in the UK countryside: Effects on health and psychological well-being, and implications for policy and planning. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management , 50 , 211-231.