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Brain and physiological needs
 

Brain and physiological needs

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Overview of the motivational role of brain structures, neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as physiological needs.

Overview of the motivational role of brain structures, neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as physiological needs.

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  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12_Minutes_to_Heaven_Teaser.png Image by: Evan89, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Evan89 Image license: Public domain Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on Reeve (2009) . Wednesday 28 August, 2013, 12:30-14:30, 12B2 7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G Centre for Applied Psychology Faculty of Health University of Canberra Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia ph: +61 2 6201 2536 [email_address] http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg License: Public domain Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg License: CC-BY-A 2.5 Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:One_hand_handstand.jpg Image by: AR22, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:AR22 Image license: CC-by-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  • Based on Reeve (2009), Table 1.3 Brain activity Activation of brain structures such as the amygdala (fear) or prefrontal cortex (setting goals).   Hormonal activity Chemicals in saliva or blood, such as cortisol (stress) or catecholamines (fight‑or‑flight reaction).   Cardiovascular Contraction and relaxation of the heart and blood vessels activity (attractive incentives, difficult/challenging tasks).   Ocular activity Eye behavior—pupil size (extent of mental activity), eye blinks (changing cognitive states), and eye movements (reflective thought).   Electrodermal Electrical changes on the surface of the skin (expression of threat activity or stimulus significance).   Skeletal activity Activity of the musculature, as with facial expressions (specific emotion) and bodily gestures (desire to leave).
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypothalamus_image.png Image generated by Life Science Databases(LSDB) Image license: CC-Share-Alike 2.1 Japan, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.1/jp/deed.en
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_090407.jpg Image by: WriterHound, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:WriterHound Image license: CC-by-A 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en
  • See also http://www.ted.com/playlists/1/how_does_my_brain_work.html
  • Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_Maslow.jpg License: Historical, Fair use Author: Inconnu
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg Maslow posited that the individual’s basic motives formed a hierarchy of needs, with needs at each level requiring satisfaction before achieving the next level. Biological: Bottom level needs, such as hunger and thirst, require satisfaction before other needs can begin operation. Safety is a requirement to attend to needs for protection from danger, need for security, comfort, and freedom from fear. Attachment is the need to belong, affiliate with others, love and to be loved. Esteem is the needs to like oneself, to see oneself as competent and effective, and to do what is necessary to earn the esteem of others. Cognitive: Humans demand thought stimulation, a need to know one’s past, to comprehend current existence, and to predict the future. Esthetic: Need for creativity, and the desire for beauty and order. Self-actualisation: Individual has moved beyond basic needs in the quest for fullest development of his/her potential. Individual is self-aware, self-accepting, socially responsive, creative, spontaneous, open to novelty and challenge. Transcendence: a step beyond fulfilment of individual potential, may lead some individuals to higher states of consciousness and a cosmic vision of one’s part in the universe. Maslow’s hierarchy presents an upbeat view of human motivation, with the core of the theory being the need for each individual to grow and actualise his/her highest potential.
  • physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intra-organismic mechanisms, and extra-organismic mechanisms

Brain and physiological needs Brain and physiological needs Presentation Transcript

  • 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2013 Brain & physiological needs Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12_Minutes_to_Heaven_Teaser.png
  • 2 1. Review of Lecture 01 2. Motivated & emotional brain 3. Physiological needs Overview Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
  • 3 Review of Lecture 01: Introduction (Ch 1) History (Ch 2) (Reeve, 2009)
  • 4 Two perennial questions What causes (starts, maintains, stops) behaviour? Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? What causes (starts, maintains, stops) behaviour? Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 5 What is motivation? Motivation derives from movere (Latin for “to move”) Processes that give behaviour energy and direction (Reeve, 2009). Needs or desires that energise and direct behaviour (Gerrig et al., 2008). Motivation derives from movere (Latin for “to move”) Processes that give behaviour energy and direction (Reeve, 2009). Needs or desires that energise and direct behaviour (Gerrig et al., 2008).
  • 6 Four motivational sources  Needs  Cognitions  Emotions  External events  Needs  Cognitions  Emotions  External events Four ways to measure motivation  Behaviour  Engagement– Behaviour, Emotional, Cognitive, Voice  Brain & physiological activations  Self-report  Behaviour  Engagement– Behaviour, Emotional, Cognitive, Voice  Brain & physiological activations  Self-report
  • 7 History of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 26-46) 1. Will – Ancient philosophers, Descartes 2. Instinct – Darwin, James, McDougall 3. Drive – Freud's Drive Theory, Hull's Drive Theory 4. Incentive, arousal, discrepancy 5. Mini-theories 6. Contemporary era 1. Active nature of the person 2. Cognitive revolution 3. Applied socially relevant research 1. Will – Ancient philosophers, Descartes 2. Instinct – Darwin, James, McDougall 3. Drive – Freud's Drive Theory, Hull's Drive Theory 4. Incentive, arousal, discrepancy 5. Mini-theories 6. Contemporary era 1. Active nature of the person 2. Cognitive revolution 3. Applied socially relevant research
  • 8 The motivated & emotional brain Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 3
  • 9 Brain & physiological activity as expressions of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.3, p. 13) Brain ActivityBrain Activity Hormonal ActivityHormonal Activity Cardiovascular ActivityCardiovascular Activity Ocular ActivityOcular Activity Electrodermal ActivityElectrodermal Activity Skeletal ActivitySkeletal Activity
  • 10 Example: Hunger Hypothalamus Via bloodstream, ghrelin stimulates the hypothalamus to create experience of hunger. Leptin Adipose (fat) tissue creates & releases leptin into the blood to stimulate brain actvity underlying satiety (feeling full). Ghrelin Hormone made in stomach after extended period of time with little or no food. Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 48-49)
  • 11 The motivated & emotional brain Thinking Brain Cognitive & Intellectual Functions “What task it is doing” Motivated Brain “Whether you want to do it” Emotional Brain “What your mood is while doing it” Brain Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 49-50) “The brain is not only a thinking brain, it is also the center of motivation and emotion.” “The brain is not only a thinking brain, it is also the center of motivation and emotion.” Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_090407.jpg
  • 12 Three principles in motivational and emotional brain research Specific brain structures generate specific motivational states. e.g., hypothalamus → hunger Specific brain structures generate specific motivational states. e.g., hypothalamus → hunger Biochemical agents stimulate these brain structures. e.g., ghrelin → bloodstream → hypothalamus Biochemical agents stimulate these brain structures. e.g., ghrelin → bloodstream → hypothalamus Day-to-day events stir biochemical agents into action. e.g., dieting & sleep deprivation → ↑ ghrelin & ↓ leptin Day-to-day events stir biochemical agents into action. e.g., dieting & sleep deprivation → ↑ ghrelin & ↓ leptin Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 13 The motivated brain: Food deprivation 1. Environ- mental Event Food deprivation (i.e., dieting) Environ- mental Event Food deprivation (i.e., dieting) Biochem -ical Agent Ghrelin (a hormone) produced and circulated in the bloodstream Biochem -ical Agent Ghrelin (a hormone) produced and circulated in the bloodstream Brain Struct- ure Ghrelin stimulates hypothalmus Brain Struct- ure Ghrelin stimulates hypothalmus Aroused Motivati on Stimulated hypothalamus creates the psychological experience of hunger Aroused Motivati on Stimulated hypothalamus creates the psychological experience of hunger Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 3.2, p. 51 “Food deprivation activates the ghrelin release that stimulates the hypothalamus to create hunger.” “Food deprivation activates the ghrelin release that stimulates the hypothalamus to create hunger.”
  • 14 The emotional brain: Positive affect Environ- mental Event Unexpected pleasant event occurs Biochem- ical Agent Dopamine (a neurotransmitter) released and circulated in brain Brain Struct- ure Dopamine stimulates limbic structures Aroused Emotion Good feeling, pleasure, positive affect Good event activates Dopamine release that stimulates positive affect Good event activates Dopamine release that stimulates positive affect Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 3.3, p. 51
  • Lookinginsidethebrain Two ways: ● Surgeon’s View ● Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Anatomic position of key brain structures involved in motivation and emotion Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 16 Motivational & emotional states associated with brain structure: Approach-oriented Brain structure Associated motivational or emotional experience Hypothalamus Pleasurable feelings associated with feeding, drinking, mating Medial Forebrain Bundle Pleasure, reinforcement Orbitofrontal Cortext Learning the incentive value of events, making choices Septal area Pleasure centre associated with sociability, sexuality Nucleas Accumbens Pleasure experience of reward, hotspot for liking Anterior Cingulate Cortext Mood, voltion, making choices Cerebral Cortext (Frontal Lobes) Making plans, setting goals, formulating intentions Left Prefrontal Cerebral Cortex Approach motivational and emotional tendencies Medial Prefrontal Cerebral Cortext Learning response-outcome contingencies that underlie perceived control beliefs and mastery motivation Based on Reeve (2009) Table 3.1
  • 17 Motivational & emotional states associated with brain structure: Avoidance-oriented Brain structure Associated motivational or emotional experience Right Prefrontal Cerebral Cortex Withdraw motivational and emotional tendencies Amygdala Detecting and responding to threat and danger (e.g., via fear, anger, and anxiety) Hippocampus Detecting and responding to threat and danger (e.g., via fear, anger, and anxiety) Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 18 Motivational & emotional states associated with brain structure: Arousal 1.1.1. Figure 3.6 Anatomy (a) and Function (b) of the Reticular Formation Based on Reeve (2009) Brain structure Associated motivational or emotional experience Reticular formation Arousal
  • 19 Neurotransmitter pathways in the brain  Neurotransmitter pathway: A cluster of neurons that communicate with other neurons by using one particular neurotransmitter  Four motivationally relevant neurotransmitter pathways  Dopamine  Serotonin  Norepinephrine  Endorphin  Neurotransmitter pathway: A cluster of neurons that communicate with other neurons by using one particular neurotransmitter  Four motivationally relevant neurotransmitter pathways  Dopamine  Serotonin  Norepinephrine  Endorphin Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 20 Dopamine Dopa- mine release Dopa- mine release Emotional positivity Emotional positivity Enhanced functioning Creativity and Insightful problem solving Enhanced functioning Creativity and Insightful problem solving Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 63-64 “Dopamine release stimulates good feelings.”“Dopamine release stimulates good feelings.”
  • 21 Dopamine Dopamine release and incentives: Incentives (stimuli that foreshadow the imminent delivery of rewards) triggers dopamine release. Dopamine release and reward: Dopamine release teaches us which events in the environments are rewarding. Dopamine and motivated action: Dopamine release activates voluntary goal-directed approach responses. Addictions: Addictive drugs are potent reinforcers because their repeated usage produces hypersensitivity to dopamine stimulation. Liking and wanting: For the full experience of reward, wanting and liking need to occur together. Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 22 Hormones in the body Cortisol • “Stress hormone” • Associated with poor intellectual functioning, negative affect, and poor health outcomes Cortisol • “Stress hormone” • Associated with poor intellectual functioning, negative affect, and poor health outcomes Testosterone • Associated with high sexual motivation • Underlies the mating effort Testosterone • Associated with high sexual motivation • Underlies the mating effort Oxytocin • Motivates seeking the counsel, support, and nurturance of others during times of stress • Bonding hormone “Tend and befriend stress response” Oxytocin • Motivates seeking the counsel, support, and nurturance of others during times of stress • Bonding hormone “Tend and befriend stress response” Essential hormones underlying motivation, emotion, and behaviour Essential hormones underlying motivation, emotion, and behaviour Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 23 David Anderson: Your brain is more than a bag of chemicals TED Talk http://www.ted.com/talks/david_anderson_your_brain_is_more_than_a_bag_of_chemicals.html TED Talk http://www.ted.com/talks/david_anderson_your_brain_is_more_than_a_bag_of_chemicals.html
  • 24 The world in which brain lives Motivation Cannot Be Separated From The Social Context in Which It Is Embedded • Environmental events act as the natural stimulators of the brain’s basic motivational process. Motivation Cannot Be Separated From The Social Context in Which It Is Embedded • Environmental events act as the natural stimulators of the brain’s basic motivational process. We Are Not Always Consciously Aware of the Motivational Basis of Our Behaviour • A person is not consciously aware of why he or she committed the social or antisocial act. We Are Not Always Consciously Aware of the Motivational Basis of Our Behaviour • A person is not consciously aware of why he or she committed the social or antisocial act. BasedonReeve(2009)
  • 25 Physiological needs Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 4
  • 26 Need: When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well-being is maintained and enhanced. Motivational states therefore provide the impetus to act before damage occurs to psychological and bodily well-being. If neglected or frustrated, the need’s thwarting will produce damage that disrupts biological or psychological well-being. Any condition within an organism that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 27 Need structure: Types of needs Needs Physiological Needs (Chapter 4) • Thirst • Hunger • Sex Psychological Needs (Chapter 6) • Autonomy • Competence • Relatedness Social Needs (Chapter 7) • Achievement • Affiliation • Intimacy • Power Internalised or learned from our emotional and socialisation histories Inherent within the workings of biological systems Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 28  Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that human needs can be organised hierarchically.  Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that human needs can be organised hierarchically. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Physiological needs (e.g., breathing, hunger) come first  Then psychological needs (e.g., self-esteem) are pursued.  Physiological needs (e.g., breathing, hunger) come first  Then psychological needs (e.g., self-esteem) are pursued. Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_Maslow.jpg
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg
  • 30 Physiological needs Thirst Hunger Sex Thirst is the consciously experienced motivational state that readies the person to perform behaviours necessary to replenish a water deficit. Sexual motivation rises and falls in response to a host of factors, including hormones, external stimulation, external cues (facial metrics), cognitive scripts, sexual schemas, and evolutionary process. Hunger and eating involve a complex regulatory system of both short-term (glucostatic hypothesis) & long- term (lipostatic hypothesis, including set-point theory) regulation. Inherent within the workings of biological systems.Inherent within the workings of biological systems. Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 31 *1 Satiated state 1 Satiated state 2 Physiological deprivation develops gradually 2 Physiological deprivation develops gradually 3 Prolonged phys. deprivation produces bodily need 3 Prolonged phys. deprivation produces bodily need 4 Need intensifies; gives rise to psychological drive 4 Need intensifies; gives rise to psychological drive 5 Goal-directed motivated behaviour occurs as attempt to gratify drive 5 Goal-directed motivated behaviour occurs as attempt to gratify drive 6 Consummatory behaviour occurs 6 Consummatory behaviour occurs 7 Drive is reduced 7 Drive is reduced The physiological need- psychological drive- behavioural action process Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 32 The cyclical pattern depicting the rise and fall of psychological drive involves seven core processes: Need (Physiological) Drive (Psychological) Homeostasis Negative feedback Multiple inputs /multiple outputs Intra-organismic mechanisms Extra-organismic mechanisms Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.3
  • 33 Drive as an intervening variable Antecedent condition 1 Antecedent condition 2 Antecedent condition 3 Behavioural consequence 1 Behavioural consequence 2 Behavioural consequence 3 Drive Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.4
  • The homeostatic mechanism The homeostatic mechanism and interrelationship s between the seven core processes that constitute the fundamentals of regulation. Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.5
  • 35 Thirst Based on Reeve (2009) Thirst Processes ● Physiological regulation ● Thirst activation ● Thirst satiety ● Hypothalamus and liver ● Environmental influences
  • Relative pleasantness of four taste solutions Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.6 The incentive values for four tastes' appeal § sweet, § sour, § salty, § bitter, represented here at various stimulus intensities.
  • 37 Hunger Based on Reeve (2009) Hunger Processes ● Physiological regulation ● Short-term appetite ● Long-term energy balance ● Comprehensive model of hunger ● Regulation ● Environmental influences ● Restraint-release situations ● Cognitively-regulated eating style ● Weight gain & obesity ● Set point or settling points?
  • 38 Comprehensive model of hunger regulation Based on Reeve (2009) Hunger (Appetite) Eating (Energy Intake) Fat Stores (Body Weight) Physical Activity (Energy Expenditure) Environmental Influences •Food variety, appearance •Situational pressures Exercise Motivation Self-Regulation Motivation
  • 39 Environmental influences Based on Reeve (2009) Ice-Cream Intake (grams) for Students Alone vs. in Group and with One vs. Three Flavours by Gender Environmental influences that affect eating behaviour: time of day, stress, and the sight, smell, appearance, and taste of food. e.g., eating behaviour increases when an individual confronts a variety of foods, a variety of nutrients, and a variety of tastes. Environmental influences that affect eating behaviour: time of day, stress, and the sight, smell, appearance, and taste of food. e.g., eating behaviour increases when an individual confronts a variety of foods, a variety of nutrients, and a variety of tastes.
  • 40 Other than surgery, three ways people can prevent or reverse weight gain and obesity: Based on Reeve (2009) Three motivations Mindfulness over one’s environmental influences Mindfulness over one’s environmental influences Self-regulation of food intake Self-regulation of food intake Exercise motivation Exercise motivation Decreasing eating through self-regulatory strategies (e.g., goals, monitoring one’s behavior) Increasing physical activity to expend calories and fat stores Becoming aware of and monitoring the environmental influences that affect eating
  • 41 Sex Based on Reeve (2009) Sex Processes ● Physiological regulation ● Facial metrics ● Sexual scripts ● Sexual orientation ● Evolutionary basis of sexual motivation
  • Traditional sex response cycle The triphasic sexual response cycle describes men’s sexual motivation. Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 43 Alternative sex response cycle Intimacy needs Sexual stimuli Sexual arousal Sexual desire to continue Enhanced intimacy Seeking out & being receptive to Biological & psychological factors affect processing of stimuli More arousal & pleasure & positive outcome emotionally and physically Based on Reeve (2009)
  • Gender differences in mate preferences Based on Reeve (2009)
  • 45 Failures to self-regulate physiological needs People fail at self-regulation for three primary reasons 1 People routinely underestimate how powerful a motivational force biological urges can be when they are not currently experiencing them. 2 People can lack standards, or they have inconsistent, conflicting, unrealistic, or inappropriate standards. 3 People fail to monitor what they are doing as they become distracted, preoccupied, overwhelmed, or intoxicated.
  • 46 Next lecture  Psychological and social needs (Ch 6 & Ch 7)  Psychological and social needs (Ch 6 & Ch 7)
  • 47 References  Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • 48 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html