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Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
Brain and physiological needs
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Brain and physiological needs

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Overview of the motivational role of brain structures, neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as physiological needs.

Overview of the motivational role of brain structures, neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as physiological needs.

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  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12_Minutes_to_Heaven_Teaser.png
    Image by: Evan89, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Evan89
    Image license: Public domain
    Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on Reeve (2009) .
    Wednesday 27 August, 2013, 12:30-14:30, 12B2
    7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G
    Centre for Applied Psychology
    Faculty of Health
    University of Canberra
    Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia
    ph: +61 2 6201 2536
    [email_address]
    http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:One_hand_handstand.jpg
    Image by: AR22, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:AR22
    Image license: CC-by-SA 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en
  • Based on Reeve (2009), Table 1.3
    Brain activityActivation of brain structures such as the amygdala (fear) or prefrontal cortex (setting goals).
     
    Hormonal activityChemicals in saliva or blood, such as cortisol (stress) or catecholamines (fight‑or‑flight reaction).
     
    Cardiovascular Contraction and relaxation of the heart and blood vessels
    activity (attractive incentives, difficult/challenging tasks).
     
    Ocular activityEye behavior—pupil size (extent of mental activity), eye blinks (changing cognitive states), and eye movements (reflective thought).
     
    Electrodermal Electrical changes on the surface of the skin (expression of threat activity or stimulus significance).
     
    Skeletal activityActivity of the musculature, as with facial expressions (specific emotion) and bodily gestures (desire to leave).
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypothalamus_image.png
    Image generated by Life Science Databases(LSDB)
    Image license: CC-Share-Alike 2.1 Japan, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.1/jp/deed.en
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_090407.jpg
    Image by: WriterHound, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:WriterHound
    Image license: CC-by-A 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypothalamus_small.gif
    Image author: BodyParts3D/Anatomography
    Image license: Creative Commons Share-alike 2.1 Japan
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Circuit_du_syst%C3%A8me_de_recompense.jpg
    Image author: lecerveau.mcgill.ca
    Image license: Creative Commons Share-Alike 3.0 Unported
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prefrontal_cortex.png
    Image author: Natalie M. Zahr, Ph.D., and Edith V. Sullivan, Ph.D.
    Image license: Public domain
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amygdala_small.gif
    Image author: from Anatomography, website maintained by Life Science Databases(LSDB).
    Image license: CC-BY-SA-2.1-jp
    More pathways from Amygdata to rest of brain than vice-versa which is why emotion can overpower cognition (e.g., takes at least 10 minutes for an emotion to abate and to re-allow cognitive processing)
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anterior_cingulate_gyrus_animation.gif
    Image author: from Anatomography, website maintained by Life Science Databases(LSDB).
    Image license: CC-BY-SA-2.1-jp
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1311_Brain_Stem.jpg
    Image author: OpenStax College.
    Image license: CC-BY-A-3.0 Unported
  • Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1311_Brain_Stem.jpg
    Image author: OpenStax College.
    Image license: CC-BY-A-3.0 Unported
  • See also http://www.ted.com/playlists/1/how_does_my_brain_work.html
  • Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_Maslow.jpg
    License: Historical, Fair use
    Author: Inconnu
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg
    Maslow posited that the individual’s basic motives formed a hierarchy of needs, with needs at each level requiring satisfaction before achieving the next level.
    Biological: Bottom level needs, such as hunger and thirst, require satisfaction before other needs can begin operation.
    Safety is a requirement to attend to needs for protection from danger, need for security, comfort, and freedom from fear.
    Attachment is the need to belong, affiliate with others, love and to be loved.
    Esteem is the needs to like oneself, to see oneself as competent and effective, and to do what is necessary to earn the esteem of others.
    Cognitive: Humans demand thought stimulation, a need to know one’s past, to comprehend current existence, and to predict the future.
    Esthetic: Need for creativity, and the desire for beauty and order.
    Self-actualisation: Individual has moved beyond basic needs in the quest for fullest development of his/her potential. Individual is self-aware, self-accepting, socially responsive, creative, spontaneous, open to novelty and challenge.
    Transcendence: a step beyond fulfilment of individual potential, may lead some individuals to higher states of consciousness and a cosmic vision of one’s part in the universe.
    Maslow’s hierarchy presents an upbeat view of human motivation, with the core of the theory being the need for each individual to grow and actualise his/her highest potential.
  • physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intra-organismic mechanisms, and extra-organismic mechanisms
  • Could just listen to 1st 10 mins
    See also http://www.ted.com/playlists/1/how_does_my_brain_work.html
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Brain & physiological needs Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2014 Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12_Minutes_to_Heaven_Teaser.png
    • 2. 1. Review of Lecture 01 2. Motivated & emotional brain 3. Physiological needs 2 Overview Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    • 3. 3 Review of Lecture 01: Introduction (Ch 1) History (Ch 2) (Reeve, 2009)
    • 4. 4 Two perennial questions What causes (starts, maintains, stops) behaviour? Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 5. 5 What is motivation? Motivation derives from movere (Latin for “to move”) Processes that give behaviour energy and direction (Reeve, 2009). Needs or desires that energise and direct behaviour (Gerrig et al., 2008).
    • 6. 6 Four motivational sources  Needs  Cognitions  Emotions  External events Four ways to measure motivation  Behaviour  Engagement – Behaviour, Emotional, Cognitive, Voice  Brain & physiological activations  Self-report
    • 7. 7 History of motivation 1. Will – Ancient philosophers, Descartes 2. Instinct – Darwin, James, McDougall 3. Drive – Freud's Drive Theory, Hull's Drive Theory 4. Incentive, arousal, discrepancy 5. Mini-theories 6. Contemporary era 1. Active nature of the person 2. Cognitive revolution 3. Applied socially relevant research Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 26-46)
    • 8. 8 The motivated & emotional brain Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 3
    • 9. Brain & physiological activity as 9 expressions of motivation BBrraaiinn aaccttiivviittyy HHoorrmmoonnaall aaccttiivviittyy CCaarrddiioovvaassccuullaarr aaccttiivviittyy OOccuullaarr aaccttiivviittyy EElleeccttrrooddeerrmmaall aaccttiivviittyy SSkkeelleettaall aaccttiivviittyy Based on Reeve (2009, Table 1.3, p. 13)
    • 10. 10 Example: Hunger Hypothalamus Via bloodstream, ghrelin stimulates the hypothalamus to create experience of hunger. Ghrelin Hormone made in stomach after extended period of time with little or no food. Leptin Adipose (fat) tissue creates & releases leptin into the blood to stimulate brain actvity underlying satiety (feeling full). Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 48-49)
    • 11. The motivated & emotional brain 11 “The brain is not only a thinking brain, it is also the center of motivation and emotion.” Thinking brain Cognitive & Intellectual Functions “What task it is doing” Motivated brain “Whether you want to do it” Emotional brain “What your mood is while doing it” Brain Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_090407.jpg Based on Reeve (2009, pp. 49-50)
    • 12. 12 Three principles in motivational and emotional brain research Specific brain structures generate specific motivational states. e.g., hypothalamus → hunger Biochemical agents stimulate these brain structures. e.g., ghrelin → bloodstream → hypothalamus Day-to-day events stir biochemical agents into action. e.g., dieting & sleep deprivation → ↑ ghrelin & ↓ leptin Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 13. The motivated brain: Food deprivation 13 “Food deprivation activates the ghrelin release that stimulates the hypothalamus to create hunger.” Environ-mental event 1. Food deprivation (i.e., dieting) Biochem -ical agent Ghrelin (a hormone) produced and circulated in the bloodstream Brain struct-ure Ghrelin stimulates hypothalmus Aroused motivati on Stimulated hypothalamus creates the psychological experience of hunger Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 3.2, p. 51
    • 14. 14 The emotional brain: Positive affect Environ-mental event Unexpected pleasant event occurs Biochem-ical agent Dopamine (a neurotransmitter) released and circulated in brain Brain struct-ure Dopamine stimulates limbic structures Aroused emotion Good feeling, pleasure, positive affect Good events activate Dopamine release that stimulates positive affect. Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 3.3, p. 51
    • 15. Looking inside the brain Two ways: ● Surgeon’s View ● Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Anatomic position of key brain structures involved in motivation and emotion Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 16. 16 Motivational & emotional states associated with brain structure: Approach-oriented Brain structure Associated motivational or emotional experience Hypothalamus Pleasurable feelings associated with feeding, drinking, mating Medial Forebrain Bundle Pleasure, reinforcement Orbitofrontal Cortext Learning the incentive value of events, making choices Septal area Pleasure centre associated with sociability, sexuality Nucleas Accumbens Pleasure experience of reward, hotspot for liking Anterior Cingulate Cortext Mood, voltion, making choices Cerebral Cortext Making plans, setting goals, formulating intentions (Frontal Lobes) Left Prefrontal Cerebral Cortex Approach motivational and emotional tendencies Medial Prefrontal Cerebral Cortext Learning response-outcome contingencies that underlie perceived control beliefs and mastery motivation Based on Reeve (2009) Table 3.1
    • 17. 17 Motivational & emotional states associated with brain structure: Avoidance-oriented Brain structure Associated motivational or emotional experience Right Prefrontal Cerebral Withdraw motivational and emotional tendencies Cortex Amygdala Detecting and responding to threat and danger (e.g., via fear, anger, and anxiety) Hippocampus Detecting and responding to threat and danger (e.g., via fear, anger, and anxiety) Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 18. Brain structure Associated motivational or emotional experience Reticular formation Arousal 18 Motivational & emotional states associated with brain structure: Arousal 1. Figure 3.6 Anatomy (a) and Function (b) of the Reticular Formation Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 19. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypothalamus_small.gif 19 Hypothalamus  Less than 1% of brain volume, but is a 'motivational giant'  Collection of 20 neighbouring and interconnected nuclei that serve separate and discrete functions  Regulates the pituitary gland (endocrine system's 'master gland') which regulates hormones  Regulates the ANS (either arousal (sympathetic activation) or relaxation (parasympathetic activation) (e.g., arousal - hypo -> pit -> stimulates adrenal glands to produce its hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine) -> fight or flight)  Regulates a range of important biological functions including eating, drinking and mating Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 54-55
    • 20. 20 Medial Forebrain Bundle  Fibres that connect the hypothalaus to other limbic structures  Difficult to dissociate MFB fibres from the lateral hypothalamus  “Pleasure centre” - e.g., animals will repeat behaviour if its connected to stimulation of the MFB)  In humans, MFB stimulation produces general positive affect, but not ecstasy/joy Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 55-56 Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Circuit_du_syst%C3%A8me_de_recompense.jpg
    • 21. 21 Orbitofrontal Cortex Source:https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prefrontal_cortex.png  Processes incentive-related information  Helps with making choices between options e.g., which product to buy Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 56-57
    • 22. 22 Amygdala  Interconnected nuclei which respond to threatening and emotionally significant events; each nuclei serves a different function involved in self-preservation e.g., anger, fear, anxiety  Impairment -> tameness, affective neutrality, lack of emotion responsiveness, preference for social isolation over affiliation, willingness to approach previously frightening stimuli, and impaired ability to learn that a stimulus signals +ve reinforcement  Involved in perception of others' emotions, facial expression, and our mood, especially negative emotionality  Stimulation activates neighbouring structures (e.g., hypothalamus and release of neurotransmitters) Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amygdala_small.gif Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 57-58
    • 23. 23 Septo-Hippocampal Circuit  Integration of several limbic structures, but also includes cerebral cortex interconnections; some parts deal with anxiety, some with pleasure  Forecasts emotion associated with upcoming events in terms of anticipated pleasure and anticipated anxiety  Nucleus accumbens: Experience of pleasure from natural reinforcers and drugs that contribute to addictions  Hippocampus: Compares incoming sensory info with expectations (from memory) – if activated, creates anxiety  Endorphins shut down this circuit (anxiety) Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 58-59
    • 24. Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anterior_cingulate_gyrus_animation.gif 24 Anterior Cingulate Cortex  Control of day-to-day mood, volition, and making choices  Decreased activity associated with sadness and depression  Important to volition and making choices (based on PET scans) Based on Reeve (2009), p. 59
    • 25. 25 Reticular Formation  Intermeshed neural networks throughout the brain storm  Play a key role in arousal and awakening  Ascending (alterts and arouses cortex) and descending parts (regulates muscle tone) Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 59-60 Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1311_Brain_Stem.jpg
    • 26. 26 Prefrontal Cortex and affect  Cerebral cortex sends sends information to the limbic system to influence emotion  Prefrontal cortex houses a person's conscious goals which compete against one another  Right prefrontal cortex generates negative and avoidance-oriented feelings (BIS)  Left prefrontal cortex generates positive and approach-oriented feelings (BAS)  Personality differences indicate greater right or left prefrontal cortex sensitivity/stability Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 61-62
    • 27. Neurotransmitter pathways in the brain  Neurotransmitter pathway: A cluster of neurons that communicate with other neurons by using one particular neurotransmitter  Four motivationally relevant neurotransmitter pathways 27 Dopamine  Serotonin Norepinephrine  Endorphin Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 28. “Dopamine release ssttiimmuullaatteess ggoooodd ffeeeelliinnggss..”” 28 Dopamine Dopa-mine release Emotional positivity Enhanced functioning Creativity and Insightful problem solving Based on Reeve (2009), pp. 63-64
    • 29. 29 Dopamine Dopamine release and incentives: Incentives (stimuli that foreshadow the imminent delivery of rewards) triggers dopamine release. Dopamine release and reward: Dopamine release teaches us which events in the environments are rewarding. Dopamine and motivated action: Dopamine release activates voluntary goal-directed approach responses. Addictions: Addictive drugs are potent reinforcers because their repeated usage produces hypersensitivity to dopamine stimulation. Liking and wanting: For the full experience of reward, wanting and liking need to occur together. Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 30. 30 Hormones in the body Essential hormones underlying motivation, emotion, and behaviour Cortisol • “Stress hormone” • Associated with poor intellectual functioning, negative affect, and poor health outcomes Testosterone • Associated with high sexual motivation • Underlies the mating effort Oxytocin • Motivates seeking the counsel, support, and nurturance of others during times of stress • Bonding hormone “Tend and befriend stress response” Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 31. 31 Your brain is more than a bag of chemicals: David Anderson TED Talk (16 mins) http://www.ted.com/talks/david_anderson_your_brain_is_more_than_a_bag_of_chemicals.html
    • 32. 32 The world in which brain lives Motivation cannot be separated from the social context in which it is embedded • Environmental events act as the natural stimulators of the brain’s basic motivational process. We are not always consciously aware of the motivational basis of our behaviour • A person is not consciously aware of why he or she committed the social or antisocial act. Based on Reeve (2009), Ch 3
    • 33. 33 Physiological needs Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 4
    • 34. Any condition within an organism that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. 34 Need: When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well-being is maintained and enhanced. Motivational states therefore provide the impetus to act before damage occurs to psychological and bodily well-being. If neglected or frustrated, the need’s thwarting will produce damage that disrupts biological or psychological well-being. Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 35. 35 Need structure: Types of needs Needs Physiological needs (Chapter 4) • Thirst • Hunger • Sex Psychological needs (Chapter 6) • Autonomy • Competence • Relatedness Social needs (Chapter 7) • Achievement • Affiliation • Intimacy • Power Internalised or learned from our emotional and socialisation histories Inherent within the workings of biological systems Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 36. Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_Maslow.jpg 36 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that human needs can be organised hierarchically. Physiological needs (e.g., breathing, hunger) come first Then psychological needs (e.g., self-esteem) are pursued.
    • 37. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg
    • 38. IInnhheerreenntt wwiitthhiinn tthhee wwoorrkkiinnggss ooff bbiioollooggiiccaall ssyysstteemmss.. 38 Physiological needs Thirst Hunger Sex Thirst is the consciously experienced motivational state that readies the person to perform behaviours necessary to replenish a water deficit. Sexual motivation rises and falls in response to a host of factors, including hormones, external stimulation, external cues (facial metrics), cognitive scripts, sexual schemas, and evolutionary process. Hunger and eating involve a complex regulatory system of both short-term (glucostatic hypothesis) & long-term (lipostatic hypothesis, including set-point theory) regulation. Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 39. 39 * 1 Satiated state 2 Physiological deprivation develops gradually 3 Prolonged phys. deprivation produces bodily need 4 Need intensifies; gives rise to psychological drive 5 Goal-directed motivated behaviour occurs as attempt to gratify drive 6 Consummatory behaviour occurs 7 Drive is reduced The physiological need-psychological drive-behavioural action process Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 40. 40 The cyclical pattern depicting the rise and fall of psychological drive involves seven core processes: Need (Physiological) Drive (Psychological) Homeostasis Negative feedback Multiple inputs /multiple outputs Intra-organismic mechanisms Extra-organismic mechanisms Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.3
    • 41. Drive as an intervening variable 41 Antecedent condition 1 Antecedent condition 2 Antecedent condition 3 Behavioural consequence 1 Behavioural consequence 2 Behavioural consequence 3 Drive Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.4
    • 42. The homeostatic mechanism The homeostatic mechanism and interrelationship s between the seven core processes that constitute the fundamentals of regulation. Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.5
    • 43. 43 Thirst Thirst Based on Reeve (2009) Processes ● Physiological regulation ● Thirst activation ● Thirst satiety ● Hypothalamus and liver ● Environmental influences
    • 44. Relative pleasantness of four taste solutions The incentive values for four tastes' appeal § sweet, § sour, § salty, § bitter, represented here at various stimulus intensities. Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.6
    • 45. 45 Hunger Hunger Based on Reeve (2009) Processes ● Physiological regulation ● Short-term appetite ● Long-term energy balance ● Comprehensive model of hunger ● Regulation ● Environmental influences ● Restraint-release situations ● Cognitively-regulated eating style ● Weight gain & obesity ● Set point or settling points?
    • 46. Comprehensive model of hunger regulation 46 Hunger (Appetite) Based on Reeve (2009) Self-Regulation Motivation Eating (Energy Intake) Fat Stores (Body Weight) Physical Activity (Energy Expenditure) Environmental Influences •Food variety, appearance •Situational pressures Exercise Motivation
    • 47. Environmental influences that affect eating behaviour: time of day, stress, and the sight, smell, appearance, and taste of food. e.g., eating behaviour increases when an individual confronts a variety of foods, a variety of nutrients, and a variety of tastes. Ice-Cream Intake (grams) for Students Alone vs. in Group and with One vs. Three Flavours by Gender 47 Environmental influences Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 48. Other than surgery, three ways people can prevent or 48 reverse weight gain and obesity: Self-regulation of food intake Exercise Self-regulation of food intake Based on Reeve (2009) Three motivations Mindfulness over one’s environmental influences Mindfulness over one’s environmental influences Exercise motivation motivation Decreasing eating through self-regulatory strategies (e.g., goals, monitoring one’s behavior) Increasing physical activity to expend calories and fat stores Becoming aware of and monitoring the environmental influences that affect eating
    • 49. 49 Sex Sex Based on Reeve (2009) Processes ● Physiological regulation ● Facial metrics ● Sexual scripts ● Sexual orientation ● Evolutionary basis of sexual motivation
    • 50. Traditional sex response cycle Based on Reeve (2009) The triphasic sexual response cycle describes men’s sexual motivation.
    • 51. Alternative sex response cycle 51 Intimacy needs Sexual stimuli Sexual arousal Enhanced intimacy Sexual desire to continue Seeking out & being receptive to Biological & psychological factors affect processing of stimuli More arousal & pleasure & positive outcome emotionally and physically Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 52. Gender differences in mate preferences Based on Reeve (2009)
    • 53. 53 Sex, lies, and pharmaceutical: Ray Moynihan Life Matters Interview (16 mins) http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lifematters/sex-lies-and-pharmaceuticals/3024664
    • 54. 54 Failures to self-regulate physiological needs People fail at self-regulation for three primary reasons 1 People routinely underestimate how powerful a motivational force biological urges can be when they are not currently experiencing them. 2 People can lack standards, or they have inconsistent, conflicting, unrealistic, or inappropriate standards. 3 People fail to monitor what they are doing as they become distracted, preoccupied, overwhelmed, or intoxicated.
    • 55. 55 Next lecture Psychological and social needs (Ch 6 & Ch 7)
    • 56. 56 References Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia. Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    • 57. 57 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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