Brain and physiological needs

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Overview of the motivational role of brain structures, neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as physiological needs.

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  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12_Minutes_to_Heaven_Teaser.png
    Image by: Evan89, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Evan89
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    Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on Reeve (2009, 2015) .
    Wednesday 26 August, 2015, 12:30-14:30, 12B2
    7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G
    Centre for Applied Psychology
    Faculty of Health
    University of Canberra
    Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia
    ph: +61 2 6201 2536
    [email_address]
    http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion
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    More pathways from Amygdata to rest of brain than vice-versa which is why emotion can overpower cognition (e.g., takes at least 10 minutes for an emotion to abate and to re-allow cognitive processing)
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  • See also http://www.ted.com/playlists/1/how_does_my_brain_work.html
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    License: Historical, Fair use
    Author: Inconnu
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg
    Maslow posited that the individual’s basic motives formed a hierarchy of needs, with needs at each level requiring satisfaction before achieving the next level.
    Biological: Bottom level needs, such as hunger and thirst, require satisfaction before other needs can begin operation.
    Safety is a requirement to attend to needs for protection from danger, need for security, comfort, and freedom from fear.
    Attachment is the need to belong, affiliate with others, love and to be loved.
    Esteem is the needs to like oneself, to see oneself as competent and effective, and to do what is necessary to earn the esteem of others.
    Cognitive: Humans demand thought stimulation, a need to know one’s past, to comprehend current existence, and to predict the future.
    Esthetic: Need for creativity, and the desire for beauty and order.
    Self-actualisation: Individual has moved beyond basic needs in the quest for fullest development of his/her potential. Individual is self-aware, self-accepting, socially responsive, creative, spontaneous, open to novelty and challenge.
    Transcendence: a step beyond fulfilment of individual potential, may lead some individuals to higher states of consciousness and a cosmic vision of one’s part in the universe.
    Maslow’s hierarchy presents an upbeat view of human motivation, with the core of the theory being the need for each individual to grow and actualise his/her highest potential.
  • physiological need, psychological drive, homeostasis, negative feedback, multiple inputs/multiple outputs, intra-organismic mechanisms, and extra-organismic mechanisms
  • Brain and physiological needs

    1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2015 Brain & physiological needs Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:12_Minutes_to_Heaven_Teaser.png
    2. 2. 2 1. Lecture 01 and 02 recap 2. Motivated & emotional brain 3. Physiological needs Overview Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    3. 3. 3 Lecture 01 and 02 recap: Introduction (Ch 1) History (Ch 2) (Reeve, 2015)
    4. 4. 4 Two perennial questions What causes (starts, maintains, stops) behaviour? Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? What causes (starts, maintains, stops) behaviour? Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? Based on Reeve (2015)
    5. 5. 5 What is motivation? Motivation derives from movere (Latin for “to move”) Processes that give behaviour energy and direction (Reeve, 2015). Motivation derives from movere (Latin for “to move”) Processes that give behaviour energy and direction (Reeve, 2015).
    6. 6. 6 Four motivational sources  Needs  Cognitions  Emotions  External events  Needs  Cognitions  Emotions  External events
    7. 7. 7 Four ways to measure motivation  Behaviour  Engagement - Behaviour, Emotional, Cognitive, Agency  Brain & physiological activations  Self-report  Behaviour  Engagement - Behaviour, Emotional, Cognitive, Agency  Brain & physiological activations  Self-report
    8. 8. 8 History of motivation Based on Reeve (2009, Ch 2, pp. 30-43) 1. Will – Ancient philosophers, Descartes 2. Instinct – Darwin, James, McDougall 3. Drive – Freud's Drive Theory, Hull's Drive Theory 4. Incentive, arousal, discrepancy 5. Mini-theories 6. Contemporary era 1. Active nature of the person 2. Cognitive revolution 3. Applied socially relevant research 1. Will – Ancient philosophers, Descartes 2. Instinct – Darwin, James, McDougall 3. Drive – Freud's Drive Theory, Hull's Drive Theory 4. Incentive, arousal, discrepancy 5. Mini-theories 6. Contemporary era 1. Active nature of the person 2. Cognitive revolution 3. Applied socially relevant research
    9. 9. 9 The motivated & emotional brain Reading: Reeve (2015), Ch 3
    10. 10. 10 The motivated & emotional brain Thinking brain Cognitive & Intellectual Functions “What task it is doing” Motivated brain “Whether you want to do it” Emotional brain “What your mood is while doing it” Brain Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 52-53) “The brain is not only a thinking brain, it is also the center of motivation and emotion.” “The brain is not only a thinking brain, it is also the center of motivation and emotion.” Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brain_090407.jpg
    11. 11. 11 Three principles in motivational and emotional brain research Specific brain structures generate specific motivational states. e.g., hypothalamus → hunger Biochemical agents stimulate these brain structures. e.g., ghrelin → bloodstream → hypothalamus Day-to-day events stir biochemical agents into action. e.g., dieting & sleep deprivation → ↑ ghrelin & ↓ leptin Based on Reeve (2015)
    12. 12. 12 The motivated brain: Food deprivation 1. Environ- mental event Food deprivation (i.e., dieting) Biochem -ical agent Ghrelin (a hormone) produced and circulated in the bloodstream Brain struct- ure Ghrelin stimulates hypothalmus Aroused motivati on Stimulated hypothalamus creates the psychological experience of hunger Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 3.2, p. 51 “Food deprivation activates the ghrelin release that stimulates the hypothalamus to create hunger.” “Food deprivation activates the ghrelin release that stimulates the hypothalamus to create hunger.”
    13. 13. 13 The emotional brain: Positive affect Environ- mental event Unexpected pleasant event occurs Bioch- emical agent Dopamine (a neurotransmitt er) released and circulated in brain Brain struct- ure Dopamine stimulates limbic structures Arous- ed emotion Good feeling, pleasure, positive affect Good events activate Dopamine release that stimulates positive affect. Good events activate Dopamine release that stimulates positive affect. Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 3.3, p. 51
    14. 14. Looking inside the brain Cross-section showing anatomic positions of key brain structures involved in motivation and emotion Anterior Cingulate Cortex Orbitofrontal Cortex
    15. 15. 15 Motivational & emotional states associated with brain structure: Sub-cortical Based on Reeve (2015) Table 3.1
    16. 16. 16 Motivational & emotional states associated with brain structure: Cortical Based on Reeve (2015) Table 3.1
    17. 17. 17 Motivational & emotional states associated with arousal-oriented brain structure 1.1.1. Figure 3.6 Anatomy (a) and Function (b) of the Reticular Formation Based on Reeve (2009) Brain structure Associated motivational or emotional experience Reticular formation Arousal Reticular formation Reticular formation
    18. 18. 18 Reticular Formation  Intermeshed neural networks throughout the brain stem  Play a key role in arousal and awakening  Ascending (alerts and arouses cortex) and descending parts (regulates muscle tone)  Intermeshed neural networks throughout the brain stem  Play a key role in arousal and awakening  Ascending (alerts and arouses cortex) and descending parts (regulates muscle tone) Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 58-60 Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1311_Brain_Stem.jpg
    19. 19. 19 Amygdala  Interconnected nuclei which respond to threatening and emotionally significant events; each nuclei serves a different function involved in self-preservation e.g., anger, fear, anxiety  Impairment -> tameness, affective neutrality, lack of emotion responsiveness, preference for social isolation over affiliation, willingness to approach previously frightening stimuli, and impaired ability to learn that a stimulus signals +ve reinforcement  Involved in perception of others' emotions, facial expression, and our mood, especially negative emotionality  Stimulation activates neighbouring structures (e.g., hypothalamus and release of neurotransmitters)  Interconnected nuclei which respond to threatening and emotionally significant events; each nuclei serves a different function involved in self-preservation e.g., anger, fear, anxiety  Impairment -> tameness, affective neutrality, lack of emotion responsiveness, preference for social isolation over affiliation, willingness to approach previously frightening stimuli, and impaired ability to learn that a stimulus signals +ve reinforcement  Involved in perception of others' emotions, facial expression, and our mood, especially negative emotionality  Stimulation activates neighbouring structures (e.g., hypothalamus and release of neurotransmitters) Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 61-63Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amygdala_small.gif
    20. 20. 20 Hypothalamus  Less than 1% of brain volume, but is a 'motivational giant'  Collection of 20 neighbouring and interconnected nuclei that serve separate and discrete functions  Regulates the pituitary gland (endocrine system's 'master gland') which regulates hormones  Regulates the ANS (either arousal (sympathetic activation) or relaxation (parasympathetic activation) (e.g., arousal - hypo -> pit -> stimulates adrenal glands to produce its hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine) -> fight or flight)  Regulates a range of important biological functions including eating, drinking and mating  Less than 1% of brain volume, but is a 'motivational giant'  Collection of 20 neighbouring and interconnected nuclei that serve separate and discrete functions  Regulates the pituitary gland (endocrine system's 'master gland') which regulates hormones  Regulates the ANS (either arousal (sympathetic activation) or relaxation (parasympathetic activation) (e.g., arousal - hypo -> pit -> stimulates adrenal glands to produce its hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine) -> fight or flight)  Regulates a range of important biological functions including eating, drinking and mating Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 66-67 Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypothalamus_small.gif
    21. 21. 21 Prefrontal cortex  Cerebral cortex sends sends information to the limbic system to influence emotion  Prefrontal cortex houses a person's conscious goals which compete against one another  Right prefrontal cortex generates negative and avoidance-oriented feelings (BIS)  Left prefrontal cortex generates positive and approach-oriented feelings (BAS)  Personality differences indicate greater right or left prefrontal cortex sensitivity/stability  Cerebral cortex sends sends information to the limbic system to influence emotion  Prefrontal cortex houses a person's conscious goals which compete against one another  Right prefrontal cortex generates negative and avoidance-oriented feelings (BIS)  Left prefrontal cortex generates positive and approach-oriented feelings (BAS)  Personality differences indicate greater right or left prefrontal cortex sensitivity/stability Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 69-72
    22. 22. 22 Orbitofrontal cortex  Processes incentive-related information  Helps with making choices between options e.g., which product to buy  Processes incentive-related information  Helps with making choices between options e.g., which product to buy Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 72 Source:https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prefrontal_cortex.png
    23. 23. 23 Anterior cingulate cortex  Control of day-to-day mood, volition, and making choices  Decreased activity associated with sadness and depression  Important to volition and making choices (based on PET scans)  Control of day-to-day mood, volition, and making choices  Decreased activity associated with sadness and depression  Important to volition and making choices (based on PET scans) Based on Reeve (2015), p. 74 Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anterior_cingulate_gyrus_animation.gif
    24. 24. 24 Neurotransmitter pathways in the brain  Neurotransmitter pathway: A cluster of neurons that communicate with other neurons by using one particular neurotransmitter  Four motivationally relevant neurotransmitter pathways  Dopamine  Serotonin  Norepinephrine  Endorphin  Neurotransmitter pathway: A cluster of neurons that communicate with other neurons by using one particular neurotransmitter  Four motivationally relevant neurotransmitter pathways  Dopamine  Serotonin  Norepinephrine  Endorphin Based on Reeve (2015) Source: Mapping the Mind, by R. Carter, 1998, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    25. 25. 25 Dopamine Dopa- mine release Emotional positivity Enhanced functioning Creativity and Insightful problem solving Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 64-66 “Dopamine release stimulates good feelings.”“Dopamine release stimulates good feelings.”
    26. 26. 26 Dopamine Dopamine release and incentives: Incentives (stimuli that foreshadow the imminent delivery of rewards) triggers dopamine release. Dopamine release and reward: Dopamine release teaches us which events in the environments are rewarding. Dopamine and motivated action: Dopamine release activates voluntary goal-directed approach responses. Addictions: Addictive drugs are potent reinforcers because their repeated usage produces hypersensitivity to dopamine stimulation. Liking and wanting: For the full experience of reward, wanting and liking need to occur together. Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 64-66
    27. 27. 27 Hormones in the body Cortisol • “Stress hormone” • Associated with poor intellectual functioning, negative affect, and poor health outcomes Testosterone • Associated with high sexual motivation • Underlies the mating effort Oxytocin • Bonding hormone “Tend and befriend stress response” • Motivates seeking the counsel, support, and nurturance of others during times of stress Essential hormones underlying motivation, emotion, and behaviour Essential hormones underlying motivation, emotion, and behaviour Based on Reeve (2015), pp. 74-76
    28. 28. 28 Your brain is more than a bag of chemicals: David Anderson TED Talk (16 mins) http://www.ted.com/talks/david_anderson_your_brain_is_more_than_a_bag_of_chemicals.html TED Talk (16 mins) http://www.ted.com/talks/david_anderson_your_brain_is_more_than_a_bag_of_chemicals.html
    29. 29. 29 The world in which brain lives Motivation cannot be separated from the social context in which it is embedded • Environmental events act as the natural stimulators of the brain’s basic motivational process. We are not always consciously aware of the motivational basis of our behaviour • A person is not consciously aware of why he or she committed the social or antisocial act. Based on Reeve (2009), Ch 3
    30. 30. 30 Physiological needs Reading: Reeve (2009), Ch 4
    31. 31. 31 Need: When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well-being is maintained and enhanced. Motivational states provide the impetus to act before damage occurs to psychological and bodily well-being. If neglected or frustrated, the need’s thwarting will produce damage that disrupts biological or psychological well-being. Any condition within a person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being. Based on Reeve (2015, p.85)
    32. 32. 32 Need structure: Types of needs Needs Physiological needs (Chapter 4) • Thirst • Hunger • Sex Psychological needs (Chapter 6) • Autonomy • Competence • Relatedness Implicit motives (Chapter 7) • Achievement • Affiliation • Power internalised or learned from our emotional and socialisation histories inherent within the workings of biological systems Based on Reeve (2015, p. 86) inherent within the strivings of human nature and healthy development
    33. 33. 33  Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that human needs can be organised hierarchically.  Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that human needs can be organised hierarchically. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Physiological needs (e.g., breathing, hunger) come first  Then psychological needs (e.g., self-esteem) are pursued.  Physiological needs (e.g., breathing, hunger) come first  Then psychological needs (e.g., self-esteem) are pursued. Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_Maslow.jpg
    34. 34. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg
    35. 35. 35 Physiological needs Thirst Hunger Sex Consciously experienced motivational state that readies the person to perform behaviours necessary to replenish a water deficit. Sexual motivation rises and falls in response to a host of factors, including hormones, external stimulation, external cues (facial metrics), cognitive scripts, sexual schemas, and evolutionary process. Involves a complex regulatory system of short-term (glucostatic hypothesis) & long- term (lipostatic hypothesis, including set-point theory) regulation. Inherent within the workings of biological systems.Inherent within the workings of biological systems. Based on Reeve (2015, Ch 4)
    36. 36. 36 * 1 Satiated state 2 Physiological deprivation develops gradually 3 Prolonged phys. deprivation produces bodily need 4 Need intensifies; gives rise to psychological drive 5 Goal-directed motivated behaviour occurs as attempt to gratify drive 6 Consummatory behaviour occurs 7 Drive is reduced Physiological need- psychological drive- behavioural action process Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 4.3 Model of Need-Drive-Behaviour Sequence
    37. 37. 37 The cyclical pattern depicting the rise and fall of psychological drive involves seven core processes: Need (Physiological) Drive (Psychological) Homeostasis Negative feedback Multiple inputs/outputs Intra-organismic mechanisms Extra-organismic mechanisms Based on Reeve (2009), Figure 4.3
    38. 38. 38 Drive as an intervening variable Antecedent condition 1 Antecedent condition 2 Antecedent condition 3 Behavioural consequence 1 Behavioural consequence 2 Behavioural consequence 3 Drive Based on Reeve (2015), Figure 4.4
    39. 39. The homeostatic mechanism Overview of the homeostatic mechanism and interrelationship s between the seven core processes that constitute the fundamentals of regulation. Based on Reeve (2015), Figure 4.5
    40. 40. 40 Thirst Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 92-94) Thirst Processes ● Physiological regulation ● Thirst activation ● Thirst satiety ● Hypothalamus and kidneys ● Environmental influences
    41. 41. Relative pleasantness of four taste solutions Based on Reeve (2015), Figure 4.6, p. 95 The incentive values for four tastes: § sweet, § sour, § salty, § bitter, represented at various stimulus intensities.
    42. 42. 42 Hunger Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 96-103) Hunger Processes ● Short-term appetite ● Long-term energy balance ● Comprehensive model of hunger regulation ● Environmental influences ● Restraint-release situations ● Cognitively-regulated eating style ● Weight gain & obesity ● Set point or settling points?
    43. 43. 43 Comprehensive model of hunger regulation Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 4.7, p. 103) Hunger (Appetite) Eating (Energy intake) Fat stores (Body weight) Physical activity (Energy expenditure) Environmental Influences •Food variety, appearance •Situational pressures Exercise motivation Self-regulation motivation when too high when too low Glucostatic hypothesis
    44. 44. 44 Environmental influences Based on Reeve (2015, Table 4.2) Ice-Cream Intake (grams) for Students Alone vs. in Group and with One vs. Three Flavours by Gender Environmental influences that affect eating behaviour: time of day, stress, and the sight, smell, appearance, and taste of food. e.g., eating behaviour increases when an individual confronts a variety of foods, a variety of nutrients, and a variety of tastes. Environmental influences that affect eating behaviour: time of day, stress, and the sight, smell, appearance, and taste of food. e.g., eating behaviour increases when an individual confronts a variety of foods, a variety of nutrients, and a variety of tastes. S o u r c e : F r o m “ S e n s o r y a n d s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s o n i c e c r e a m c o n s u m p t i o n b y m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g , ” b y S . L . B e r r y , W . W . B e a t t y , a n d R . C . K l e s g e s , 1 9 8 5 , A p p e t i t e , 6 , p p . 4 1 – 4 5 .
    45. 45. 45 Other than surgery, three ways people can prevent or reverse weight gain and obesity: Based on Reeve (2015, p. 102) Three motivations Mindfulness over one’s environmental influences Mindfulness over one’s environmental influences Self-regulation of food intake Self-regulation of food intake Exercise motivation Exercise motivation Decreasing eating through self-regulatory strategies (e.g., goals, monitoring one’s behavior) Increasing physical activity to expend calories and fat stores Becoming aware of and monitoring the environmental influences that affect eating
    46. 46. 46 Sex Based on Reeve (2015, Ch 4) Sex Processes ● Physiological regulation ● Facial metrics ● Sexual scripts ● Sexual orientation ● Evolutionary basis of sexual motivation
    47. 47. Traditional sex response cycle The triphasic sexual response cycle describes men’s sexual motivation. Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 4.8 (upper))
    48. 48. 48 Alternative sex response cycle Intimacy needs Sexual stimuli Sexual arousal Sexual desire to continue Enhanced intimacy Seeking out & being receptive to Biological & psychological factors affect processing of stimuli More arousal & pleasure & positive outcome emotionally and physically Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 4.8 (lower)) Intimacy-based model of sexual desire that describes women’s sexual motivation
    49. 49. Gender differences in mate preferences Based on Reeve (2015, Table 4.3) Source: From “Mate selection preferences: Gender differences examined in a national sample,” by S. Sprecher, Q. Sullivan, and E. Hatfield, 1994, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, pp. 1074–1080. Copyright 1994 by the American Psychological Association. Adapted with permission.
    50. 50. 50 Failures to self-regulate physiological needs People fail at self-regulation for three primary reasons 1 People routinely underestimate how powerful a motivational force biological urges can be when they are not currently experiencing them. 2 People can lack standards, or they have inconsistent, conflicting, unrealistic, or inappropriate standards. 3 People fail to monitor what they are doing as they become distracted, preoccupied, overwhelmed, or intoxicated. Based on Reeve (2009, p. 105)
    51. 51. 51 Next lecture  Psychological needs (Ch 6)  Implicit motives (Ch 7)  Psychological needs (Ch 6)  Implicit motives (Ch 7)
    52. 52. 52 References  Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2008). Psychology and life (Australian edition). Sydney: Pearson Education Australia.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    53. 53. 53 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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