"Mass Media and Public Policy" Reporting Complexity (with Complexity): General Systems Theory, Complexity and Si...
Online presentation for… <ul><li>INDIANA UNIVERSITY - PURDUE UNIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>INDIANAPOLIS </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Inst. for Analytic Journalism <ul><li>www.analyticjournalism.com </li></ul><ul><li>Convince journos to report the other 50...
Topics : Evolution of systems thinking <ul><li>Hannibal's Army and birthday cakes </li></ul><ul><li>General Systems Theory...
Think of a phenomenon as . . . <ul><li>. . . an organism (with stages of life, blood, head, and heart) </li></ul><ul><li>....
Examples of Systems <ul><li>Not all are dynamic, but they can be analyzed with similar concepts and tools.  </li></ul><ul>...
Narrowing the Focus: GST <ul><li>SYSTEMS: &quot;…things [agents/variables/sub-systems] that  collectively  behave differen...
Why General Systems Theory? <ul><li>Learn the structures and their process. When transferring from one discipline to anoth...
Brief introduction to GST <ul><li>Attributes of a  system …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system exists in an environment/conte...
Attributes of a  system …. <ul><ul><li>There are  relationships  between variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizont...
Brief introduction to GST <ul><ul><li>A system  learns  from changes in its variables and/or environment </li></ul></ul><u...
A newspaper as a system Editorial Production Circulation Advertising “ Backoffice”
A newspaper as a system <ul><li>Local News </li></ul><ul><li>Int’l News </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Sport...
A newspaper variables and sub-systems <ul><li>Local News </li></ul><ul><li>Int’l News </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul...
System hierarchy and “zooming” Editorial Sports Newspaper Media Football H. S. Football Higher Concept Lower Concept
Online enterprise   Dynamic  system  model
Examples of Systems <ul><li>Not all are dynamic, but they can be analyzed with similar concepts and tools.  </li></ul><ul>...
Value of GST <ul><li>Demands  definition/focus  on  exactly  what system are you talking about? </li></ul><ul><li>Demands ...
GST as basis for simulation models <ul><li>Once system, goals, variables and relationships defined, start to ask  “How do ...
These activities involve resources and power <ul><li>Resources:   The symbolic and material components  a system needs to ...
Complex Systems <ul><li>Isle of Manhattan model </li></ul><ul><li>Stock market </li></ul><ul><li>Social insect and ant col...
Complex System <ul><li>Typically, same characteristics of  General System in  initial state </li></ul><ul><li>CpxSys: grea...
Other definitions of CAS <ul><li>Dynamic network  of many agents (cells, species, individuals, firms, nations) acting in c...
Characteristics of Complex Systems
Applying Complexity to telling complex stories <ul><li>RRAW-P  process R esearch  R eporting  A nalysis  W riting  P u...
Applied Complexity/Simulation <ul><li>Emergency mgmt via  Simtable </li></ul><ul><li>Boat Traffic  in Venice </li></ul><ul...
Criminal Justice System
Applied Complexity/Simulation <ul><li>Emergency mgmt via  Simtable </li></ul><ul><li>Boat Traffic  in Venice </li></ul><ul...
Applied Complexity/Simulation <ul><li>Downside </li></ul><ul><li>Initial cost can seem to be high, esp. when audience does...
Soooooo ????? <ul><li>Constantly work to apply GST to any phenomena/topic/story </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to apply fundament...
&quot;Mass Media and Public Policy&quot; Reporting Complexity (with Complexity): General Systems Theory, Complexity and Si...
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Reporting Complexity (with Complexity)

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"Reporting Complexity (with Complexity): General Systems Theory, Complexity and Simulation Modeling"
Video conference presented to Indiana University-Purdue University students in Public Administration and Journalism March 31, 2010.

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  • See lecture info from http://www.public.iastate.edu/~hd_fs.511/lecture/Sourcebook14.ppt
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway%27s_Game_of_Life Game of Life: http://www.bitstorm.org/gameoflife/ Select “10 Cell Row” – Slow + Bid
  • Source: City Council: Lansing, Kansas - http://www.lansing.ks.us/index.aspx?NID=3 ARTIST Piet Mondrian - P AINTING Place de la Concorde - http://www.bestpriceart.com/painting/?pid=63378
  • Source: City Council: Lansing, Kansas - http://www.lansing.ks.us/index.aspx?NID=3 ARTIST Piet Mondrian - P AINTING Place de la Concorde - http://www.bestpriceart.com/painting/?pid=63378
  • Source: http://photofugue.com.au/Pages/complex%2520system.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_system
  • Source: photofugue.com.au/Images/hyper.png
  • RRAW-P process = R esearch  R eporting  A nalysis  W riting  P ublishing/Production/Packaging
  • Simtable: www.simtable.com Venice boat traffic: http://redfish.com/SFComplex/projects/veniceTable.html Portfolio engine: http://www.vimeo.com/3225999 Subway evacuation: http://www.vimeo.com/3225472 Criminal justice system: http://www.redfish.com/screenshots/cjs-screen3.jpg
  • Overall: Redfish Group http://tiny.cc/redfishvideos Simtable: www.simtable.com Venice boat traffic: http://www.vimeo.com/3226094 Portfolio engine: http://www.vimeo.com/3225999 Subway evacuation: http://www.vimeo.com/3225472 Child welfare original: http://www.redfish.com/SFComplex/projects/images/FloridaMentalHealth.mov
  • See lecture info from http://www.public.iastate.edu/~hd_fs.511/lecture/Sourcebook14.ppt
  • Reporting Complexity (with Complexity)

    1. 1. &quot;Mass Media and Public Policy&quot; Reporting Complexity (with Complexity): General Systems Theory, Complexity and Simulation Modeling Tom Johnson Institute for Analytic Journalism Santa Fe, New Mexico www.analyticjournalism.com t o m @ j t j o h n s o n . c o m Tom Johnson Institute for Analytic Journalism Santa Fe, New Mexico www.analyticjournalism.com t o m @ j t j o h n s o n . c o m
    2. 2. Online presentation for… <ul><li>INDIANA UNIVERSITY - PURDUE UNIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>INDIANAPOLIS </li></ul><ul><li>School of Public and Environmental Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>School of Journalism   </li></ul><ul><li>COURSE: Mass Media & Public Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>March 31, 2010 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Inst. for Analytic Journalism <ul><li>www.analyticjournalism.com </li></ul><ul><li>Convince journos to report the other 50% of the story – the quantitative half </li></ul><ul><li>IAJ’s four cournerstones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Systems Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual statistics/ data visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation modeling </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Topics : Evolution of systems thinking <ul><li>Hannibal's Army and birthday cakes </li></ul><ul><li>General Systems Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos  Complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular automata - http://en. wikipedia .org/ wiki /Conway%27s_Game_of_Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Adaptive Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agent-Based Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applied Complexity/Simulation Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Calculus for Journalism </li></ul>
    5. 5. Think of a phenomenon as . . . <ul><li>. . . an organism (with stages of life, blood, head, and heart) </li></ul><ul><li>. . . a factory (with raw material, source of power, bosses, and workers) </li></ul><ul><li>. . . a building (with foundation, windows, and façade) </li></ul><ul><li>. . . an ecology (with niches, climates, and food chains) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Horwitz, Richard P. http://twist.lib. uiowa .edu/ rhorwitz / rootsas .htm ©2000 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Examples of Systems <ul><li>Not all are dynamic, but they can be analyzed with similar concepts and tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for/measure patterns </li></ul>
    7. 7. Narrowing the Focus: GST <ul><li>SYSTEMS: &quot;…things [agents/variables/sub-systems] that collectively behave differently as opposed to their behavior when separated.“ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Studies the organization of phenomena.... Investigates both principles common to all complex entities and the 'models' (often mathematical) which can be used to describe them.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Resource: Mental Model Musings http://www.outsights.com/systems/welcome. htm </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why General Systems Theory? <ul><li>Learn the structures and their process. When transferring from one discipline to another, much of the learning could be transferred. </li></ul><ul><li>When studying a new discipline: simply learn the labels on the structures – and the processes -- in the new discipline. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Brief introduction to GST <ul><li>Attributes of a system …. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system exists in an environment/context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A system has boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal: corporate, jurisdiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of variables , (elements or agents) that can be defined, or described, separately. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-variables. Tree-to-branch-to-leaf-to-cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling or “levels” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Attributes of a system …. <ul><ul><li>There are relationships between variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical (i.e. hierarchical) relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A system has goals , self-defined or with a definition imposed by the system OR outside observer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for group security, happiness, procreation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Brief introduction to GST <ul><ul><li>A system learns from changes in its variables and/or environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback loops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests changes over time in system state, in variables, in type and degree of relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges in GST: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where to enter the system for study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How measure and tell/show changes? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to determine significance of which changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. A newspaper as a system Editorial Production Circulation Advertising “ Backoffice”
    13. 13. A newspaper as a system <ul><li>Local News </li></ul><ul><li>Int’l News </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul>Editorial
    14. 14. A newspaper variables and sub-systems <ul><li>Local News </li></ul><ul><li>Int’l News </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul>Editorial <ul><li>High School </li></ul><ul><li>College </li></ul><ul><li>Professional </li></ul>
    15. 15. System hierarchy and “zooming” Editorial Sports Newspaper Media Football H. S. Football Higher Concept Lower Concept
    16. 16. Online enterprise Dynamic system model
    17. 17. Examples of Systems <ul><li>Not all are dynamic, but they can be analyzed with similar concepts and tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for/measure patterns </li></ul>
    18. 18. Value of GST <ul><li>Demands definition/focus on exactly what system are you talking about? </li></ul><ul><li>Demands consideration of level of analysis , i.e. “zooming” levels of focus </li></ul><ul><li>Demands definition of variables and then the relative importance of those variables </li></ul><ul><li>Demands consideration of relationships between variables </li></ul>
    19. 19. GST as basis for simulation models <ul><li>Once system, goals, variables and relationships defined, start to ask “How do we measure the strength of those relationships?” </li></ul><ul><li>This is where dynamic simulation models (can) kick in. </li></ul>
    20. 20. These activities involve resources and power <ul><li>Resources: The symbolic and material components a system needs to carry out its tasks. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of resources a system might need or use to maintain itself? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Power: The use of resources by one system in order to gain compliance by another system. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of how a system might use its resources to use its power? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Complex Systems <ul><li>Isle of Manhattan model </li></ul><ul><li>Stock market </li></ul><ul><li>Social insect and ant colonies </li></ul><ul><li>The brain </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties and communities </li></ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul>
    22. 22. Complex System <ul><li>Typically, same characteristics of General System in initial state </li></ul><ul><li>CpxSys: greater than sum of its parts in terms of actions and potentials </li></ul><ul><li>CpxSys: variables/agents are coupled in nonlinear manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to replicate dynamic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to predict emergence </li></ul>
    23. 23. Other definitions of CAS <ul><li>Dynamic network of many agents (cells, species, individuals, firms, nations) acting in constantly acting (often in parallel) and reacting to other agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Agents are adaptive , i.e. “learn” according to rules and changing environment. </li></ul><ul><li>“Systems on the edge of chaos.” Maximum variety and creativity leads to new possibilities. [ Emergence ] </li></ul>
    24. 24. Characteristics of Complex Systems
    25. 25. Applying Complexity to telling complex stories <ul><li>RRAW-P process R esearch  R eporting  A nalysis  W riting  P ublish/Produce/Package </li></ul><ul><li>Let GST drive your Research  Reporting  Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Let Data In  Analysis  InfoOut drive your analysis </li></ul><ul><li>DI  A  IO usually/should reflect change over time, i.e. “dynamic” aspects of change </li></ul>
    26. 26. Applied Complexity/Simulation <ul><li>Emergency mgmt via Simtable </li></ul><ul><li>Boat Traffic in Venice </li></ul><ul><li>BigPharma R&D portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Subway evacuation simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Justice through courts </li></ul>
    27. 27. Criminal Justice System
    28. 28. Applied Complexity/Simulation <ul><li>Emergency mgmt via Simtable </li></ul><ul><li>Boat Traffic in Venice </li></ul><ul><li>BigPharma R&D portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Subway evacuation simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Justice through courts </li></ul><ul><li>Child welfare </li></ul><ul><li>All are data-based, not myth-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for real-time update </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generate analytic statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Allow “what if” w/out cost by admin., stakeholders AND public </li></ul>
    29. 29. Applied Complexity/Simulation <ul><li>Downside </li></ul><ul><li>Initial cost can seem to be high, esp. when audience doesn’t understand purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Requires investment to learn (and keep learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires careful data collection and updating </li></ul><ul><li>Requires education for users and public </li></ul><ul><li>For traditional journalism, not apparent how to make money </li></ul>
    30. 30. Soooooo ????? <ul><li>Constantly work to apply GST to any phenomena/topic/story </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to apply fundamental arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to interrogate your data </li></ul><ul><li>Be constantly alert to what are the evolving analytic and presentation methods on non-journalism/non-PA disciplines. </li></ul>
    31. 31. &quot;Mass Media and Public Policy&quot; Reporting Complexity (with Complexity): General Systems Theory, Complexity and Simulation Modeling Tom Johnson Institute for Analytic Journalism Santa Fe, New Mexico www.analyticjournalism.com t o m @ j t j o h n s o n . c o m Tom Johnson Institute for Analytic Journalism Santa Fe, New Mexico www.analyticjournalism.com t o m @ j t j o h n s o n . c o m

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