“GIS: Unifying Theory/Methodology for Journalism and the Social Sciences?”


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Presentation in English on how GIS can (should?) be of value to journalists.

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  • “GIS: Unifying Theory/Methodology for Journalism and the Social Sciences?”

    1. 1. “ GIS: Unifying Theory/Methodology for Journalism and the Social Sciences?” J. T. Johnson Prof. of Journalism San Francisco State University [email_address] Institute for Analytic Journalism This presentation at: http:// iaj - ucb - gisppt . notlong .com/ GIS Center Krouzian Room Bancroft Library 17 April 2003
    2. 2. Journalism is… <ul><li>“ The central purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with accurate and reliable information they need to function in a free society.'‘ — Bill Kovach Committee of Concerned Journalists </li></ul>
    3. 3. Today’s Objectives…. <ul><li>GIS is a fundamental tool for making new knowledge in, potentially, ALL disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>GIS = a tool for all aspects of publishing and broadcasting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News/editorial -- circulation -- advertising -- marketing – production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ergo, journalists must know something about GIS to be considered professionals </li></ul>
    4. 4. Today’s Objectives/Assumptions <ul><li>Journalists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take in Data  Analyze Data  Communicate Findings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GIS is a tool for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing data pertaining to most any phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating the results of that analysis </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Today’s Objectives/Assumptions <ul><li>Digital Revolution triggers major power shift from authorities/institutions to citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Shift means journalists and social scientists have to be better at using the data and tools to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sense out of various phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the stories reflecting our analysis and interpretation in a manner better than citizens can do on their own. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Key points <ul><li>GIS is a rich, challenging tool that must be employed throughout the media organization and in a cooperative way. - Demands/promotes shared learning and insights. </li></ul><ul><li>A terrific “I didn’t know that!” device for managers, journos and readers </li></ul>
    7. 7. Proto-GIS: traditional way of knowing <ul><li>Defoe and A Journal of the Plague Year (1664-65) Pub. 1722 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes burials in parishes ; time-series data </li></ul></ul>“ This increase of the bills stood thus: the usual number of burials in a week, in the parishes of St Giles-in-the-Fields and St Andrew's, Holborn, were from twelve to seventeen or nineteen each, few more or less; but from the time that the plague first began in St Giles's parish, it was observed that the ordinary burials increased in number considerably. For example: - From December 27 to January 3 St Giles's 16 St Andrew's 17 &quot; January 3 &quot; &quot; 10 St Giles's 12 St Andrew's 25 &quot; January 10 &quot; &quot; 17 St Giles's 18 St Andrew's 28 &quot; January 17 &quot; &quot; 24 St Giles's 23 St Andrew's 16 &quot; January 24 &quot; &quot; 31 St Giles's 24 St Andrew's 15
    8. 8. Proto-GIS: William Playfair ( 1759-1823 ) <ul><li>William Playfair and graphic presentation of data </li></ul><ul><li>Commerical and Political Atlas (1786) contained 44 charts, all but one of which are time-series plots. Lone exception, a bar chart, Playfair considered &quot;much inferior in utility.&quot; </li></ul>
    9. 9. Proto-GIS: Napoleon's march to Moscow Drawn by Charles Joseph Minard in 1861; reputed to be the best statistical graphic ever drawn.
    10. 10. Proto-GIS: “Snow’s pump” cholera map <ul><li>“ Dr. John Snow’s pump” cholera map (c. 1843+) http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow.html </li></ul>
    11. 11. Proto-GIS: Booth’s London 1898 <ul><li>Charles Booth’s Map of London (c. 1886-1903) http://booth.lse.ac.uk/ </li></ul>
    12. 12. Proto-GIS: Robert Park <ul><li>Robert Park (former journalist) and Chicago School of Urban Sociology (c. 1920s) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Proto GIS: GBF/DIME History (c. 1967) <ul><li>GBF =&quot;Geographic Base File&quot; using DIME =&quot;Dual Independent Map Encoding&quot; DIME system developed at the Bureau of the Census 1967, for automation of geocoding of the 1970 census. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Proto-GIS: Allan R. Pred (1973) <ul><li>Notice of Jackson’s State of the Union address: 1830 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Proto-GIS: Johnson & Naugle 1972 <ul><li>Johnson & Naugle. </li></ul><ul><li>“ MAKING THE CITY VISIBLE: A PROBABILITY MODEL FOR URBAN HISTORY ”   </li></ul>PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION MAP FOR TOPEKA, KANSAS, 1880 Characteristic: Occupation
    16. 16. Journalism and GIS: Steve Doig [ Miami Herald ] 1992 Weather - Hurricane Andrew
    17. 17. GIS in Journalism Editorial Advertising Circulation Production
    18. 18. GIS in all departments: Advertising ADVERTISING Sales? - No. of potential advertisers - # of non-advertisers - Income of town - Age of population
    19. 19. GIS in all departments: Circulation Circulation? - # of copies per district - # of dealers per route - Penetration - Time of delivery
    20. 20. GIS in all departments: Production <ul><li>Production? - Prod. employees homes - Toxic waste sites - Copies of varied editions or products - Facilities management </li></ul><ul><li>- Press status? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment maintenance schedule </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. GIS in all departments: BackOffice Back office? - Employee homes - Accounts due - Travel time to work - Health-care facilities Designing work space - Allocating office space - Tracking office equipment Building Maintenance
    22. 22. GIS in Editorial <ul><li>Demographics - Crime - Housing - Businesses - Voting patterns/places - Education - Campaign Contributions </li></ul>- Public Health - Taxation - Church membership - Environment - Traffic - Urban sprawl - Political negotiations (e.g. India and Pakistan, Ecuador and Peru, Guatemala and Belize, Russia and Japan, Britain and Argentina)
    23. 23. How Online Editors Use GIS <ul><li>Fresno Bee Methamphetamine lab story http://www. valleymeth .com/graphics/ superlabs .html </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia Inquirer’s daily commuter patterns http://www.smartraveler.com/scripts/phlmap.asp?city=phl&cityname=Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>Using Marketing Data (Jennifer LaFleur and Michelle Quinn) http:// cronkite .pp. asu .edu/census/knight/ lafleur .html </li></ul>
    24. 24. USAToday
    25. 25. USAToday
    26. 26. USA Today
    27. 27. USA Today
    28. 28. Orange County, California Bus Study Orange County, California Bus Study
    29. 29. Mapping war and war coverage <ul><li>Iraq War Resources (From GIS Development online magazine) http://www.gisdevelopment.net/iraq.htm </li></ul><ul><li>CNN Maps http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1998/iraq/iraq.maps/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early form (c. 1998) Marginally helpful: no scale, no date, no sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today improved: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2003/iraq/maps/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BBC - http://www.esgeo.com/baghdad/baghdad.html </li></ul>
    30. 30. Trends: Animated mapping <ul><li>Maps and images that can be controlled, on the WWW, by the user. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on controlled layering e.g. EPA Interactive Web Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Note, the graphics are tied, in a fundamental way, to the database. Any map is only as good as the database used to create it. ( Problems with “sex offender” dB) </li></ul><ul><li>Manhattan Timeformations: http://www.skyscraper.org/ timeformations /animation.html </li></ul>
    31. 31. 3DTaxiCrimeMapView2 Rotated 3D view of Taxi Crime
    32. 32. 3DTaxiCrimeMapView1 3D view of Taxi Crime
    33. 33. GIS 3-D Gallery <ul><li>http://www.manifold.net/products/3dvs/3dvs_home.html </li></ul>
    34. 34. Trends: Concept Mapping <ul><li>Intellectual – or conceptual space -- geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are ideas related? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are people or places with or tied to ideas/concepts related? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where is cyberspace ? How to map it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlas of Cyberspace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Mapping http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/web_sites.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mapping how people use a web site http://mappa.mundi.net/maps/maps_022/ </li></ul><ul><li>Show me the Power Players in a society? http://theyrule.orgo.org/ </li></ul>
    35. 35. Trends: Web site content map
    36. 36. Trends: Fry’s Web site map Ben Fry's anemone visualization of website usage
    37. 37. Trends: PowerPlayers1 http://theyrule.orgo.org/
    38. 38. Trends: PowerPlayers2
    39. 39. Trends: PowerPlayers3
    40. 40. Trends: Mapping cyberspace VR visualisation of Web traffic
    41. 41. Trends: Dynamic Event Mapping <ul><li>Code-Red (CRv2) worm virus (19 July 2001) http://www. caida .org/analysis/security/code-red/ newframes -small-log. mov </li></ul>
    42. 42. Mapping concepts <ul><li>Visualizing Social Interaction http://www.infovis.net/E-zine/2003/num_113.htm </li></ul><ul><li>They Rule: http://www. theyrule .net/ </li></ul><ul><li>Valdis: http://www. orgnet .com/ leftright .html </li></ul><ul><li>TouchGraph: http://www. blogstreet .com/ visualneighborhood .html </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Maps: http://www. cybergeography .org/atlas/historical.html AlphaWorld: http://www. activeworlds .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>AlphaWorld Map: http://www. cybergeography .org/atlas/ muds _ vw .html </li></ul><ul><li>AlphaWorld B&W http:// mapper . activeworlds .com/aw/ densmap - anim .html </li></ul><ul><li>AlphaWorld Animation http:// fargo . itp . tsoa . nyu .edu/~cs97/tan2002/map.html </li></ul>
    43. 43. Major trends in JAGIS <ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy access to data of all sorts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data-based decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital to informed government, business, culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major function of democratic gov’t – at ALL levels – will be to provide data and access to that data. ( e.g. the Census to the X power, (( excepting the current administration )) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data/information when and where we want it, e.g. PDAs, phones, in-car </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Major trends in JAGIS <ul><li>Concept mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects pervasive interlocking relationships between people, between ideas, linking decisions to data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geo-location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time, wireless location of people, events, resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyber-geography http://www.cybergeography.org/geography_of_cyberspace.html </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking “idea transfer”—touchgraph.com http://www.touchgraph.com/TGGoogleBrowser.html </li></ul>
    45. 45. Conclusion: Why journos need to know about GIS? <ul><li>Can make us better journalists and improves civic contribution. ( Philadelphia data ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes the invisible visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literally shows the story to our readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps readers connect with us and vice versa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It can make all aspects of our business run more efficiently, profitably </li></ul><ul><li>Government and business are using GIS. Ergo, we need to know enough to ask informed questions. And if government is not using it, then we should find out why. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Implications of GIS? <ul><li>Journalism in U.S. traditionally about local community . </li></ul><ul><li>Will highly personalized & interactive GIS change the definition of self vs. “ other ” and self vs. community ? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, what are the implications for journalism? For all social scientists? </li></ul><ul><li>For politics, government and, ultimately, democracy? </li></ul>
    47. 47. Implications? <ul><li>Transactions in the changing the economy ( e.g. buying cars, homes or job hunting) http://apps.edmunds.com/apps/uvl/uvlsearch.do?tid=edmunds.h..used.uvl.1.* </li></ul><ul><li>Changing political process and power www.meetup.com http://www.minutesnmotion.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ichat http://www.ivillage.com/ivillage/chat/singlechat/0,,573317,00.html </li></ul>
    48. 48. “ GIS: Unifying Theory/Methodology for Journalism and the Social Sciences?” J. T. Johnson [email_address] SFSU Dept. of Journalism Institute of Analytic Journalism This presentation at: http:// iaj - ucb - gisppt . notlong .com/ GIS Center Krouzian Room Bancroft Library 17 April 2003
    49. 49. Implications? <ul><li>Journalists – all social scientists – need to at least understand power of GIS and who is using it for what? </li></ul>
    50. 50. How reporters use GIS <ul><li>Weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricane Andrew </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Census analysis/story telling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USAToday http://www.usatoday.com/news/census/index.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crime mapping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime Mapping Research Center http://www. ojp . usdoj . gov / nij /maps/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime mapping tutorial http://www. icpsr . umich .edu/NACJD/ cmtutorial .html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Story telling, economics, education, urban development, taxation, voting patterns, environment, traffic </li></ul>
    51. 51. Key points <ul><li>GIS is about being better – more insightful – journalists (Journos good at description, not analysis. GIS will make us better at understanding, ultimately supplying readers with a better description of event or phenomena.) </li></ul><ul><li>GIS is about literally showing our readers stories in ways they can quickly grasp. </li></ul>
    52. 52. How Production can use GIS <ul><li>Press status? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment maintenance schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilities management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clickable Campus #1 </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Interesting sites <ul><li>Payphone project (crying need here for GIS apps) http://www.payphone-project.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti mapper http://www.blogmapper.com/ </li></ul>