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Patterns of Organization

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  1. 1. Chapter 5: Patterns of Organization Bridging the Gap, 8/e Brenda Smith
  2. 2. In this Chapter You Will Learn about: <ul><li>Transitional words that signal organizational patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Different patterns of organization used in textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations of organizational patterns </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is a Pattern of Organization? <ul><li>A pattern of organization is the </li></ul><ul><li>presentation of a plan, format, or </li></ul><ul><li>structure for the message </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as blueprint </li></ul><ul><li>Signals how facts and ideas will be presented </li></ul>
  4. 4. Finding Patterns of Organization in Textbooks <ul><li>Identify the main idea </li></ul><ul><li>Be alert to the signal words </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate the overall pattern of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Place the major supporting details into the outline </li></ul>
  5. 5. Transitional Words <ul><li>Transition words signal </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of importance </li></ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Directions of thoughts </li></ul>
  6. 6. Signal Words Used as Transitions <ul><li>Addition: in addition, furthermore, moreover </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: for example, for instance, to illustrate, such as </li></ul><ul><li>Time: first, secondly, finally, last, afterward </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison: similarly, likewise, in the same manner </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast: however, but, nevertheless, whereas, on the contrary, conversely, in contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cause and effect: thus, consequently, therefore, as a result </li></ul>
  7. 7. Simple Listing <ul><li>Items are randomly listed in a series of supporting facts or details </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting elements are of equal value </li></ul><ul><li>The order in which they are presented is of no importance </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the order of the items does not change the meaning of the paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transitional words used for this pattern are in addition, also, another, several, for example, a number of </li></ul>
  8. 8. Definition <ul><li>Concept is defined first </li></ul><ul><li>Examples and restatements expand the concept </li></ul><ul><li>Defined term is usually signaled by italicized or boldfaced type </li></ul>
  9. 9. Description <ul><li>Similar to listing </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics are similar to a definition </li></ul><ul><li>or a simple list of details </li></ul>
  10. 10. Time Order or Sequence <ul><li>Items are listed: </li></ul><ul><li>In the order in which they occurred </li></ul><ul><li>(Ex: time order) </li></ul><ul><li>In a specifically planned order in which they must develop (Ex: narrative writing, tells a story) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transition words used are first, second, third, after, before, when, until, at last, next, later </li></ul>
  11. 11. Contrast <ul><li>Items are presented according to differences between or among them </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transition words are different, in contrast, on the other hand, but, however, bigger than </li></ul>
  12. 12. Comparison <ul><li>Items are presented according to similarities between or among them </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transition words are similar, in the same way, in comparison </li></ul>
  13. 13. Comparison and Contrast <ul><li>Combines both comparisons and contrasts together into a single paragraph </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cause and Effect <ul><li>An element is shown as producing another element </li></ul><ul><li>--One is the cause or the “happening” </li></ul><ul><li>--The other is the particular result or </li></ul><ul><li>effect produced by the cause </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transition words are for this reason, consequently, because </li></ul>
  15. 15. Classification <ul><li>Used to simplify a complex topic </li></ul><ul><li>Information is divided into a certain number of groups or categories </li></ul><ul><li>The divisions are named </li></ul><ul><li>The parts are explained </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transition words are two divisions, three groups, four elements, five classes, six levels, seven categories </li></ul>
  16. 16. Addition <ul><li>Provides more information to something already explained </li></ul><ul><li>Example of transition words are furthermore, again, also, further, moreover, besides, likewise </li></ul>
  17. 17. Summary <ul><li>Comes at the end of an article or chapter </li></ul><ul><li>Condenses the main idea into a short concluding statement </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transition words are in conclusion, briefly, to sum up, in short, in a nutshell </li></ul>
  18. 18. Location or Spatial Order <ul><li>Identifies the whereabouts of a place or an object </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transition words are north, next to, near, below, close by, within, around </li></ul>
  19. 19. Generalization and Example <ul><li>A general statement or conclusion is supported with specific examples </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of transition words are to restate that, that is, for example, to illustrate, for instance </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mixed Organizational Patterns <ul><li>A long article may have one </li></ul><ul><li>general overall pattern and contain </li></ul><ul><li>individual paragraphs that follow </li></ul><ul><li>other patterns </li></ul>