CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



    „Orchestrating Learning“ from an
   Educational ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
         EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



Early promises and hopes of (educational
  and psycho...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
            EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                           But…
• Learners‘ probl...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
               EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



     Viewing the role of computer technologies
...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
         EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



    So what is it that needs to be
         „orchestr...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



Promises of computer technologies
   for „orchestrat...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
              EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Plenary




                                       ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
                     EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Plenary



              Teacher            ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
        EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



So how should activities and scaffolds be
  orchestrat...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
        EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



So how should activities and scaffolds be
  orchestrat...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
  EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




   Reciprocal Teaching
(Palincsar & Brown, 1984)




      ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
           EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




          Reciprocal Teaching
• RT as one of the m...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
           EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




          Reciprocal Teaching
• Procedure:
  1. Te...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
              EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Plenary
Small group
Individual




                ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




         Reciprocal Teaching
• Overwhelming evidenc...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
    EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




         ArgueGraph
(Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2007)




   ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
           EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                   ArgueGraph
• Procedure:
  1. In...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
              EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Plenary
Small group




                           ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
             EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                     ArgueGraph
• Instructional ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
            EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




          In-between summary
• Instructional psyc...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
     EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




      Research project „IKS“
(Internet-Kompetenz an Schu...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
           EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




           Project information
• Located at LMU Mu...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
             EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




        Theoretical background
• Internet search...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




      Theoretical background
• Two promising ways t...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




      Theoretical background
• Small group collabor...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
              EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




         Theoretical background
•    An example...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
           EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




       Theoretical background
• Classroom scripts ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




          Research questions
1. Can small group col...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
             EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                          Method
• Participants:...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
            EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                         Method
• 4.5 weeks curri...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
                     EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY


Lesson      Phase
         0 Pretest
     ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
         EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                      Method
• Both independent vari...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
              EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



                           Method
• Small group ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                                    6/8/2010   34
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
              EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




Classroom script with online search processes o...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
              EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




Classroom script with alterations between small...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
             EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                             Method
• Dependent ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
                                      EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY



                        ...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                    Discussion
1. Can small group c...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




                    Discussion
• Scripting on the s...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
          EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




              Open questions
• What learning proces...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
           EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




 Summary and overall conclusions
• Computer techno...
CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND
               EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY




            Thank you for your attention!



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Orchestrating learning: survey

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Orchestrating learning: survey

  1. 1. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY „Orchestrating Learning“ from an Educational Psychology Perspective - Conceptual, theoretical, and empirical considerations Ingo Kollar Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany 06/08/2010 Stellar Summer School on Technology-Enhanced Learning 6/8/2010 1
  2. 2. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Early promises and hopes of (educational and psychological) research on TEL: • Computers enable individuals and groups to become self-regulated learners • Computers can make teachers superfluous • Distance education will replace schools and universities 6/8/2010 2
  3. 3. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY But… • Learners‘ problems with self-regulated learning seem to be amplified when learning with computers („lost in hyperspace“; Dillon & Gabbard, 1998) • Teachers are still there • Schools and universities are still there • (However, distance learning is also there, I admit…) 6/8/2010 3
  4. 4. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Viewing the role of computer technologies from an educational psychology perspective • „Media will never influence learning“ (Clark, 1994) • Computer technologies should… – …be appropriately embedded into existing learning situations, – …help to appropriately structure learning activities, – …leave the role of the orchestrator to the teacher and support her in this job. • No primacy of computer technologies, but instead of scientific knowledge about learning and instruction! 6/8/2010 4
  5. 5. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY So what is it that needs to be „orchestrated“? • Learning processes occuring on different social planes • Scaffolds aiming at structuring/supporting learning processes on different social planes • Technology-supported and face-to-face learning processes • Self-regulated and externally regulated learning processes (see Dillenbourg, Järvelä & Fischer, 2009) 6/8/2010 5
  6. 6. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Promises of computer technologies for „orchestrating learning“ • Computer technologies may… – …help distribute learning activities over the different social planes (Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2007), – …help scaffold learning activities on single social planes („synergistic scaffolding“; Tabak, 2004), – …support the transition from more externally regulated to more self-regulated forms of learning (e.g., through adaptivity and fading; Kollar & Fischer, 2006). 6/8/2010 6
  7. 7. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Plenary Ac tiv iti es Small group Individual 6/8/2010 7
  8. 8. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Plenary Teacher Giving modelling explanations Sc af fo ld Small group Shared ext. Collaboration s representations scripts Individual Worked out Reflection examples prompts 6/8/2010 8
  9. 9. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY So how should activities and scaffolds be orchestrated over the social planes? • Suggestions can be derived from different instructional approaches, e.g.: – Reciprocal Teaching (Palincsar & Brown, 1984) – Problem-based Learning (Hmelo, 2004) – Learning by Design (Kolodner, 2007) – ArgueGraph (Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2007) 6/8/2010 9
  10. 10. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY So how should activities and scaffolds be orchestrated over the social planes? • Suggestions can be derived from different instructional approaches, e.g.: – Reciprocal Teaching (Palincsar & Brown, 1984) – Problem-based Learning (Hmelo, 2004) – Learning by Design (Kolodner, 2007) – ArgueGraph (Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2007) 6/8/2010 10
  11. 11. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Reciprocal Teaching (Palincsar & Brown, 1984) 6/8/2010 11
  12. 12. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Reciprocal Teaching • RT as one of the most prominent approaches to structuring collaboration • Originally developed as instructional intervention for primary school students‘ acquisition of reading competence • Meanwhile: Adaptation of RT in many contexts and age groups 6/8/2010 12
  13. 13. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Reciprocal Teaching • Procedure: 1. Teacher models four text comprehension strategies (Questioning, Summarizing, Clarifying, Predicting) in front of whole class 2. Individual reading phase 3. Formation of small groups (4 learners): – Students take over and switch teacher role among them, helping each other in the correct application of the strategies – Teacher gradually withdraws her support as students gain more competence („fading“) 6/8/2010 13
  14. 14. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Plenary Small group Individual 6/8/2010 14
  15. 15. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Reciprocal Teaching • Overwhelming evidence for the effectiveness of Reciprocal Teaching compared to traditional classroom learning and other programs (Rosenshine & Meister, 1994) • Strong effects in particular for low-achievers • Positive effects on all grade levels from grade 3 – adult education 6/8/2010 15
  16. 16. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY ArgueGraph (Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2007) 6/8/2010 16
  17. 17. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY ArgueGraph • Procedure: 1. Individuals answer pre-defined questionnaire on a controversial topic 2. Individual answers are presented and discussed in the plenary 3. Heterogeneous dyads based on the individual answers are formed 4. Dyads answer questionnaire again and must agree on their answers 5. Dyadic answers are presented and discussed and opinion changes from individual to dyadic phase are made visible 6. Individuals summarize discussion outcomes on each single question 6/8/2010 17
  18. 18. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Plenary Small group Lernen ermöglicht dem Menschen, sich an Individual dynamische Umwelten anzupassen, darin sinnvoll zu handeln und seine kulturellen Errungenschaften an nachfolgende Generationen weiterzugeben. … 6/8/2010 18
  19. 19. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY ArgueGraph • Instructional goals: – (a) activation of learners‘ prior knowledge/opinions on a controversial debate – (b) production of socio-cognitive conflicts as a motor for collaborative learning in small groups and on the plenary level – (c) realization of a „macro script“ that distributes learning activities over the three social planes of the classroom • Empirical evidence for positive effects of ArgueGraph compared to other instructional approaches is scarce 6/8/2010 19
  20. 20. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY In-between summary • Instructional psychology offers approaches that orchestrate activities and scaffolds over the different social planes of the classroom – with and without TEL! • Empirical evidence indicates positive effects of distributing activities and scaffolds over the social planes compared to other forms of classroom instruction • But: little research that systematically disentagles the effects of learning activities and scaffolds located at different social planes and their combination 6/8/2010 20
  21. 21. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Research project „IKS“ (Internet-Kompetenz an Schulen) 6/8/2010 21
  22. 22. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Project information • Located at LMU Munich • Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) • Project investigators: Christof Wecker, Frank Fischer, Ingo Kollar • Main goal: Investigating effects of (computer- supported) small group collaboration scripts and (non- computer-supported) classroom scripts on acquisition of Internet search competence in a 9th grade inquiry curriculum 6/8/2010 22
  23. 23. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Theoretical background • Internet search competence as educational goal that is an essential part of scientific literacy • Scientific literacy as ability to participate in science- related societal debates (e.g., Laugksch, 2000) • Internet search competence comprises the ability to… – …find relevant, scientifically valid and credible information that matches a pre-defined evidence scheme – …form well-grounded arguments based on this evidence – …use these arguments in science-related debates. • However, students‘ Internet search competence often is suboptimal (e.g., Ikpeze & Boyd, 2007; Luconi & Tabatabai, 1999) 6/8/2010 23
  24. 24. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Theoretical background • Two promising ways to support students‘ acquisition of Internet search competence: – Small group collaboration scripts that structure learning activities on a small group level – Classroom scripts that distribute learning activities over the different social planes 6/8/2010 24
  25. 25. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Theoretical background • Small group collaboration scripts… – …specify and sequence learning activities and roles among the members of a small group (Kollar et al., 2006), – …may effectively support learning processes (e.g., Stegmann, Weinberger, & Fischer, 2007, – …typically help learners acquire domain-general skills (e.g., argumentation competence; Kollar, Fischer & Slotta, 2007), – …have mostly been researched under lab conditions employing short learning periods. 6/8/2010 25
  26. 26. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Theoretical background • An example of a small group collaboration script (O‘Donnell & Dansereau, 1992): 1. Two learners individually read a text paragraph 2. Learners put text aside 3. Learner A („recaller“) is supposed to recall all text information 4. Learner B („listener“) is supposed to listen to A‘s summary and to identify omissions and misconceptions 5. Both learners jointly discuss how to make the text more memorable 6. Both learners read the next paragraph and then switch roles … 6/8/2010 26
  27. 27. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Theoretical background • Classroom scripts as instructional interventions that specify, sequence and distribute learning activities over the different social planes of the classroom devices for „orchestrating learning“ • Distributing learning activities over different social planes as part of a number of instructional approaches (Reciprocal Teaching, PBL…) • Empirical evidence: distribution of learning activities over the social planes of the classroom may lead to more positive individual learning outcomes than other kinds of classroom instruction (Rosenshine & Meister, 1994) 6/8/2010 27
  28. 28. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Research questions 1. Can small group collaboration scripts be designed to support high school students‘ acquisition of online search competence? 2. Do positive effects on domain-general competences (e.g., Internet search competence) also occur under field conditions employing longer learning phases? 3. Can the effects of small-group collaboration scripts be amplified by a classroom script that distributes learning activities over the plenary and the small group level? 6/8/2010 28
  29. 29. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Method • Participants: 174 9th grade students from five urban high schools • Design: Type of classroom script Small group Alterations btw. level only small group and plenary level Small group Without N = 43 students N = 28 students collaboration (2 classes) (2 classes) script With N = 52 students N = 51 students (2 classes) (2 classes) 6/8/2010 29
  30. 30. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Method • 4.5 weeks curriculum on Genetic Engineering • Each student was equipped with a laptop computer • 3 cycles on different aspects of the topic: – Economical aspects – Ecological aspects – Health-related aspects • Each cycle consisted of 3 steps each: – Gathering domain-specific information on genetics and genetic engineering (Online project library) – Collaborative online search – Plenary discussion 6/8/2010 30
  31. 31. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Lesson Phase 0 Pretest 1 Introduction and gathering background information (online project library) 2 Gathering background information (online project library) 3 Online search 4 Plenary discussion Gathering background information (online project library) 5 Online search Plenary discussion 6 Gathering background information (online project library) 7 Online search Plenary discussion 8 Posttest 1 2-3 weeks later: 9 Posttest 2 6/8/2010 31
  32. 32. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Method • Both independent variables were realized during the three online search phases • Learners engaged in online search processes basically as dyads • Laptop computers were connected by a software called S-COL (Wecker et al., accepted) 6/8/2010 32
  33. 33. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Method • Small group script split online search up into 5 phases: 1. Sketching initial argument and required information 2. Entering search terms 3. Evaluating hit list 4. Finding information on selected web page 5. Revision of initial argument • Script prompts to distribute complementary activities and roles among the members of a dyad: – A: Executive role (e.g., „Make a suggestion what link to click on“) – B: Metacognitive role (e.g., „Listen to your partner‘s suggestion and estimate whether the proposed link is relevant and credible“) 6/8/2010 33
  34. 34. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 6/8/2010 34
  35. 35. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Classroom script with online search processes on small group level only Plenary ... ... Small group Individual t Sketch of initial Evaluating hit list Revision of initial argument argument Entering Finding information on Discussion search terms selected web site 6/8/2010 35
  36. 36. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Classroom script with alterations between small group and plenary level Plenary ... ... Small group Individual t Sketch of initial Evaluating hit list Revision of initial argument argument Entering Finding information on Discussion search terms selected web site 6/8/2010 36
  37. 37. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Method • Dependent variable: Online search competence (post test) • Operationalization: Test that asked students (individually) to describe how they would proceed when being asked to use the Internet for forming a position on a different topic 2 components: • Description of steps • Description of quality criteria • Sufficient intra-class correlation for overall scale and both sub-scales (ICC > .67) 6/8/2010 37
  38. 38. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Results 5 Classroom Significant online search competence script "small Mean post test scores 4 interaction effect: * group level (F(1,165)=12.41; only" p<.01; partial 3 * Eta²=.07) Classroom 2 script "alteration 1 plenary-small group level" 0 without small with small group script group script 6/8/2010 38
  39. 39. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Discussion 1. Can small group collaboration scripts be Ye s, t designed to support learners‘ acquisition of he yc online search competence?an! 2. Do positive effects on domain-general competences (e.g., Internet search Ye s, t competence) also occur under field conditions he yd employing longer learning phases? o! 3. Can the effects of small-group collaboration Ob scripts be amplifiedio a classroom script that v by usl distributes learning activities over the plenary yn and the small group level?ot! 6/8/2010 39
  40. 40. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Discussion • Scripting on the small group level can be neglected when activities are well distributed over the plenary and the small group level • When activities are exclusively realized on the small group level, they need to be scripted with a small group collaboration script • no „synergistic scaffolding“ (Tabak, 2004) through the combination of the two scaffolds 6/8/2010 40
  41. 41. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Open questions • What learning processes contributed to the result patterns? • What if other skills than online search competence are aimed at? • What if an individual phase would be added? 6/8/2010 41
  42. 42. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Summary and overall conclusions • Computer technologies may help orchestrate learning processes and scaffolds over the different social planes • Development of technological tools for orchestrating learning should be informed by instructional approaches • Sometimes, successful orchestration means to not play out the full potential of distributing and scaffolding learning activities! • More empirical research on the effects of distributing and scaffolding activities over the social planes of the classroom is neccessary • Importance of „orchestrating learning“ also informal and purely technology-based learning settings 6/8/2010 42
  43. 43. CHAIR FOR EMPIRICAL EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Thank you for your attention! Contact information: ingo.kollar@psy.lmu.de http://www.psy.lmu.de/ffp_en/persons/ag-fischer/kollar-ingo/index.html 6/8/2010 43
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