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Scratch and pair programming
 

Scratch and pair programming

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    Scratch and pair programming Scratch and pair programming Presentation Transcript

    • Scratch and pair programming Irena Nančovska Šerbec Jože Rugelj University of Ljubljana Faculty of Education Dep. for math. and comp. {Irena.Nancovska, Joze.Rugelj}@pef.uni-lj.si
    • Scratch 1 part
    • S ources
      • Scratch download: http://scratch.mit.edu/
      • ScratchEd: http://scratched.media.mit.edu/
      • Scratch Lesson Plans: http://wiki.classroom20.com/Scratch+Lesson+Plans
      • Resources for parents and teachers to teach children Scratch programming : http://scratch.redware.com/
      • Web WORKSHOP: http://learnscratch.org/
      • Scratch Beginner's Guide - A Scratch Tutorial : http://www.scratchguide.com/index.php?page=scratch-programming-tutorial-2
      • Marija Oblak, PROGRAMSKA ORODJA V POMOC UČENJU PROGRAMIRANJA, diplomsko delo, PEF UL, 2009.
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Papers
      • Resnick, M., at all (2009). Scratch : Programming for all, Communications on ACM, Vol. 52, Iss. 11; 60. (retrieved from http://web.media.mit.edu/~mres/papers/Scratch-CACM-final.pdf )
      • Resnick, M. (2007). All I really need to know (about creative thinking) I learned (by studying how children learn) in kindergarten. Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCHI conference on Creativity & cognition - C&C '07 , 1-6. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. doi: 10.1145/1254960.1254961.(retrieved form http://web.media.mit.edu/~mres/papers/kindergarten-learning-approach.pdf )
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming
      • There are only 10 types of people in the world — those who understand binary, and those who don't.
      Scratch and pair programming
      • Endless Loop: n., see Loop, Endless.
      • Loop, Endless: n., see Endless Loop.
      Scratch and pair programming From Data Processing Dictionary
    • Raise Your Hand If You
      • Have heard of Scratch other than at this lesson
      • Have downloaded Scratch ?... but not gotten around to playing with it yet
      • Have played around with it
      • Use it in your teaching
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Agenda
      • What is Scratch?
      • Scratch and …
        • 21 Century Learning Skills
        • the classroom
      • Programming
      Scratch and pair programming sprite is a two-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene.
    • What is Scratch?
      • A new graphical media rich programming language that allows users to
        • make games
        • animations
        • interactive stories
        • music
        • art
        • “ Digital fluency” should mean designing,
        • creating, and remixing, not just browsing,
        • chatting, and interacting.
        • Resnick
      Scratch and pair programming
    • What is Scratch
      • It is intended especially for 8- to 16-year-olds (peaking at 12 )
      • Engaging and intuitive
      • Collaborative
      • Scratch offers:
        • low floor (easy to get started)
        • high ceiling (ability to create complex projects)
        • wide walls (support for a wide diversity of projects)
      Scratch and pair programming
    • What is Scratch Scratch and pair programming imagine • program • share
    • What is Scratch
        • Last version 1.4
        • Translation:
          • Available i n Slovene
        • It is developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten group at the
          • MIT Media Lab by a team led by Mitchel Resnick
          • first appeared in the may 2007
      Scratch and pair programming
      • The name Scratch is derived
        • from the turntablist technique of scratching
        • refers to both the language and its implementation .
      • The similarity to musical "scratching”:
        • usability the objects, graphics, sounds, and scripts can be easily imported
        • usability of projects
      • Interpreted dynamic visual programming language
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and … 21 century skills
      • Students learn to :
        • select, create and manage multiple forms of media.
        • create media
        • analyze media
        • express themselves creatively and persuasively.
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and 21 century Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and … 21 century skills
      • Thinking and Problem Solving Skills
        • Students learn :
          • critical reasoning and systems thinking
          • coordinate timings and interactions between multiple sprites
          • identify new problems and creative solutions
          • break problems up into steps
        • Immediate feedback
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and … 21 century skills
      • Interpersonal and Self-Directional Skills
        • The visual nature of the programming
          • => sharablility
        • They create with an audience in mind and
          • => able to make easy changes based on feedback of others.
        • Social responsibility as they
          • => interact with others through the scratch website
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and the Classroom Scratch and pair programming
    • School
      • At Faculty of Education:
        • An Introduction to programming
        • (1 year study:
        • Two - subject teachers: Computer science and *)
      • 7 th Grade Computer Literacy Curriculum ( Computer Science Curriculum ) .
        • 12 years old children
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming motion control looks
    • Scratch and pair programming sensing sound operations
    • Scratch and pair programming pen variables
    • Day 1
      • Day One – Discuss types of games (ex. role-playing game, shooters, mazes, skill, sports …)
      • Explore Environment and Use Scratch Cards (12)
      • With partners start planning game using workshop design guide
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming Move, Clone, Cut, Change Shape Sprite List Stage Sprite Position Full Screen Stage Create, Find or Surprise Sprite Start and Stop Game
    • Scratch and pair programming Scripts Area
    • Scratch and pair programming Blocks
    • Scratch and pair programming
    • Day 1
      • Programming concepts that students will be introduced to:
        • Loops
        • If/Then conditions
        • Sequences
        • Variables
        • Threads
        • coordination and synchronization
        • Boolean logic
        • random numbers
        • Trial and Error
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Day 2
      • Students begin programming ( individually )
      • Examples
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Example - guess
      • Elephant imagines a number between 1 and 100. Guess which one. If you guess the number, it changes its colour and stretche s trunk. If the imputed number is lower than his, he said, "My number is bigger." If imputed number is greater than his, he said, "My number is smaller." Learning Objective: Understanding conditional sentences, reading input
      • Example: GUESS _number.sb
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Example – ball and stick
      • Creating their own sprites: stick and ball. Stick, we put it next to the edge, move vertically with the aim to hit the ball. The ball is bouncing off the edges at random.
      • Learning Objective :
        • Creating game
      • Examples: igra_palica_zoga.sb in igra_palica_zoga_zadetki.sb
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Day 3
      • Explore http://scratch.mit.edu
      • Set up an account
      • Pair programming concepts introduction
      • Download three games that are similar to the ones that you want to create
      • See how these games are coded
      • Save a game to your web account
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Day 4
      • Set up pair programming
      • Discuss the use of broadcasting to go to another level
      • Constant Student Interaction – Ask 3 before me.
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Day 5
      • Troubleshoot and peer review
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Pair Programming 2 part
    • Papers
      • Williams, L., & Kessler, R. (2000). All I really need to know about pair programming I learned in kindergarten. Communications of the ACM , 3 (5), 108-114. ACM. Retrieved from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=332833.332848 .
      • Nančovska Šerbec, I., Kaučič, B., & Rugelj, J. (2008). Pair programming as a modern method of teaching computer science. Int. j.: emerg. technol. learn. , vol. 3, s2, 45-49.
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming Williams, L., & Kessler, R.: All I really need to know about pair programming I learned in kindergarten . Resnick, M. : All I really need to know (about creative thinking) I learned (by studying how children learn) in kindergarten
    • Scratch and pair programming http://www.hanoulle.be/2009/11/pairprogramming-is-like-sex/
    • Agenda
      • Terms
      • Motivation/inspiration
      • Instructions
        • “ All I Ever Need to Know about Pair Programming I Learned in Kindergarten”
      • Advantages and disadvantages
      • Pair programming experiment
      • Survey on the experience
      • Conclusions
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Terms
      • Pair programming (PP) is a practice where two programmers work together at one computer, collaborating on the same design, algorithm, code, or test
      • Extreme Programming ( XP ) is a software engineering methodology (and a form of agile software development)
      • Collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task in which each individual depends on and is accountable to each other
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Motivation
      • Experiences from teaching programming - students implicitly practiced PP without being aware of that
      • Modern studies confirmed the advantages of the method:
        • novice–novice pairs against novice solos experience significantly greater productivity gains than expert–expert pairs against expert solos
      • Related to collaborative work
      • Preparing for project work
      • Questionable story about XP
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scenario
      • The pair is made up of a driver and navigator ,
      • driver actively types at the computer or records a design
      • navigator watches the work of the driver and attentively identifies problems and makes suggestions
      • Both are also continuous brainstorming partners.
      • Rules of behavior are defined:
        • PP relationship is very active: communicate, at least every 45 to 60 seconds.
        • switching roles every 30-45 minutes or after the task is finished
      Scratch and pair programming
    • If PP “works” or it doesn’t work?
      • L. Williams (2000): coupled programmers in the average are 15 % slower then solo programmers but they produce 15 % less errors
      • Arisholm (2007): 48% increase in correctness but no significant difference in time
      • Lui, Chan (2006): methodology is better for novices
      • Testing and debugging are expensive
      Scratch and pair programming
    • All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten ( By Robert Fulghum, 1988 )
      • Share everything.
      • Play fair.
      • Don’t hit people.
      • Put things back where you found them.
      • Clean up your own mess.
      • Don’t take things that aren’t yours.
      • Say you’re sorry when you hurt somebody.
      • Wash your hands before you eat.
      • Flush.
      • Warm cookies and cold milk are good for you.
      • Live a balanced life – learn some and think some and draw and paint and sing and
      • dance and play and work every day some.
      • Take a nap every afternoon .
      • When you go out into the world, watch out for traffic, hold hands and stick together.
      • Be aware of wonder.
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Advantages
      • More discipline
      • Better code (less errors, easier to understand)
      • Flexible software development
      • Knowledge interchange between the partners
      • Pleasant atmosphere
      • Mutual ownership of the sources
      • Supervision
      • Cohesion in the team of two (in the pair participants became more familiar)
      • Pair is less sensitive on disturbances from environment
      • We need less computers (PC-s or workstations )
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Disadvantages
      • Giving instructions to the less experienced is tiring
      • Experienced programmers rather work independently and they fill uncomfortable in the pair
      • Experienced programmer produces code without (or with less) bugs and it is purposeless to be paired
      • Is difficult to compare pair with solos empirically
      • Differences in the programming styles cause conflicts
      • Par could program less hour/day in comparison with solos which influence the deadline
      • In the SW enterprises where programmers work at home PP is difficult to realize
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming
    • Experience (1)– novices
      • At Faculty of Education:
        • An Introduction to programming
        • (1 year study:
        • Two - subject teachers: Computer science and *)
      • Background knowledge:
        • From flow-chars to working program e s
        • The last month in the semester
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Experience – time table
      • Students are sent URL with longer test on programming
      • Homework, reading the paper: All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten
      • 30 min discussion on the rules in the pair
      • Divide into pairs, who chose their names
      • Each pair is randomly given programming exercise
      • Pairs are presenting their programs and presenting their experience with pro et contra debate
      • Students fulfill web-poll
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Web-poll and test
      • Time framework of PP?
      • Which positive experience with PP would you put out?
      • Which negative experience with PP would you put out?
      • Please, take few minutes to solve the web adaptive test in Moodle environment . Is you result better/equal/ worse then the former, wider test?
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming
    • Web poll results
      • 3/4 and even more said that the experience was positive
      • 9 of 16 were more or equally successful in solving the second (quick) test
      • Suitable for novice programmers
      • We continue d with the PP practice
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Experience (2)
      • course Computer science practice – generation started 200 7 /0 8
      • We exclude the influence of the teacher
      • The same learning materials as in the Experience (1)
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Experience ( 3 )
      • Course Programming
      • contents : dynamical structures (pointers) in Pascal
      • 2 school hours 2 exercises
      • 2 groups: PP, collective solving the examples
      • Exercises of different level of difficulty
      • Pairs need less time for adjustment
      • Pairs achieved better results then the group, which collectively solved the examples
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Experience ( 4)
      • Course Programming
      • Contents: programming language C
      • 2 groups : opposite with experience 2
      • Knowledge assessment with short test
      Scratch and pair programming
    • 4 years experience PP
      • 8 2 % had positive experience with PP or they founded PP good or excellent
      • 63 % of the students who participated the PP experiment showed better results on the testing after the PP
        • which could mean that better understanding of programming concepts was achieved
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Conclusion
      • Modern form of collaborative work
      • Knowledge improvement
      • We will continue with the PP and Scratch
      Scratch and pair programming
    • Scratch and pair programming