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Carl Smith


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  • Title of paper Name and conference
  • Title of paper Name and conference
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    • 1. Augmenting Contexts for Learning: Investigating the Formation of Knowledge using the World as an Interface. Carl Smith Developer / Researcher Learning Technology Research Institute (LTRI) London Metropolitan University
    • 2. Background + Motivation
      • 1. My research involves exploring the relationship between contextual factors and knowledge formation . Context is the set of circumstances that is deemed relevant for the learner to build his or her knowledge.
      • 2. Information is about facts in isolation, What and Who. Where as Knowledge is about context , Who, What, Where (Spatial), When (Temporal), How and Why (cause, purpose, reason, goal, motivation).
      • 3. Authentic learning contexts were compromised in education when knowledge began to be centred around transfer rather than application .
      • 4. Vygotsky has strongly influenced educational thought by asserting that knowledge results not from a transmission process but from the internalization of social interactions.
    • 3. Research
      • AR or Mixed Reality is “inherently about who you are, where you are, what you are doing, and what is around you”. Context is central.
      • The very nature of AR enabled mobile devices sets them within a multi-faceted contextual matrix. In my research I am examining the nature of this matrix to see how it may be used as a resource for designers and developers.
      • Augmented space is becoming a medium for learning and in the process the way we learn is being transformed.
      • However there are currently only a very small set of primary interaction patterns established in the field of AR. This means that designers have a very limited set of options for framing the strategy, structure, interaction, user interface, and other design aspects of an AR or mixed-reality experience.
    • 4. Research questions
      • 1) Establish a set of primary interaction patterns / design guidelines for augmenting emerging contexts for learning using AR.
      • 2) Establish how the spatial / physical design of these environments directly effects the range and type of knowledge that can be generated from them?
      • 3) How can AR be designed to increase our awareness of our immediate environment and context, rather than distract us from it? (addressing the cognitive load issue)
      • 4) To what extent do declarative rather than procedural designs successfully augment contexts for learning?
    • 5. Initial Case Studies – Procedural
    • 6. Current Case Studies – Declarative
    • 7. Choice of Methods + Theoretical Frameworks
      • Mixed methods – Field studies , eye tracking, head mounted cameras, structured interviews, focus groups, questionnaires.
      • Theoretical Frameworks - Pachler’s Mobile Complex, Cook’s Augmented Contexts for Development (ACD extending Vygotsky’s ZPD) and Distributed Cognition .
      • Distributed Cognition involves the coordination between individuals, artifacts and the environment. It has several key components one of which is: The embodiment of information that is embedded in representations of interaction.
    • 8. More information