Augmenting Contexts for Learning: Investigating the Formation of Knowledge using the World as an Interface. Carl Smith Developer / Researcher Learning Technology Research Institute (LTRI) London Metropolitan University
Background + Motivation
1. My research involves exploring the relationship between contextual factors and knowledge formation . Context is the set of circumstances that is deemed relevant for the learner to build his or her knowledge.
2. Information is about facts in isolation, What and Who. Where as Knowledge is about context , Who, What, Where (Spatial), When (Temporal), How and Why (cause, purpose, reason, goal, motivation).
3. Authentic learning contexts were compromised in education when knowledge began to be centred around transfer rather than application .
4. Vygotsky has strongly influenced educational thought by asserting that knowledge results not from a transmission process but from the internalization of social interactions.
AR or Mixed Reality is “inherently about who you are, where you are, what you are doing, and what is around you”. Context is central.
The very nature of AR enabled mobile devices sets them within a multi-faceted contextual matrix. In my research I am examining the nature of this matrix to see how it may be used as a resource for designers and developers.
Augmented space is becoming a medium for learning and in the process the way we learn is being transformed.
However there are currently only a very small set of primary interaction patterns established in the field of AR. This means that designers have a very limited set of options for framing the strategy, structure, interaction, user interface, and other design aspects of an AR or mixed-reality experience.
1) Establish a set of primary interaction patterns / design guidelines for augmenting emerging contexts for learning using AR.
2) Establish how the spatial / physical design of these environments directly effects the range and type of knowledge that can be generated from them?
3) How can AR be designed to increase our awareness of our immediate environment and context, rather than distract us from it? (addressing the cognitive load issue)
4) To what extent do declarative rather than procedural designs successfully augment contexts for learning?
Initial Case Studies – Procedural
Current Case Studies – Declarative
Choice of Methods + Theoretical Frameworks
Mixed methods – Field studies , eye tracking, head mounted cameras, structured interviews, focus groups, questionnaires.
Theoretical Frameworks - Pachler’s Mobile Complex, Cook’s Augmented Contexts for Development (ACD extending Vygotsky’s ZPD) and Distributed Cognition .
Distributed Cognition involves the coordination between individuals, artifacts and the environment. It has several key components one of which is: The embodiment of information that is embedded in representations of interaction.