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Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship
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Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship

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  • NSF A virtual organization is a group of individuals whose members and resources may be dispersed geographically, yet who function as a coherent unit through the use of cyberinfrastructure. Virtual organizations may be known by a range of names, including: collaboratories, distributed work groups, virtual teams, online communities, and science gateways. Common characteristics across different types and classes of virtual organizations include:  Distributed across space , with participants spanning localities and institutions; Distributed across time , allowing synchronous as well asynchronous interactions; Dynamic structures and processes , at every stage of the organizational lifecycle; Computationally enabled , via collaboration support systems including e-mail, teleconferencing, telepresence, awareness, social computing, and group information management tools; and, Computationally enhanced , with simulations, databases, instrumentation, analytic tools and services which facilitate interaction with human affiliates that are integral to the functioning of the organization. Virtual organizations are often positioned in terms of their potential to advance national priorities of scientific innovation, educational development, and economic competitiveness. The proposition being that virtual organizations can more efficiently and effectively leverage the combination of diverse information and knowledge, skills and resources from different locations and thereby enhance the individual opportunity to learn and the organizational capacity to innovate. To date, however, these claims remain largely untested.
  • Abstract: Virtual Organization as Process Virtual organization requires a different way of perceiving the world by those who wish to participate in it. There are four key characteristics of virtual organization as process. First, virtual organization entails the development of relationships with a broad range of potential partners, each having a particular competency that complements the others. Second, virtual organizing capitalizes on the mobility and responsiveness of telecommunications to overcome problems of distance. Third, timing is a key aspect of relationships, with actors using responsiveness and availability to decide between alternatives. Last, there must be trust between actors separated in space for virtual organization to be effective. This paper describes the perceptual and social requirements of virtual organization and suggests a research plan for explicating the structure, process and content of any system based on its elements. The structures of individual actors’ perceptions and expectations and the social processes that supply the content of their social experience must be addressed if virtual organization and its advantages are to be understood.
  • Strategies Undertaken Humanities/Social Sciences: Interviews, Survey Sciences: Interviews Questions: Research practices Interdisciplinary & collaborative research Resource management (organization, storage) Library research
  • Young emergent field, with enthusiasm in leading scholars for use of collaborative technologies.
  • Identity management (who are you across multiple institutions) Federated identity management – what solution to embrace?
  • Express architecture – areas of the architecture. ETL – Drupal – external Conceptual.
  • Automated downloading, de-duping, and ETL processes that create citations in EthicShare from BBC and New York Times Atom/RSS feeds. Right now the process is scheduled to run once a day, early in the morning.
  • Social psychology theory
  • Effectiveness to provide services to our community – when we don’t know what Google, NLM, OCLC will provide for data? Can we get users to come for our data – but can we Framework for others? Stepping stone for something else that we may or may not have stewardship over.
  • – who “owns,” builds, and runs a VC? Mellon Foundation Scholarly Communications funds EthicShare Who sustains a VC?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship Module 7: Libraries and Collaborative Research Communities Digital Libraries à la Carte 2009 John Butler <j-butl@umn.edu> Associate University Librarian for Information Technology University of Minnesota, USA
    • 2. Outline <ul><li>Virtual Communities – some definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarly Practices as Context for Virtual Community Development </li></ul><ul><li>Real-Life Virtual Communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>precursors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HarvestChoice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EthicShare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governance & Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>VCs – Library Roles and Success Factors </li></ul>
    • 3. Virtual Communities Defined <ul><li>Virtual Communities (VCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Research Environments (VREs) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Organizations (VOs) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Organizations as Socio-technical Systems (VOSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratories </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
    • 4. Virtual Organizations (U.S. NSF) <ul><li>A virtual organization is a group of individuals whose members and resources may be dispersed geographically, yet who function as a coherent unit through the use of cyberinfrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed across space, </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed across time , </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic structures and processes , at every stage of the organizational lifecycle, </li></ul><ul><li>Computationally enabled , via collaboration support systems, and </li></ul><ul><li>Computationally enhanced </li></ul>Virtual Organizations as Sociotechnical Systems   (VOSS) -- NSF http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2009/nsf09540/nsf09540.htm
    • 5. Virtual Organization as Process* <ul><li>Relationships with a broad range of potential partners </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility and responsiveness of telecommunications to overcome problems of distance </li></ul><ul><li>Timing , using responsiveness and availability to decide between alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Trust between actors separated in space for virtual organization to be effective </li></ul>Source: “Virtual Organization as Process: Integrating Cognitive and Social Structure Across Time and Space” Scott M. Preston
    • 6. Whatever the name, what are they really about? The Scholarship
    • 7. Scholarly Practices as Context for VC Development
    • 8. <ul><li>Faculty & Graduate Students </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul>Two phases: humanities & social sciences; sciences (physical, natural, life, health sciences communities): http://www.lib.umn.edu/about/mellon http://www.lib.umn.edu/about/scieval
    • 9. Assessment Context <ul><li>Goal : Support the advancement of scholarship through understanding scholarly behavior, processes, and practices; then developing content & services that existing and new processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed context for scholarship </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed environment for content and services </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the research processes </li></ul><ul><li>Understand trajectory of research behaviors </li></ul>
    • 10. Analytical Framework <ul><li>Categorize behaviors & identify “primitives” (Capture the processes, workflow) </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze behavioral data, trends, relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential tools/new services </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype tools/services; solicit scholar feedback (iterative, release-feedback process) </li></ul>
    • 11. Primitives University of Minnesota. “A Multi-Dimensional Framework for Academic Support (2005-2007)” http://www.lib.umn.edu/about/mellon Discover Share Gather Create
    • 12. Primitives => Behaviors Annotating Analyzing Reviewing & Rating Writing Describing University of Minnesota. “A Multi-Dimensional Framework for Academic Support (2005-2007)” http://www.lib.umn.edu/about/mellon Collecting Organizing Discover Share Gather Create Serendipitous Finding Collaborative Finding Structured Finding Keeping Current Acquiring Publishing Teaching Data Sharing Rights
    • 13. Primitives => Behaviors => DaTa Annotating Analyzing Reviewing & Rating Writing Describing Publishing Teaching Data Sharing Rights Collecting Organizing Discover Share Gather Create Serendipitous Finding Collaborative Finding Structured Finding Keeping Current Acquiring
    • 14.  
    • 15.  
    • 16.  
    • 17. Researcher’s Workflow Individual reputation management Institutional Research Output and Assessment
    • 18.  
    • 19. Real-Life Virtual Communities (+ precursors)
    • 20. <ul><li>Began 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid dissemination, open access </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-prints physics, astronomy, mathematics, computer science, nonlinear science, quantitative biology and statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Over 550K submissions to date; 50K/month </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale worldwide participation </li></ul><ul><li>Facing economic challenges </li></ul>
    • 21. <ul><ul><li>Since 1995, sustained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open access, pre-print archive for agricultural and applied economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35K submissions from over 150 academic institutions, professional societies, and government agencies worldwide </li></ul></ul>
    • 22.  
    • 23. VC Characteristics <ul><li>Discipline/field focused </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-institutional, global </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption at significant levels </li></ul><ul><li>Community contribution / investment </li></ul>
    • 24. HarvestChoice
    • 25. HarvestChoice <ul><li>Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale global project that supports the food policy analyst community </li></ul><ul><li>Compiles, harmonizes, generates, and disseminates public goods information on the potential payoffs to smallholder farmers of production and marketing innovations in sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul>
    • 26. Libraries role in HarvestChoice VC Development <ul><li>To build an innovative, integrated “biblio-spatial” search capability that blends the discovery spatial data, flat files and curated references to relevant scholarly literature. </li></ul>
    • 27. <ul><li>Highly selective discovery base for food policy analysts seeking improvements in third world countries </li></ul><ul><li>Unique aggregation and integrations (“bibliospatial” search) </li></ul>
    • 28.  
    • 29.  
    • 30. HarvestChoice Google Map Query Interface: Household Attributes HarvestChoice Database Query Widget: Crop Production Reporting Tool
    • 31. EthicShare <ul><li>A Collaborative Virtual Community for Ethics Scholars </li></ul>
    • 32. <ul><ul><li>Online research environment for information discovery and collaboration for practical ethics scholars and students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open & free to all – designed to enable multi-institutional collaboration between all scholars regardless of affiliation, but account creation is not restricted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by the University of Minnesota's Center for Bioethics, Libraries, and Department of Computer Science & Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Science Foundation, Council on Library and Information Resources </li></ul></ul>
    • 33. EthicShare Partnerships <ul><ul><li>Data: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Library of Medicine - PubMed & Catalog data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OCLC – WorldCat data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Publishers – in negotiations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Services: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OCLC – Registry Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University Centers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Georgetown University – Bioethics Thesaurus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governance and Presentations at Societies by partners from: University of Virginia, Indiana University- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bloomington, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis and Stanford University </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 34. Bioethics Community <ul><li>Engaged in “…consideration of issues in human values as they relate to health services, the education of healthcare professionals and research .” </li></ul><ul><li>-- American Society for Bioethics and Humanities </li></ul>
    • 35. The Cycle of Assessment Assess…Develop…Engage…Again Specify Engage/ Evaluate Assess Develop
    • 36. Initial Community Assessment <ul><ul><li>Planning Grant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying and tuning collaborative technologies for a specific community of researchers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Held 5 site visits – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U of Minnesota </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Indiana </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Indiana – Purdue University – Indianapolis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Virginia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Georgetown University </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ How do you know what you don’t know?” Bioethics scholars didn’t use collective work sites or technologies. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 37.  
    • 38.  
    • 39. <ul><li>High quality ( selective/filtered ) content; mixing scholarly and popular sources </li></ul><ul><li>Access to all relevant material types ( full text ), from all academic fields (highly interdisciplinary) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to have private work space </li></ul><ul><li>Space for (global) community discussion, exchange, commentary </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation security; “trust controls” </li></ul>Community Requirements (Defined through focus groups, surveys)
    • 40. Requirements <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging field </li></ul><ul><li>Unique content requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarly networking interests, but… </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy humanists practices </li></ul><ul><li>High value on trust and reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor </li></ul><ul><li>Advance scholarship </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative technologies </li></ul>
    • 41. EthicShare Abstracted : Virtual Research Environment Components Collection Development Content selection & aggregation Harvesting Ingest ETL CONTENT Discovery Tools Faceted searching Tags and ontology Recommendations Drupal, Solr ACCESS Policy & Sustainability Editorial policies Community value User privacy Intellectual Property GOVERNANCE Engagement & Collaboration Social dynamics Editorial participation Drupal COMMUNITY
    • 42. ethicshare.org
    • 43. EthicShare Site Functionality – Data <ul><li>Search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-defined aggregation of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faceted results (to include all EthicShare data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link to full-text through your OpenURL resolver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500K records (diverse sourcing) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Save , organize , export citations </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute content to the database </li></ul><ul><li>Find information about upcoming events, deadlines, news, etc... </li></ul>
    • 44. EthicShare Site Functionality – Personal and Group <ul><li>Review your online activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recently viewed citations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make lists, recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tag citations – personal and community </li></ul><ul><li>Join or create groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>private or public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to share citations, discuss ideas, upload files, and work collaboratively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User Directory and Profiles </li></ul>
    • 45. My EthicShare – Personal View
    • 46.  
    • 47. Intelligent Linking Group Posting Tagging
    • 48. Link Resolver Registry
    • 49. Intelligent Linking Service <ul><ul><li>Link Resolution – delivering an OpenURL linking service in a multi-institutional context, which allows users from any institution with a link resolver to access the full text of a resources (if their institution provides access to that resource). </li></ul></ul>Visitors from over 900 institutions
    • 50. EthicShare Groups Groups I belong to Privacy Setting
    • 51.  
    • 52.  
    • 53. Usage Pattern Matching – “Recommendations”
    • 54. Community-tailored Services Data Aggregation for Discovery Aggregation and Service Architecture
    • 55. Automated ETL Process
    • 56. Drupal Modules used in EthicShare
    • 57. Drupal – “Community Plumbing”
    • 58. Engage and Evaluate - Iterative Design Beta Testing - Feedback Loops
    • 59. Iterative Usability Analyses
    • 60. Adoption Evidence <ul><ul><li>Account Creation – open to all – the site is designed to enable collaboration between all scholars regardless of affiliation, but account creation is not restricted </li></ul></ul>
    • 61. Technology Adoption Source : Sociological model developed by Joe M. Bohlen, George M. Beal and Everett M. Rogers, later modified by Geoffrey Moore.
    • 62. Motivating Community Contribution <ul><li>Collective Effort Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People will contribute more if: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They believe their effort is important to the group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They like the group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Smaller is Better </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slovic, Fischhoff, & Lichtenstein, 1980 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People feel greater concern when the reference group they’re part of grows smaller. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specificity Matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small & Loewenstein, 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific identity of those helped is important in drawing people’s support. </li></ul></ul>
    • 63. <ul><li>Publishing, Access, and Dissemination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture of community’s fugitive content; user submissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gray literature contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital collections (OAI-harvests), video/audio, art objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curricular Materials/ Learning Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Site Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommenders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioethics policy development support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Five-Year Sustainability Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Release the VRC Technology Stack and Development Model </li></ul>EthicShare … the future
    • 64. ? Scholar Images Video Books News Data Knol What’s next… Future EthicShare Architecture? Data Aggregation for Discovery Community-tailored Services
    • 65. Governance & Sustainability
    • 66. Who “owns,” builds, runs, and sustains a VC? <ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mellon Found., NSF, CLIR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Univ. Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tech. (lib.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content (lib.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research (CSci) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>domain (ethics) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OCLC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NLM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumers / Community </li></ul><ul><li>EthicShare User Base </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Societies </li></ul><ul><li>User Advisory Panel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>faculty and graduate stud. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EthicShare Users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large-scale feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal Investigators – Lib Director, CSci Professor, Ethics Director </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senior Fac./ Center Dir. from 6 U.S. ethics research centers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 67. Sustainability – Economic Framework <ul><ul><li>Economically sustainable academic resources require: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives for decision-makers to act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate organization and governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- Brian Lavoie (Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 68. Library Role in Virtual Communities <ul><li>Functional Roles </li></ul><ul><li>“ Communities of practice” assessment and effective research environment design </li></ul><ul><li>Content selection and access </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of community assets </li></ul><ul><li>Tool development, calibration, and integration </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst for collaboration </li></ul>
    • 69. VC Critical Success Factors <ul><li>Discipline/field focused </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-institutional, global (hopefully) </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption via value impact </li></ul><ul><li>Community contribution/investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collegial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Builds / leverages scholarly collaboration and exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>network effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data leveraging potentials </li></ul></ul>
    • 70. Virtual Communities: Catalysts for Advancing Scholarship Module 7: Libraries and Collaborative Research Communities Digital Libraries à la Carte 2009 John Butler <j-butl@umn.edu> Associate University Librarian for Information Technology University of Minnesota, USA

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