Language learning & play


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Language learning & play

  1. 1. Language Learning & PlayKelley C. Shirley, MCD, CCC-SLP<br />February 11, 2011<br />
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  4. 4. 9:00 – 10:00 Review of Language and Play <br />10:00 – 10:15 Break<br />10:15 – 10:45 Goal Planning<br />10:45 – 12:00 Session with Atticus<br />12:00 – 12:30 Lunch<br />12:30 – 1:30 Review Videos/Discussion<br />1:30 – 2:30 Sessions with Atticus<br />2:30 – 3:00 Review<br />
  5. 5. What is Language?<br />A Set of Symbols that are used to represent and convey meaning between one human and another. <br />What are some reasons we use language?<br />
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  7. 7. To Protest<br />To Request<br />To Get Attention<br />To Express Feelings<br />To Imitate<br />To Greet<br />To Label/Comment<br />To Describe<br />To Answer<br />To Ask Questions<br />
  8. 8. 3 Parts of Language<br />Receptive Language<br />Expressive Language<br />Pragmatic Language<br />
  9. 9. Steps Required In Language Learning<br />Forming a Concept<br />Testing the hypothesis<br />Making a Generalization<br />Matching words to their meanings<br />Making comparisons<br />Comprehending Body Language<br />
  10. 10. SAY WHAT….????<br />
  11. 11. How Can I Help You Decode?<br />Repeat the phrase<br />Slow Down the Phrase<br />Gesture with the Phrase<br />Emphasize Key Words<br />Break Down the Sentence<br />
  12. 12. 2 Important Tidbits<br />A child is an active participant in the language learning process. This is not a passive acquisition.<br />A child will only be able to talk and understand the concepts for which he has been exposed – Environmental Experiences<br />
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  15. 15. Language Happens When……..<br />Bath Time<br />Meal Time<br />Car Trips<br />Caregivers<br />Books<br />Music<br />PLAY, PLAY, PLAY<br />
  16. 16. What is Play?<br />Important to A Child’s Development<br />Intellectually<br />Socially<br />Emotionally<br />Physically<br />Creatively<br />
  17. 17. Cognitive Markers Required <br />Object Permanence<br />Means/End<br />Functional Object Use<br />Deferred Imitation<br />Symbolic Play<br />Combinatorial Play<br />Use of Distal Gestures<br />
  18. 18. A Matter of Intent<br />Intent is the performance of a gesture, movement or task with the design of conveying a message to someone else<br />Intent is the desire to communicate meaning<br />Intent is a requirement for fostering social interactions<br />
  19. 19. Preintentional (Birth – 8 months)<br />Goal is to become oriented to the world<br />To become oriented to stimuli<br />Pre-symbolic<br />Most everything is reflexive<br />
  20. 20. NOTE<br />To qualify as a communicative act, behaviors must be directed to another person<br />
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  25. 25. Early Intentional (8-12 months)<br />Children begin to communicate with gestures<br />Communications begin to be intentional<br />Cognitively – imitates actions, object permanence, reacts in anticipation of events<br />Receptively – Looks at objects mom looks at, responds to “no” and “bye”<br />
  26. 26. Expressively – Syllabic babbling, communication games, intentional actions<br />Socially – Responds to facial expressions, imitates arm movements, stacks, dumps objects, kisses, waves<br />
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  29. 29. Late Intentional (12-18 months)<br />First Words appear<br />Recognizable functions such as requesting, commanding, protesting, labeling, greetings become more evident<br />
  30. 30. Late Intentional (12-18months)<br />Cognitive – Begins to solve basic problems<br />Receptive – Points to objects on command, follows basic commands<br />Expressive – Gestures continues to accompany words and vocalizations; hi/bye routines<br />Social – solitary play; common routines<br />
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  32. 32. Representational Thought (18-24 months)<br />Symbolic Play emerges<br />2-word phrases begin<br />Short sequences of events begins<br />Some morphological markings appear<br />
  33. 33. Representational Thought (18-24 months)<br />Cognitive – Internalized problem solving begins; uses memory and symbols to represent actions/objects<br />Receptively – Understands words when referent is not present; 2-step commands<br />
  34. 34. Representational Thought (18-24 months)<br />Expressively – Semantic combinations begin, asks basic questions; rapid acquisition of vocabulary<br />Socially – Parallel play; talks to self; simple make-believe schemes<br />
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  36. 36. Types of Play<br />Functional Play<br />Constructive Play<br />Dramatic Play<br />Play with Rules<br />Solitary Play<br />Parallel Play<br />Associative Play<br />Cooperative Play<br />
  37. 37. Solitary Play<br />12-18 months<br />Common routines<br />Time of first words<br />Regulates other’s behaviors<br />More symbolic<br />
  38. 38. Symbolic & Parallel<br />
  39. 39. Associative Play (3-4 years)<br />
  40. 40. Cooperative Play (4-6)<br />
  41. 41. Play & ASD<br />May be repetitive with intense fixations on one small part of the object.<br />These fixations may take the place of exploring cause/effect<br />When choosing play schemes, think about toys/objects that have similar functions to those that provide interest to the child’s stimulatory behaviors<br />
  42. 42. Play and ASD<br />Try a mix of repeated play experiences combined with something novel<br />Know when to Observe, Participate, Initiate, Imitate or Intervene<br />
  43. 43. Follow His Lead<br />Don’t worry about always being the teacher<br />Don’t be strictly data driven<br />Be flexible to the situation<br />Watch carefully for any form of spontaneous communication<br />Be a Responsive Partner<br />
  44. 44. OWL – Hanen Program<br /> O – Observe the child. Learn to recognize even the smallest attempts to interact<br />Observe focus of attention, facial expression , body language, pitch/duration of sounds, rate of breathing, state of alertness<br />
  45. 45. OWL<br /><ul><li>Wait on his response
  46. 46. Be sure to give him the opportunity to respond in any way
  47. 47. Respond with an expectant look, facial expression</li></li></ul><li>OWL<br />Listen and Look for any subtle change in voice, intonation, facial expression, body movement, action that may indicate an attempt of the child to lead<br />
  48. 48. WASSD (Dr. Simpson, AU)<br />Wait<br />Ask<br />Say<br />(My personal addition for children using any form of vocalization: Ask Again)<br />Show<br />Do<br />
  49. 49. Body Position<br />Face to Face<br />Lie on your tummy <br />Give your child the chair and you sit in the floor<br />Body Positioning and facilitating Eye contact<br />
  50. 50. Continuing the Conversation<br />Imitate what the child is doing in play<br />Interpret what the child would say if he could. E.g., “Airplane fly.”<br />Comment on the child’s action<br />Take a Turn- a “turn” can be a look, gesture or sound. It may even be as subtle as a breath.<br />
  51. 51. Continuing the Conversation<br />Raise your eyes, smile, nod of the head, silently mouth “your turn” or what the child should do/say, lean towards the child, point directly<br />Saying “your turn,” use a question intonation, change a question to a statement, shorten the message<br />
  52. 52. Adding Language<br />Verbally interrupt what he would say <br />Imitate the communicative attempt<br />Gesture with the interpretation<br />Use intonation and emphasize target words<br />Add a functional word to the mix<br /> E.g., “You want JUMP. MORE JUMP. You want MORE JUMP”<br />
  53. 53. When It’s Hard to Engage<br />Create high-interest activities<br />Recognize and accept ANY form of communication<br />Imitate any actions/sounds the child gives<br />Interpret the child’s behavior<br />Repeat pleasurable routines<br />
  54. 54. Planning Activities<br />Take inventory of what activities the child enjoys and is successful: music, spinning wheels, jumping, etc.<br />Include familiar play schemes when introducing a new one<br />Allow him to choose between two play activities<br />
  55. 55. Motor Imitation Using Toys<br />Putting the doll to sleep, eat, jump, etc.<br />Push the car<br />Pretend to sleep on a pillow<br />Shake a fan<br />Fly a plane<br />Jump on different targets<br />
  56. 56. Adding Nonspeech Sounds<br />Blowing<br />Smacking Lips<br />Cry Sounds<br />Sneezing<br />Animal sounds<br />
  57. 57. Dr. Prizant’s Priorities<br />Functional, spontaneous communication<br />Social instruction in various settings<br />Teaching of play skills with appropriate toys and play with peers<br />Generalization and maintenance of cognitive goals<br />
  58. 58. Positive approaches to address problem behaviors<br />Functional academic skills when appropriate<br />
  59. 59. Visual Aspects<br />ALWAYS important for children; especially children with ASD<br />Visuals may assist in choosing between two objects with which to play<br />They may assist with assisting him with knowing FIRST/THEN<br />May assist with more spontaneous<br /> use of language<br />
  60. 60. Unconventional Verbal Behaviors<br />Immediate Echolalia<br />May serve a variety of communicative and cognitive functions<br />May be produced with or without evidence of communicative intent<br />
  61. 61. Setting Play Goals<br />Activity 1: Animals and Food px<br />Social goal: Feeding the food px to animals 50% of the time<br /> How: WASSD<br />Communication goal: S verbal requests<br />How: WAS(Ask Again)SD<br />Academic goal: S use of verbs<br />How:Modeling, Prompting<br />
  62. 62. Westby, Carol E., (1980) Symbolic Play Scale Check List<br />The Michigan Decision-Making Strategy for Determining Appropriate Communicative Services……N.W.Nelson, Silbar and Lockwood (1981)<br />Communicative Temptations from Wetherby and Prizant (1989)<br />Children’s Health System; The Charity League Hearing and Speech Center for Children<br />Watson, Claire & Weitzman, E.; “It Takes Two to Talk” Hanen Program; Revised 2000<br />Wetherby, A.M., & Prizant, B.M., (1993). Journal of Childhood Communicative Disorders, 15<br />