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  • 1. The EAL ToolkitEnglish as an Additional LanguageSources:www.naldic.org.ukhttp://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/primary/publications/inclusion/bi_children/Access and Engagement series (DfES 2002) http://www.naldic.org.uk/docs/resources/KeyDocs.cfmJim Cummins, Language, Power and Pedagogy (Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, 2000)Neil Mercer, Words and minds: how we use language to think together (Routledge, Abingdon, 2000)My headOther people’s headsMade by Mike Gershon –mikegershon@hotmail.com
  • 2. Buddy Up Picture Rules Dictionary ImagesSentence Starters Talk to support staff Role Models Pre-Teach VocabularyOpen Questions Rehearsal Concrete Starters Discussion ToolkitWhiteboards Questioning Support the Teacher Thinking TimeModel Success Criteria Listening Frame Key WordsPre-Highlight First Language Purpose Allocate RolesPlan in 1st Language Match/Grid Writing Frame Plenary PrimePresent Genre Modelling Vocabulary and Meaning Barrier GamesBelonging Language Types Types of Talk Thinking TogetherWhat’s the Point Prior Knowledge Linguistic Diversity Compare and ContrastAnalogies Idioms Recasting Vocabulary SequenceStarting Points Listening Assistance Drama DiagramsWord Relationships Model Writing Word Taxonomy Darts
  • 3. Buddy UpIf a pupil is learning English as anadditional language, you could ‘buddy’them with a strong speaker and listener.This could be part of an inductionprogramme, for specific activities such asgroup work or extended writing, or as anon-going strategy.The buddy-ing could be made explicit tostudents or left ambiguous, a decisionprobably best left to the teacher’sdiscretion.Back to start
  • 4. Picture RulesAn EAL students’ entry into theclassroom could be eased byproviding them with the class rulesset out in picture form.Equally, if you have rules displayedin your classroom then supplementthem with diagrams/pictures.If proving successful in individualclassrooms, the strategy could beextended to whole school rules.Back to start
  • 5. DictionaryProvide foreign-languagedictionaries in your classroom (ifyour department can afford them!)and encourage students to usethem.A simple starter could be for thewhole class to look-up and translatekey words.Native speakers could then teachcorrect pronunciations to eachother (English and other languages).Back to start
  • 6. ImagesSupplement writing on PowerPoint, IWBs,worksheets etc. with images.Google images provides a quick and easymeans to find suitable pictures.Back to start
  • 7. Sentence StartersProvide sentence starters (also agood way to get everybody down towriting).e.g.One side of the argument is...Another side of the argument is...Therefore my conclusion is...In addition, sentence starters canbe used to model academiclanguage.Back to start
  • 8. Talk to support staffFind out what works with particular students.Discuss future planning and how the support staff can workmost effectively in your lessons.Ask them to identify students’ strengths and weaknesses inlearning EAL.Back to start
  • 9. Role ModelsUse group work to help EALstudents hear positive Englishlanguage models.This may also be helpful tothe student in internalisingthe ‘hidden’ rules of languageinside and outside theclassroom.Back to start
  • 10. Pre-teach VocabularyIf there is additional support inschool, it can be useful to pre-teachkey vocabulary.This is particularly true if studentsare working or reading fromtextbooks, either individually or as aclass.Additional support may also be ableto provide extra visual aids, or assistin reading text in advance withstudents.Back to start
  • 11. Open QuestionsOpen questions have manybenefits.One may be the opportunity for EALstudents to verbalise theirreasoning.This gives the teacher a chance toanalyse how they are usinglanguage in the subject – i.e. Arethere certain (subject) conventionswhich they are circumventing?(of course, this may turn out to be agood thing!)Back to start
  • 12. RehearsalPrime EAL students that youwill come to them foranswers.Ask them in the interim toorally rehearse these with a(helpful) peer.This technique may beusefully applied to allstudents.Back to start
  • 13. Concrete StartersUse concrete rather thanabstract starters. This mayallow EAL students greateraccess to the beginning of thelesson.e.g. Matching words,matching words to pictures orgrouping similar words.Back to start
  • 14. WhiteboardsMini-whiteboards offer agood link between talk andwriting.Students are able to ‘sketch’and play with their writtenanswers thanks to theimpermanence.Errors can be wiped away!Back to start
  • 15. QuestioningDifferentiating questioninghelps to engage studentsthroughout the classroom.In planning you could developquestions with your EALstudents in mind.Or, develop a set of questionstems you can adapt forstudents learning EAL.Back to start
  • 16. Support the TeacherIf appropriate, ask classroomsupport to run the starteractivity whilst you work with apupils learning EAL.Or, ask a student (or 2-3) toplan and deliver a startereach week whilst you workwith the pupils.Back to start
  • 17. Thinking TimeBuild thinking time into thelesson – “30 seconds silentthinking from now.”This allows all students toreflect on questions andcontent.Students learning EAL mayfurther benefit from theextended time for processing.Back to start
  • 18. Model Speaking and ListeningModel speaking and listeningexchanges.This could be done with anotheradult or with a student.A particularly powerful way mightbe if the class sit in a circle and youmodel with a partner in the middle(like a Goldfish Bowl).Showcase the importance of activelistening.Back to start
  • 19. Speaking and ListeningSuccess CriteriaMake the success criteria forsuccessful speaking andlistening explicit.Supplement this with posterson the classroom wallsreiterating in writing andpictures.Back to start
  • 20. Listening FrameProvide a listening framestudents whereby it is clearwhat areas you would likethem to make notes on.This could be extended byprécising the subsequenttalk/clip and asking studentsto prepare a suitable listeningframe.Back to start
  • 21. Listening for Key WordsSet explicit listening tasksaround key words – either forthe whole class or individualstudents.For example –make a tally chart of thenumber of times the teacheruses certain wordsA bingo chart of key words tocross off during a talk or clipBack to start
  • 22. Pre-HighlightRun-off an extra copy of textsor handouts with key-wordsor passages alreadyhighlightedBack to start
  • 23. First LanguagePupils can be encouraged touse their first language whereappropriate, particularly ifthere is a support teacher orstudents with whom they cantalk and then translate.Back to start
  • 24. Make talk purposefulEnsure that the talk built intolessons is purposeful.This could be through a tightstructure with roles, targetssuch as solving a particularproblem or using it as arehearsal for writtenarguments.Back to start
  • 25. Allocate RolesAllocate specific roles ingroup work.This ensures students knowexactly what is expected ofthem and provides them witha concept to ‘perform’ to (i.e.Question setter, challenger,note-taker)Back to start
  • 26. Plan in first languageEncourage students to talk orwrite in their first languagewhen attempting to answer aquestion or planning theirresponse.Back to start
  • 27. Matching or Grid ActivitiesProvide matching or grid typeactivities for students.Give some model answers toshow what is expected.Set the difficulty so that someinvestigation andcollaborative work is required.Back to start
  • 28. Writing FrameProvide students with a list ofwords and phrasesappropriate for use in thewriting task set.e.g.Write a news report on thewater cycleGood evening viewersPrecipitationIn the mountains...CloudsThe sun shining on the sea...Back to start
  • 29. Plenary PrimeAt the lesson start tell pupilsyou will come to them in theplenary. This gives time toplan a response.Back to start
  • 30. Presentation TipsExplicitly model and explainhow to present to the rest ofthe class.Include basics such asstanding up, facing theaudience, speaking at theright speed and volume.Back to start
  • 31. Genre ModellingProvide students with a detailed modelor scaffold of the particular ‘schoolgenre’ you are working on.This could be the essay, story writing,report, experimental procedure etc.Two ideas are;i) Use student work from previous yearsas a model. Highlight the genrestructure within.ii) Provide a detailed ‘structure-framework’ for the students that breaksdown the genre into constituentelements. This could be supplementedwith sentence starters/content cues foreach section.Back to start
  • 32. Vocabulary and MeaningThis strategy is in two parts.Part 1 – Give students a list of key wordsin English and ask them to translate intotheir first language using a dictionary.Part 2 – Give students a table of meaningsof (some of) the initial English words. Askstudents to complete the table by correctlymatching the words to the meanings.Back to start
  • 33. BelongingAbraham Maslow’s hierarchy of humanneeds points to safety and belonging asprerequisites for learning and development.EAL learners may be further from thesebecause of the communication gap.Strategies to give EAL learners a sense ofsafety and belonging in the classroom mayinclude (amongst many):-Bilingual dictionaries-Letting the student know in advance if youare going to ask them a ‘public’ question.-Reacting positively to mistakes (includingyour own) and using them to further learning.http://powerwillmotivation.com/images/abraham_maslow_quote_hierarchy_of_needs.jpgBack to start
  • 34. Different Types of LanguageJim Cummins identified three different types oflanguage relevant to learners.Communicative Language – or, conversationalfluency. Develops first, in face-to-face settings.Cognitive Language – develops throughinvestigating, exploring ideas and solvingproblems.Academic Language – passive voice, ideas andconcepts as agents, vocabulary with Greek or Latinroots, metaphor, personification andnominalization.The latter two are required for educationalsuccess. The model could provide a framework fortasks or structuring of work.http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=fM4KdFOicGcC&dq=cummins+language+power+and+pedagogy&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=i7vBS-CKG5-y0gTHxaidCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBgQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=falsehttp://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/primary/publications/inclusion/bi_children/DFES document fromwhich this is adapted:Cummins’ book onGoogle Books:Back to start
  • 35. Types of TalkNeil Mercer identified three types of talk in his2000 book, ‘Words and Minds’;-Exploratory Talk-Disputational Talk-Cumulative TalkThese could be used to structure specificspeaking and listening activities.Making students aware of the ‘rules’ of thetype of talk being used may assist EALstudents in thinking the processes andpurposes at work.http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=uNtkuYihpM8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=words+and+minds&source=bl&ots=VlSd17RAhR&sig=gisZSCdFj07eVdzh-eK_3CixEtw&hl=en&ei=4tDBS9nNOoii0gSq_vikCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=falseCopy and paste into your browser toview Mercer’s book on Google Books.Back to start
  • 36. Thinking Togetherhttp://thinkingtogether.educ.cam.ac.uk/resources/Neil Mercer, along with a number of others, haveresearched using talk as a means of ‘thinkingtogether’.Children are explicitly taught about exploratorytalk (see last slide) in order to facilitate its use inthe classroom.EAL learners may benefit from the focus onspeaking and listening, the non-competitivenature of the talk, frequent modelling by teachersand peers, explication of formal and informalreasoning and merging of different types oflanguage (see slide 34)The website below links to a number ofresources they have produced for teachers.Back to start
  • 37. Discussion ToolkitThere are many different ways tostructure discussion in the classroom.I have collected a number together inmy ‘Discussion Toolkit’. This is availableto download free at -http://www.tes.co.uk/resourcesHome.aspx?navcode=70Different discussion activities can beused to assist EAL learners in speakingand listening.Back to start
  • 38. What’s the point?When planning, consider what the mainpurpose of using language will be forstudents in the lesson.This may be used to:-Help structure (and link) tasks moreclearly,-Communicate explicitexpectations/goals to students-Provide accurate and graduatedscaffolding for students.Back to start
  • 39. Prior KnowledgeAs in general, so with EAL students.Eliciting prior knowledge is useful for theteacher and student.The intended learning is contextualized(even if within the terms ‘this appears tobe something completely new’).Some ways to establish prior knowledge:-KWL grids-Quick sharing of ideas (could usesnowballing)-A picture with question – “How mightthis connect to…”Back to start
  • 40. Linguistic Diversity‘Research has established that affordingbilingual children the opportunity to continue touse their first language alongside English inschool for as long as possible, and to use it inthe context of cognitively demanding tasks,will support both the academic achievement ofthe child and the development of an additionallanguage’Taken from‘Unit 2 – Creating the learning culture’of the DCSF document –Excellence and Enjoyment: Learning andteaching for bilingual children in theprimary yearsOne way to encourage this is by explicitlycelebrating linguistic diversity.Back to start
  • 41. Compare and ContrastEncourage EAL students to compareand contrast their first languagewith English.This could be facilitated by:- providing grids or frames,- asking them to look for patterns orsurprises,- giving answers in English and theirfirst language, then looking at themtogether.Back to start
  • 42. AnalogiesAnalogies reason that information can betransferred from a source to a secondarysource.For example, a car is like a cat because it hasa body and is bought by humans.Using analogies assists EAL students byconnecting information. It offers analternative to logical reasoning that aidsunderstanding of words and concepts.Back to start
  • 43. IdiomsIdioms may prove difficult for non-nativespeakers as they rely on historical/culturalas well as linguistic knowledge.Take care to explain idioms when usingthem (or ask students to explain).Using idioms as a tool to explore languagemay be fruitful…‘It’s raining cats and dogs’ contrasts with‘It’s raining pestles and mortars’ in Urdu.Back to start
  • 44. RecastingStudents may remain in their comfort zonewhen developing EAL.A way to avoid this is recasting.If a student gives an answer or statement thatis grammatically incorrect, praise them for thecontent of their answer and then recast it tothem as the prefix to a follow-up question.e.g,‘We play football yesterday’‘Super answering of the question. When youwere playing football yesterday, whathappened in the game?’Back to start
  • 45. Vocabulary SequenceHere is a model of how to teach newVocabulary (taken from DFES guide):• Model it in context• Use it in questions• Prompt for it and elicit it• Repeat it• Draw attention to it and use it in other contexts• Display it• Provide opportunities for children to practise it• Give specific positive feedback about its use• Encourage children to reflect on the way they use itBack to start
  • 46. Barrier GamesA speaking and listening strategy requiringstudents to give and receive instructionsacross a physical barrier.For example, two students sit at a desk with awooden board or folder upright in between.Pupil A must instruct the Pupil B how to dosomething (i.e. replicate a drawing that PupilA can see but Pupil B cannot).This structure can be used in varyingways according to the aspects of language youwish students to attend to or think about.Back to start
  • 47. Starting PointsEnsure starters are culturally familiarto all students. This will help engageand motivate EAL learners fromthe beginning.Example;Starting to study Henry VIII: an imageof Henry could be replaced with avariety of pictures of kings andleaders. This is subsequentlyconnected to Henry.Back to start
  • 48. Listening AssistanceBack to startListening can be assisted in a number ofways. When setting up tasks in whichstudents are to listen, try to ensure thetalk is:-Face to face-Supported by actions-Purposeful and immediate-Interesting, useful and relevant.You could share these criteria withstudents prior to the activity and ask howthey are going to ensure their talkfacilitates the listening by doing them.
  • 49. DramaBack to startUsing drama lets students practicespeaking and listening in a variety of rolesand situations.Follow-up work can include;-analysing the effect of role/circumstanceon language-investigating the impact of purpose ormotive-examining how behaviour and languageinteract
  • 50. DiagramsBack to startSimple and effective.Diagrams put verbal orwritten propositionsanother way.
  • 51. Word RelationshipsBack to startDraw attention to the relationshipsbetween words. Examples could be:-Homophones (a relationship of similarityand difference)-Roots e.g. muscle, muscular,-Suffixes e.g. –ing, -ed, -er, -ism (prefixestoo)
  • 52. Model WritingBack to startSet a question and then model a writtenanswer. Draw out how construction takesplace. Include elements such as –-Rewriting at sentence level-Rewriting at word level-Making meaning preciseThis could be developed by providing awritten answer and asking students torewrite, talking through the rationale forwhat they have done after.
  • 53. Word TaxonomyBack to startDelineate key words for students by placing them in ataxonomy. E.g.1 Naming words: cell, cytoplasm, hydrogen2 Process words: diffusion, digestion, reflection3 Concept words: electromagnetism, energy, particles(taken from Access and Engagement in Science, DfES, 2002 -http://www.naldic.org.uk/docs/resources/documents/0610-2002Science.pdf
  • 54. DARTsBack to startDARTs are directed activities related to texts. Examplesinclude –– sequencing;– prioritising;– matching pictures to text;– matching phrases to definitions;– matching examples of cause and effect;– filling in gaps in text;– the use of true/false statements;– matching concepts to examples;– sorting to determine which information is notneeded for a piece of work;– grouping information together to identifysimilarities and differences betweenkey words and phrases.Taken from Access and Engagement in RE, DfES, 2002,http://www.naldic.org.uk/docs/resources/documents/sec_re_eal_access_engagRE.pdf