Presentation U Commerce Dec 08Presentation Transcript
Mobile and Ubiquitous Information Systems – an overview of the literature Eusebio Scornavacca School of Information Management, Victoria University of Wellington, NZ [email_address] MWnet Mobility and Wireless Applications Research Network at Victoria University of Wellington M-lit Mobile Business Literature Website www.m-lit.org
The Information Systems Domain Technology People Organizations The application of information technology to support people working in organizations
Internet Kiosk B The basic phenomenon Home Work Stationary Time Space A Time Home Work Space C Ubiquitous Home Work Networked Time Space Internet Kiosk
Characteristics and Value Propositions of Mobile & Ubiquitous IS
Research in IS Mobility
Five “streams” of work in Mobility:
aiming to understand the philosophical nature of mobility;
focused on the purpose/need of mobility
aiming to categorize mobility
examining the effects of mobility on society
Understanding the Literature
Through a detailed examination of major publication outlets, this research attempts to characterize the development of the mobile and ubiquitous IS research stream. It aims to point out:
Where it is today?
Where efforts should be focused in the future in order to build a strong research tradition?
Supporting research questions
The following research questions were posed in order to assess the state of mobile and ubiquitous IS research:
What is the main focus of research?
What are the main types of research?
What are the main technologies studied?
What are the main contexts of research?
What research methods were used?
Was primary data collection carried out?
What were the key contributions of the studies?
Methodology & Scope
Learn from the established tradition in IS research of examining the research literature itself in order to better understand the “state of play” of research in the field, and to discern patterns in the development of the field.
Culnan and Swanson 1986; Alavi and Carlson 1992; Banker and Kauffman 2004.
Locate outlets (conferences and journals), which have published relevant mobile and ubiquitous IS research.
The search began with an examination of previously published lists of outlets containing:
IS research (e.g., Mylonopoulos and Theoharakis 2001)
e-commerce research (e.g., Bharati and Tarasewich 2002, Wareham et al, 2005)
M-business (Scornavacca et al 2006; Ngai and Gunasekaran, 2007)
The initial selection was refined via discussions with senior academics actively researching in this domain.
Since research in this area is relatively recent, the scope of this investigation was limited to January 2000 to December 2006 .
1 st Step: Scope of the mobile and ubiquitous IS literature ICEC – International Conference on Electronic Commerce ICEB - International Conference on Electronic Business Bled eConference HICSS – Hawaii International Conference On System Sciences ACIS - Australian Conference of Information Systems PACIS - Pacific-Asia Conference on Information Systems AmCIS - Americas Conference on Information Systems ECIS - European Conference on Information Systems ICIS - International Conference on Information Systems IS and e-business Conferences MONET - Mobile Networks and Applications IJMC - International Journal of Mobile Communications M-business Journals Mobility Roundtable International Conference on Mobile Business (mBusiness) M-business Conferences IJEB - International Journal of Electronic Business IJEC - International Journal of Electronic Commerce ECRA -Electronic Commerce Research and Applications Electronic Markets E-services Journal ISR – Information Systems Research DSS- Decision Support Systems JIT - Journal of Information Technology Information & Management EJIS - European Journal of Information Systems JSIS – The Journal of Strategic Information Systems CAIS – Communications of AIS JMIS - Journal of Management Information Systems JAIS - Journal of the Association of Information Systems CACM - Communications of ACM MISQ - MIS Quarterly IS and e-business Journals
2 nd Step: Selection Process:
Examine the abstracts of every paper published during the selected period in the selected research outlets.
The abstracts were scrutinized and any article considered pertinent to the topic were selected for analysis. The general guideline for article selection was as follows:
The central theme should be mobile, wireless or ubiquitous applications; and
Articles should be in the information systems / e-business domain
Papers with a primarily technical focus were not considered pertinent to this research and were therefore excluded. This included papers in the computer science domain such as those published at MONET and in the technical tracks at HICSS.
1088 articles selected by year and source of publication NI NI 12 8* 8* 2* 0 ICEC (30) 15 24 29 14 13 10 1 AmCIS (106) NI 9 6* 13 9 1 1* Bled eConference (39) NI 1* 24 NI 7* 2* 0 ICEB (34) NI 8 5 1 5 2 1 ACIS (22) 6 3 10 7 4 0 0 PACIS (30) 7 13 9 6 7 2 0 ECIS (44) 19 23 22 16 15 8 1 HICSS (104) 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 ICIS (16) IS Conferences (425) 36 55 27 22 22 - - Mob. Roundtable (162) 44 83 NA 50 62 - - ICMB (239) Specialist Conferences (401) 06 05 04 03 02 01 2000 Number of Articles/year Source
The 1088 candidate articles needed to be carefully categorized and selected for detailed analysis.
One of the main issues that arose was the overall quality of the research published.
401 articles from two of the m-business conferences were dropped from further consideration (most of the higher-quality papers published at these conferences also appeared in IJMC or in special issues of other journals).
Papers from the AIS sponsored conferences and forums, as well as articles from HICSS, were included in the analysis on the assumption that sufficiently rigorous reviewing would have occurred.
Sources for the detailed literature analysis
After careful examination, 506 articles, from 20 sources, were selected for detailed analysis:
299 (59.1%) from conferences
207 (40.9%) from journals
These articles were read in their entirety, categorized and subsequently analyzed
3 rd Step: Analysis Growth: number of publications per year
Focus & Type Focus of the research Type* of research *Based on the purpose (goal, aim, objective) stated in each article 100 506 Total 4.2 21 Telecommunications industry and wireless service providers Industry 8.3 42 General issues about m-business, broad and unspecific focus General 20.2 102 Mobile/wireless technology, networks, development of applications Technology 23.7 120 Business applications, organizational impact, implications of mobile/wireless technology for businesses Business 43.7 221 Consumer applications, consumer behaviour, implications of mobile/wireless technology for consumers Consumer % N Characterization Category 100 506 Total 10.3 52 Impact 18.2 92 Development 34.0 172 Analysis 37.5 221 Adoption % N Category
The vast majority of studies presented a “broad” focus - mobile technologies as a whole
* Based on the purpose (goal, aim, objective) stated in each article
“ empirical research” - all research originating in or based on observation or experience, independently of whether the researcher gathered data through primary or secondary data collection
“ conceptual research” - papers based on intuition-based reasoning and academic literature reviews.
The proportion of primary data collection is now quite evenly spread among the distinct research focuses (Business, Consumer, Industry, Technology and General).
In 2004 it was predominantly found among business focused papers.
Overall there is an increasing proportion of articles based on primary data (e.g. 2003 - 40%; 2006 - 80%)
506(100) 205 (40.5) 301(59.5) Total 127(25.1) 127(25.1) - Conceptual 379 (74.9) 78 (15.4) 301(59.5) Empirical Secondary Primary Freq. (%) Freq. (%) Freq. (%) Nature of Research Total Data Collection
Results: Research Methods
An independence test between year of publication and research method revealed a significant relationship between these two variables.
In 2006 only 13% on the papers were based in literature reviews in comparison to 41% in 2003
Case studies usually were focused on specific applications (not organizations)
All articles were classified according to the method or approach stated in each article 100% 506 Total. 1.0% 5 Delphi 1.6% 8 Focus Group 1.6% 8 Field study 1.8% 9 Not Stated 4.7% 24 Interviews 8.9% 45 Experiment 15.6% 79 Simulation 18.6% 94 Survey 21.5% 109 Case study 24.7% 125 Literature review Percentage N Method
Most authors clearly highlighted the main contributions of their articles; however, in a number of cases (103), due to the lack of information given by the authors, this classification required a reviewer judgment.
A longitudinal analysis of the articles revealed a significant reduction in papers with future research directions as their main contribution.
Also in 2006, there was a significant reduction in the number of articles offering framworks.
100% 506 Total 0.9% 2 Construct 3.2% 16 Algorithm 9.1% 46 Future research 9.3% 47 Application 23.5% 119 Framework 24.1% 122 Model 30.4% 154 Insights Percentage N Contribution
“ Much of the mobile and ubiquitous IS literature is descriptive, dominated by intuition-based reasoning and conceptual analysis rather than empirical investigations”.
In 2004, this perception was quite accurate. However, if the trends identified in 2005-2006 continue, empirical investigation are becoming the bulk of the mobile and ubiquitous IS body of knowledge.
The mobile and ubiquitous IS literature is following a pattern of development similar to the one found in the e-business literature.
The research field is maturing and starting to develop a research tradition of its own.
Much of the literature published on major IS journals does not take in consideration previous research published in mobile and ubiquitous IS specialist outlets.
Our analysis suggests that mobile business researchers should begin to focus their efforts more more in undustanding mobility per se instead of only exploring the impacts of it.
Recommendations for Future Research
In particular, the following areas are promising candidates for a future mobile and ubiquitous IS research:
High Quality Empirical Research .
Although the extremely high level of secondary research studies identified in the body of research on mobile and ubiquitous IS in 2004 has decreased, more effort should be focused on high-quality research projects using first-hand, empirical data that lend themselves to the development of theory.
Theory Development and Redevelopment
Mobile business is unlikely to become fully recognized as a research area in its own right until is has a solid theoretical foundation.
Research should analyze to what extent IS theories developed under ‘stationary’ conditions are valid under ‘ubiquitous’ conditions.
While the impacts and use of mobile and ubiquitous IS have been well explored, there is still not a consensus on how to conceptualize and measure mobility in a functional and valid way.
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