PROJECT OVERVEIW Topic: Real-time Earthquake Tracking and Prediction Appropriate Grade Levels: 8th grade through 12th grade (in my case probably 9th or 10th grade)
The objectives of this lesson are for the students to: 1) work in collaborative groups and use the internet to examine current plate tectonic theory, 2) discuss the connections between plate tectonic boundaries and the locations of past and current earthquakes, 3) use the USGS (United States Geological Survey) website and others like it to identify and map locations of recent earthquakes over a two week period, and to 4) present in a report or multimedia presentation the evidence describing how earthquakes occur and why earthquakes frequently occur along fault lines.
This activity aligns beautifully with my year long curriculum and would occur at the end of the first quarter. The quarter (Chapters 1 – 8) consists of Earth’s Materials, Surface, Forces, and History. This lesson would be the beginning of the “Forces” chapter (Chapter 8.) Textbook: “Prentice Hall Earth Science” by Edward J. Tarbuck and Fredrick K. Lutgens. Pearson Publishing, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, copyright 2009
Standards: Core Learning GoalsEarth Science and Space Science This activity is fully aligned with the State Goals and Expectation Indicators for the Core Learning Goals in Earth Science and Space Science. Relevant sections are as follows: 2.4.2 The student will explain how the transfer of energy drives the rock cycle. - Destructive processes (weathering, erosion, subsidence, melting) - Constructive processes (lithification, deformation, metamorphism, volcanism, cooling/crystallization, deposition) - Landform change (surface & groundwater, coasts, glacial processes, desert processes) 2.4.3 The student will explain changes in Earth’s surface using plate tectonics. - Continental drift (rock/structure/climate/fossil evidence, jigsaw fit) - Sea floor spreading (age evidence, mantle circulation, outer core circulation/magnetic reversals, seismic activity, volcanism, mountain building, ocean ridges) - Theory of Plate Tectonics (crustal plate composition, mantle circulation, divergent/convergent/transform fault boundaries, subduction zones, trenches, island arcs, seismic activity, volcanism, mountain building)
Interstate New Teachers Assessment and Support Consortium(INTASC) Principles Principle 1:Making content meaningfulThis activity does a great job of making the content relevant and meaningful in a “real-world” fashion. Principle 2:Child development and learning theoryUnderstanding “how” children (the students) learn and develop and provide learning opportunities in activities just like this one. This is a perfect example of how to support their intellectual, social, and personal development through an academic (yet fun) activity. Principle 3:Learning styles/diversityIn this lesson, understanding how students differ in their approaches to learning creates instructional opportunities in the division of the class groups. Having the ability to choose groups is much like a jury selection. A great deal of thought goes into “who works with whom.” It is that action that fosters diverse learners. Principle 4:Instructional strategies/problem solvingIn this activity I would use a variety of instructional strategies, such as lecture, audio video, hands on (tactile), online, tracking mapping, graphing, writing, discussion, and more to encourage students’ development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills. Principle 5:Motivation and behaviorIn this activity I would use my skill in choosing the groups and presenting the initial material in a fashion that encourages both individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagements in learning, and self-motivation.
Interstate New Teachers Assessment and Support Consortium(INTASC) Principles Principle 6:Communication/knowledgeI will use my knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom throughout the activity (during the initial assigning, the two week recordation periods, and the final presentation preparations.) Principle 7: Planning for instructionI have definitely created this plan and these instructions based upon knowledge of subject matter, target student group, the target community, and Core Learning Goals. Principle 8:AssessmentI understand and would use both formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, and physical development of all of my students. Principle 9:Professional growth/reflectionI will attempt to become a reflective practitioner who continually evaluates the effects of my choices and actions on others (students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community) and I will actively seek out opportunities to grow professionally. Principle 10:Interpersonal relationshipsI look forward to fostering relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies within the larger community to support my students’ learning and well being.
Continued : “SCRIPT” For ISTC 501 Presentation I recently created a curriculum document for EDUC 731 on a variety of Earth Science topics. While working on that project, I came upon this activity, in various forms, quite a few times. Although I did not use it in my curriculum (for time sake,) I wanted to. So, it looks like I got to use it anyway. And (for those of you who looked) I actually put very similar USGS real-time data links on my social bookmarking page. I love this stuff! I liked this version the best for high school students. It was created by the folks at The Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education (CIESE.) The Center focuses on grade levels K – 12. This particular version of the activity was created for students from 8th through 12th grade (ages 11 - 18) and can be found in its entirety (and un-altered) at the following location: http://www.ciese.org/curriculum/musicalplates3/en/ PURPOSE: Earthquakes are a scientific and physical phenomenon that affect our lives in many ways. In this project, students use real time earthquake and volcano data from the Internet to explore the relationship between earthquakes, plate tectonics, and volcanoes. Students will: Use real time data to solve a problem. Study the correlation between earthquakes and tectonic plates. Determine whether or not there is a relationship between volcanoes and plate boundaries. This activity is an internet-based multidisciplinary project that will enrich the students learning experience through applications of instructional technology. In particular, this project taps into some of the exciting applications of the Internet in education by having students’ access real time earthquake data and mapping. This activity has four “Core Activities” that will teach students how to access and interpret real time earthquake and volcano data and to how use the information to solve a real world problem. Each of the core activities is designed to be used in a 45 minute class period. *NOTE: Students will need a small amount of class time (approximately 5 minutes) every day for two (2) weeks to record current earthquakes.
Continued : Introduction “LECTURE” Background Using real time images or data on the internet instead of information out of a textbook not only engages students, but also brings a “real world” connection into the classroom. In this project, remote sensors monitor seismic activity at various geographic locations throughout the world and then the collected data is posted to the internet for, among other things, students to use in projects just like this one.
Is it real-time? Real time data on the internet does not necessarily mean that the information is available the moment it is collected, but rather, that it is data or information that is updated on a regular basis and frequently changes.
When was the data last updated? Most sources of real time data will have a clock or time stamp that shows the time and date the data were last recorded. Frequently, the time is expressed in increments of 24 hours and as standardized universal time, such as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). If problems arise due to “time” notation, you may refer to the following sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Time and / or http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/%28Gh%29/guides/maps/utc/toutc.rxml
Lesson Plan: “LECTURE”(This would be for my “real” students) Overview: You will all receive an outline for this project with guidelines for what you are to do in this activity. You will ultimately present, to the class, what you have learned: demonstrating you understanding of the relationship between earthquakes and tectonic plates, in the form of a letter to the President.
Objectives (For the students to “understand”) : You will:
work in collaborative groups and use the internet to examine current plate tectonic theory
develop a hypothesis and a plan to test your hypothesis
record, plot, and graph data from a variety of real-time earthquake tracking sites for a time period of two (2) weeks
discuss the connections between plate tectonic boundaries and the locations of past and current earthquakes
Use clear, concise, and accurate language to clarify your observations and summarize your information
Present your information to others in a written, verbal, or multimedia format
The President Wants YOU! The President wants YOU! (Teacher’s copy) Read the story below: You are the lead scientist in the United States Geological Survey (USGS) investigating earthquakes. You are currently sunning yourself on the shores of a remote Pacific island and enjoying the last few days of your first vacation in five years. Just as you to drift off in a pleasant daydream, you are rudely awakened by your cell phone which is ringing loudly next to you on your beach towel. You pick up the phone and are surprised to hear the panicked voice of your secretary yelling that you must return as soon as possible. You are told that the earthquake project that you have been working on has been accelerated by the President of the United States and that you need to begin your analysis immediately! The President wants to know FOUR (4) things, in detail and backed up with facts:
Where the most recent earthquakes are occurring and if they are more likely to occur in certain locations than others.
Whether or not there is any way to determine what parts of the world are most prone to them.
If there is a relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes.
If at all possible, the President would also like to know what is causing the earthquakes.
The President Wants YOU!(continued) The President wants you to write a one page report with answers to these questions by the end of three weeks time,or he will cut all of your funding! Realizing that your vacation has come to an end, you jump up and quickly return to your beautiful ocean retreat. Your first instinct is to return to your office on the next plane leaving the island, but, when you call the airline, you find out that the next plane isn't due to leave for another three days. At first you think all is lost; then you remember that you have your laptop, cell phone and wireless 3G modem with you! With these tools you can login and begin your investigation right from your beach side residence!
What are your ideas? Now that you know what the President wants, it would be advisable to start out with a plan or an idea before you begin your investigation. Therefore, you should develop a hypothesis for each of the questions that the president wants to know. You can compare these to your final conclusions after you complete the project.
How are you going to test your ideas?
BACK-UP INFORMATION(For me as the teacher) When using any form of technology, especially the internet, it is essential to have a back-up plan in case your technology fails on the day you plan to use it in class. Below are ways to insure that students continue to work on this project in the event of an internet connection problem. Alternative web sites: I can use the following alternative web sites if the primary ones are not working.
http://www.iris.edu Note: click on "EVENT MAPS"
Recent Volcanic Eruptions
Student Activities: Exercise One (1) Materials: Each group will need a small world map to plot the earthquakes. Students may located their own maps at one of many internet websites.
For example: National Geographic Xpeditions web site: Large World Map (.pdf format) Large World Map (.gif format) Instructions: Click on one of the web sites listed below to see all of the earthquakes that have occurred over the last few days which were larger than 2.5 on the Richter Scale. Note that in the first two columns you will see the time and date for each earthquake. Note that in the second two columns you will see the latitude and longitude coordinates for the epicenter of the earthquake. TEXT-BASED (Recommend) USGS Earthquake Bulletin ()NOTE: Magnitude Greater Than 2.5 Earthquakes From Around the World IRIS List of Earthquakes (last 30 days)NOTE: a latitude of + corresponds to degrees North and a latitude of - corresponds to degrees Southa longitude of + corresponds to degrees East and a longitude of - corresponds to degrees West INTERACTIVE MAPS USGS Recent earthquakes with tectonic plate boundaries (last 7 days) Recent earthquakes (last 7 days) IRIS Seismic Monitor Use the latitude and longitude coordinates to plot a dot on your world map which represents the epicenter of the earthquake.
Materials: You will need- The world map on which you have previously plotted the earthquakes Tectonic plate map: plates.pdf Plate boundary maps: Plate boundary map NOTE: This activity should be recorded on your “Activity 2” Worksheet Instructions: At the end of the two week period, study the map that you have produced displaying the recent earthquake events. See if you can answer these questions: Do the earthquakes appear to occur all over the earth's surface or only in isolated regions? Is there a recognizable pattern to where earthquakes seem to occur? If such a pattern does exist, could you use it to determine where high risk earthquakes zones are located? Name several high risk zones that the President might want to know about. Now, compare your world map from Activity 1 which has the earthquakes plotted on it to this tectonic plate map: plates.pdf - 114 KB (back-up) as in the photos to the right. See if you can answer these questions: Do you see any relationship between the map you created and the map above showing tectonic plates? Do you think that there might be a correlation between tectonic plates and earthquakes? What do you think this correlation is? What do you think is happening in the places where two plates are touching each other? When two plates rub against each what might the results be? Why? How might this relate to earthquakes?
Student Activities: Exercise Three (3) Materials: GPS Time Series Global Velocities Map Activity 3 worksheet Instructions:Record your answers in your on the printable worksheet. Locate the station HILO in Hawaii on the GPS Time Series Global Velocities Map. Use the scaling arrow at the bottom of the left-side of Global Velocities map to determine the speed at which station HILO is moving ("5 cm/yr --->"). See if you can answer these questions: How fast is it moving in one year? How far will it move in 10 years? 100 years? 1,000 years? 100,000 years? a million years? Determine the plate on which station HILO is located. What plates are touching it? Use the "direction arrow" for station HILO to determine the direction that that station will move in. Assuming that station HILO remains moving in that direction, use the scale on your map to determine where station HILO will be in for each of the time periods above. Do the same activity for station AUCK in Auckland, New Zealand. See if you can answer these questions: How would the movement of either station affect the climate that plants and animals located on the land mass would experience? How might this change in climate affect the habitat on the land mass? How might this habitat affect the animals? What animals living in the region might become extinct and which might be able to survive?
Student Activities: Exercise Four (4) Materials: World map that you have previously plotted the earthquakes Internet access Activity 4 printable worksheet to record your answers Instructions: Take out the world map that on which you previously plotted the earthquakes. Look at recent volcanic activity and add the locations of at least 5 active volcanoes to your map. Weekly Volcanic Activity Report Current Eruptions from Volcano World Earth's Active Volcanoes from Michigan Tech From your map, can you determine whether or not volcanoes have anything to do with the plate boundaries? Do earthquakes and volcanoes often appear in the same locations? Support your answer with an example from the map (ex. the XYZ volcano is located ....).
Letter to the President Instructions: NOTE: Record your answers in a computer document. Print out a hard copy for me.
Now is the time to complete your mission and write a Letter to the President. If you need to reread your mission assigned by the president, I have extra copies available. You may also find it helpful to compare your answers to the hypotheses that you previously wrote either in your This activity journal / notebook or on the student worksheet for the preliminary activity. Your letter should include: Where the most recent earthquakes are occurring and if they are more likely to occur in certain locations. Whether or not there is any way to determine what parts of the world are most prone to them. If there is there is a relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes. What is causing the earthquakes.
Student Worksheet Student Name ______________________________________ Date ______________ Student Preliminary Activity Worksheet: The President Wants YOU! Instructions: Record your answers in on this worksheet: The President wants YOU Read the story below: You are the lead scientist in the United States Geological Survey (USGS) investigating earthquakes. You are currently sunning yourself on the shores of a remote Pacific island and enjoying the last few days of your first vacation in five years. Just as you to drift off in a pleasant daydream, you are rudely awakened by your cellular phone which is ringing loudly next to you on your beach towel. You pick up the phone and are shocked to hear the frantic voice of your secretary, Ken, yelling that you must return as soon as possible. He explains that the earthquake project that you have been working on has been accelerated by the President of the United States and that you need to begin your analysis immediately. The President wants to know: Where the most recent earthquakes are occurring and if they are more likely to occur in certain locations. Whether or not there is any way to determine what parts of the world are most prone to them. If there is there is a relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes. If at all possible, the President would also like to know what is causing the earthquakes. Unfortunately for you and your research team, the President would like for you to write a one page report with answers to these questions by the end of three weeks or he will cut all of your funding! Realizing that your vacation has come to an end, you jump up and quickly return to your ocean side hut. Your first instinct is to return to your office on the next plane leaving the island, but, when you call the airline, you find out that the next plane isn't due to leave for another three days. At first you think all is lost; then you remember that you have your laptop, cellular phone and modem with you! With these tools you can dial up and begin your investigation from your beach side residence.
Student Worksheet (continued) What are your ideas?Now that you know what the president wants, it is always good to start out with an idea before you begin your investigation. Therefore, you should develop a hypothesis for each of the following questions that the president would like to know. You can compare these to your final conclusions after you complete this project. 1. Where are the most recent earthquakes occurring and are they more likely to occur in certain locations? 2. Is there any way to determine what parts of the world are most prone to earthquakes? 3. Is there a relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes? 4. What is causing earthquakes?
How are you going to test your ideas?Use the space below to brainstorm some ideas how you might test out your hypotheses.
Summary and Assessment Assignment Summary This assignment utilizestechnology (real time earthquake tracking data from the USGS website) to track, map, and predict earthquakes over a two (2) week period. The students should have been able to see trends and make predictions based on what they noted. Those trends and predictions should have confirmed or refuted the students’ original hypothesis’. It is my hope that this assignment has done what it was supposed to do. I hope that my students LEARNED and had fun doing it. I hope that it is an experience that they will remember and, therefore, “remember” what they learned.
ASSESSMENT There are multiple times that assessments will be performed during this activity. In fact, the assessment is a constant activity. There will be both informal and formal assessment.
Is part of the teaching process and will, therefore, occur in a variety of fashions. These are assessments built into the classroom experience itself. Formative assessments will take place in the form student journals and constant teacher assessment occurring in the class room through observation.
Observation does not simply mean walking around the classroom, it means asking probing questions during discussions (directed at the specific goals and criteria for this particular lesson plan) and assisting the students learning by informing and instructing in “real-time.” There will also be some degree of student self-assessment and peer interaction assessment during class periods. Summative Assessment:
Includes any state assessments, or required district benchmarks (which do not apply in this case.) Since I do not have state assessments, summative assessment will come primarily from the End of Unit tests, End of Term tests, and in this activity the student’s worksheets and final presentation.