Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Wet services water
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Wet services water

1,092

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,092
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Wet servicesWater supply and drainage
  • 2. Fundamental source of modern standards of public health• Water supply: – Public mains – Private boreholes – Private reservoirs• Drainage: – Domestic drainage – Public sewerage and waste treatment – Private sewage treatment
  • 3. Sources of water • Public supply: – Large reservoirs at high level – Direct extraction from rivers – Direct extraction from aquifers via boreholes • Private supplies – Boreholes/wells for drinking water – Private reservoirs for irrigation water Reservoir/lake Borehole/well RiverAquifer
  • 4. Water distribution• Water moved from source to outlet by gravity when ever possible.• Water moved from primary source to local reservoir/water tower storage for local distribution• Water treated by filtration, aeration and chlorination. Fluoridation controversial, but proved to aid tooth health.
  • 5. Local water distribution • Groups of buildings supplied from a local reservoir or water tower • Pipes under ground for mechanical and frost protection • Pipes laid in a grid linked to more than one supply to aid continuity of supply Local tower Local reservoirMain supply
  • 6. Water supply information• Water supply pipes are now made of high density polythene and are buried at least 0.75m below ground for protection• Older pipe work is steel, iron and lead. Its replacement is a major industrial cost• Up to 25% of water is lost through supply pipe leakage
  • 7. Hard and soft water• Water from areas of limestone or chalk are likely to be “hard”• Water from areas of granite or sandstones are likely to be “soft”• Hard water contains calcium salts. These are if anything beneficial to health, but they can • Water softeners replace precipitate out, causing calcium salts with sodium “furring” of pipe work salts. with lime scale • Sodium salts do not• Calcium salts also precipitate but can be a interfere with the action health problem for people of soaps with high blood pressure • Softened water should not be used for drinking water. • Naturally soft water is perfectly safe
  • 8. Domestic water supply 1: entry of water supply
  • 9. Domestic water supply 2: rising cold water mainOverflow to Cold water storagenoticeable tank. Float valve stopslocation over filling “Rising main” inside the building for frost protection Position of water softener (if fitted) Direct feed to Water kitchen for company drinking stop tap
  • 10. Internal water pipework• Internal water supply pipes generally made of copper – Corrosion resistance – Ease of jointing• Pipes and fittings like taps can be joined by – screw compression fittings, strong but expensive – Soldered fittings, much quicker and quite adequate if well made
  • 11. Compression joints and soldered joints
  • 12. Domestic water supply 3: cold water distribution Stored cold water supply pipe Feeds to upstairs sanitary unitsFeed to Feeds tobottom of hot downstairswater storage sanitary units,tank but not to kitchen sink
  • 13. Domestic water supply 3: cold water distributionCold tank is kepton warm side ofroof insulation Stored cold water supply pipe Feeds to upstairs sanitary units Feed to Feeds to bottom of hot downstairs water storage sanitary units, tank but not to kitchen sink
  • 14. Hot water distribution Safety expansionHot water out at pipe rises abovethe top of the hot tankwater tank Hot water to Cold water in at first floor the bottom of the hot water tank Hot water to ground floor
  • 15. Hot water distribution Safety expansionHot water out at pipe rises abovethe top of the hot tankwater tank Hot water to Cold water in at first floor the bottom of the hot water tank Hot water boiler Hot water heating tank water to ground indirectly. Should floor be fitted with safety expansion valve
  • 16. Hot water, cold water and central heatingSafety expansion Header tank topipes keep heating system full of water Pumps to force heating water around the system Rotary valve directs water from boiler to radiators
  • 17. Final points on water supply• All fittings should have their own isolation valves so they can be removed without draining the system• All pipework should be ventilated to a high point for safety• There must be a drain point at all low points in the system• All pipework must be protected from freezing

×