Elements of the rural landscape 1:   Movement across the land  Tracks, roads, canals, railways
Elements of the rural landscape• Elements of the  landscape: the things it  is built up from and  which give it its  parti...
Transport as an element of the rural landscape
The presence of transport routes• Neolithic technology required  the use of high quality flint,  which can be traced to it...
Pre-historic transport routesA reconstruction of the   The Ridgeway over theSweet Track in the        Marlborough Downs,So...
Roman roadsThe Fosseway today
Packhorse tracks• Few routes could be  covered by wheeled  vehicles in the middle  ages. Most goods, even  fresh foods, we...
Livestock to market• The major Markets for  meat were London and  the south coast ports, to  supply the Navy with  salt be...
Drove roads in ScotlandImage sourcehttp://sites.scran.ac.uk/kestrel3d
Drove roads• Drove roads were  continuous meadows,  fenced to keep cattle  out of farm land.• The roads were very  wide an...
Not just in GB• Drove roads in  Spain used to  move between  summer and winter  pasture                      • Fenced road...
Canals-the first alternative to roadsCurrent navigable canals   All canals and navigable rivers
Impact of canals on the landscape• Canals create  unbroken lines  through the landscape  – Water  – Boat transport  – Pede...
Railways-the end of commercial waterways?• Railways brought speed, almost  unlimited carrying capacity and  access to diff...
Impact of railways on the rural landscape• Railways in themselves have relatively little  physical impact on the landscape...
Return of he road                       AustriaCroatia   England
Harnhill, 1995 and 2002: more and more roads1995                2002
Eysey Manor, 1995 and 2002, roads and gravel extraction1995                          2002
Airports + cheap flights-the next pressure on the landscape• The countryside is  the only place with  enough room for  air...
Supporting referencesRackham O. 1997 The Illustrated History of the Countryside Phoenix• Chapters:   – HighwaysHindle P. 2...
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Transport networks in the rural landscape

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Transport networks in the rural landscape

  1. 1. Elements of the rural landscape 1: Movement across the land Tracks, roads, canals, railways
  2. 2. Elements of the rural landscape• Elements of the landscape: the things it is built up from and which give it its particular character• Some of the elements are continuous, such as soils, relief, land cover• Other elements are discrete, such as roads, buildings, field boundaries.• The variations in elements can exercise enormous influence on the character of the landscape
  3. 3. Transport as an element of the rural landscape
  4. 4. The presence of transport routes• Neolithic technology required the use of high quality flint, which can be traced to its source.• Flint tools from the Lake District and East Anglia have been found all over the country, so there must have been a transport system to move them over. Almost certainly on foot.• Before rivers were managed and land drained, huge areas of marsh required built wooden “roads” to give access to farmland and places of security. Somerset Levels have revealed several such walkways
  5. 5. Pre-historic transport routesA reconstruction of the The Ridgeway over theSweet Track in the Marlborough Downs,Somerset Levels, age impossible toapprox 3,600 BC establish
  6. 6. Roman roadsThe Fosseway today
  7. 7. Packhorse tracks• Few routes could be covered by wheeled vehicles in the middle ages. Most goods, even fresh foods, were transported by Pack horse• Packhorse tracks are narrow, as direct as possible, and often worn deep into the landscape through centuries of use.
  8. 8. Livestock to market• The major Markets for meat were London and the south coast ports, to supply the Navy with salt beef and pork.• The main fat stock production regions were Wales and Scotland.• How were the cattle transported to market?• They walked. (Even geese and ducks walked)
  9. 9. Drove roads in ScotlandImage sourcehttp://sites.scran.ac.uk/kestrel3d
  10. 10. Drove roads• Drove roads were continuous meadows, fenced to keep cattle out of farm land.• The roads were very wide and provided grazing.• Towns along the routes provided secure village greens were stock rested• If the pub is called the Drovers arms, it is on a drove road
  11. 11. Not just in GB• Drove roads in Spain used to move between summer and winter pasture • Fenced roads in Nicaragua, where the cattle graze, but are kept off the farmland
  12. 12. Canals-the first alternative to roadsCurrent navigable canals All canals and navigable rivers
  13. 13. Impact of canals on the landscape• Canals create unbroken lines through the landscape – Water – Boat transport – Pedestrian access – Vegetation – Wildlife• Enormous potential for livelihood generation within the countryside.
  14. 14. Railways-the end of commercial waterways?• Railways brought speed, almost unlimited carrying capacity and access to difficult terrain• The routes are incompatible with recreation but good for wildlife.• Railways killed off drove roads for moving livestock and effectively killed off narrow canals• Railways killed off local vernacular architecture. All building materials now available everywhere
  15. 15. Impact of railways on the rural landscape• Railways in themselves have relatively little physical impact on the landscape, but they brought people into the countryside.• “Metroland”, the suburbia surrounding the big cities, grew into the countryside along the routes of the new 19th and 20th century rail network• Any transport system which brings rapid, cheap travel will bring pressure on areas which were once considered remote and inaccessible.
  16. 16. Return of he road AustriaCroatia England
  17. 17. Harnhill, 1995 and 2002: more and more roads1995 2002
  18. 18. Eysey Manor, 1995 and 2002, roads and gravel extraction1995 2002
  19. 19. Airports + cheap flights-the next pressure on the landscape• The countryside is the only place with enough room for airports• Current pressures in Cheshire (Manchester) and Essex (Stansted) with possible major development in Thames Estuary• Cheap flights are now available to Cornwall from London: £30 and 30 minutes and you are in the Southwest.
  20. 20. Supporting referencesRackham O. 1997 The Illustrated History of the Countryside Phoenix• Chapters: – HighwaysHindle P. 2001 Roads & Tracks for Historians Phillimore

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