Servicing large buildings for slideshare

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Servicing large buildings for slideshare

  1. 1. Services for large buildingsIncrease in size requires new solutions
  2. 2. Big buildings need big ideas• Holes in the wall can ventilate small buildings
  3. 3. Big buildings need big ideas• Holes in the wall can ventilate small buildings• Holes in the walls can’t ventilate deep buildings
  4. 4. Big buildings need big ideas• Holes in the wall can ventilate small buildings• Holes in the walls can’t ventilate deep buildings• Ducted mechanical ventilation needed
  5. 5. Ventilating deep buildings• Mechanical air handling needed to reach the interior• Large ducting needed to move air around in large volumes at low speed• Increased building volume needed to accommodate the large ducting• Servicing costs both directly (air handling systems) and indirectly (increased building size to house mechanical plant) raise the basic costs of large buildings.
  6. 6. Water supply in tall buildingsWater to short buildingsdelivered by gravity, noproblems
  7. 7. Water supply in tall buildingsWater to short buildingsdelivered by gravity, noproblems
  8. 8. Water supply in tall buildingsWater to short buildingsdelivered by gravity, noproblems pump
  9. 9. Water supply in tall buildingsWater to short buildingsdelivered by gravity, noproblems pump
  10. 10. Water supply in tall buildings Pressure release valves now neededWater to short buildingsdelivered by gravity, noproblems pump
  11. 11. Water to tall buildings• Just scaling up a small system doesn’t work• Pumping needed• Only stored water can be used, so health problems• Pressure in pipe work can be immense at lowest levels• Then you need hot water too…
  12. 12. Heating tall buildingsBoiler plant
  13. 13. Heating tall buildingsPressure low attop, water too coldPressure enormous atbase, water too hotBoiler plant
  14. 14. Heating tall buildingsPressure low attop, water too coldPressure enormous atbase, water too hotBoiler plant
  15. 15. High temperature fluids transport heat more efficiently. Circulating, very high temp steam Boiler plant- generating high temp, high pressure steam
  16. 16. High temperature fluids transport heat more efficiently. Circulating, very high temp steam Heat exchangers on each floor (calorifiers) Use steam to heat low pressure water locally Boiler plant- generating high temp, high pressure steam
  17. 17. High temperature fluids transport heat more efficiently. Protecting enclosure needed, steam is dangerous Circulating, very high temp steam Heat exchangers on each floor (calorifiers) Use steam to heat low pressure water locally Boiler plant- generating high temp, high pressure steam
  18. 18. Heating tall buildings• Again, scaling up small plant doesn’t work• High temperature steam needed• Local calorifiers and heating controls needed, probably on each floor• Safety is endangered, so protected enclosures and warning systems needed• Heating tall buildings is expensive.
  19. 19. Air-conditioning tall buildingsIndividual, local a/c unitscan be used. This ismadness, messy,environmentally disastrous,noisy and uses up all theavailable wall space.
  20. 20. Centralised a/cCooling plant, usuallyon top floor, vents heat,creates and circulatesvery cold water
  21. 21. Centralised a/cCooling plant, usuallyon top floor, vents heat,creates and circulatesvery cold waterLocal air intake, aircooled by cold waterORDucted conditioned airfrom air conditioningplants every 10 floors orso
  22. 22. And there’s more• What about electricity? – 240V AC will not provide enough power for a large building, it’s only enough for a single house. – 3 phase power supply is needed, which is far more dangerous – Protective enclosures needed for the high tension supplies, which are tapped for a 240 V supply at each floor
  23. 23. Electricity supply for tall buildingsHigh tension barecopper conductors,“Bus bars” run up aprotected serviceshaft. Provide “3phase” supply Each floor taps off a single phase, 240V supply from one live bus bar and the neutral bar
  24. 24. Where’s the floor space gone?• Services for multi- storied buildings devour floor space.• We haven’t even put the lifts and stairs in yet
  25. 25. Hang the services on the outside?• Pompidou Centre, Paris• HSBC HQ, Hong Kong
  26. 26. Stick them on top?• “Chippendale Building” New York• Seagram building, New York Service Office tower floor Plan view
  27. 27. What about lifts?• Multi-storey buildings have lots and lots of people in them• One lift for 1,000 people on 100 floors is not going to work very well…
  28. 28. Double Decker lifts• Simple solution which halves the problem• Each floor of the lift serves alternate floors in the building• Escalator needed to the second lowest level• Problems arise with disabled access.• Building must have an even number of floors and all floor heights identical…
  29. 29. Double Decker lifts• Simple solution which halves the problem• Each floor of the lift serves alternate floors in the building• Escalator needed to the second lowest level• Problems arise with disabled access.• Building must have an even number of floors and all floor heights identical…
  30. 30. Multiple lifts• Several lift shafts will help, but they take up an enormous amount of floor space• The ground floor of a modern skyscrapers may have 25-33% of its ground floor area devoted to lifts and lobbies.
  31. 31. Multi-level lift grouping High speed lifts just between lobbies Sky lobby Zoned lifts served by lobbies Sky lobby In some large buildings there may be several lifts in a lift shaft, one above the other.Ground lobby
  32. 32. Sky lobby, Central Plaza building Hong Kong• Sky lobbies often used for café’s gardens, a/c equipment, anything to make people forget that they are having to change lifts, whether they want to or not
  33. 33. Burj Dubai: tallest building in the world
  34. 34. Summary• Servicing tall and large buildings is highly complex, inevitably expensive and in some cases dangerous.• Qualified services/mechanical engineer needs to be part of the design team• Do not scale up small service installations to meet the needs of large buildings, it doesn’t work• Article about use of a sky lobby in Austria http://www.architectureweek.com/2002/0130/environment_1-1.html

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