Landscape management and GIS Basic spatial analysis techniques for landscape management
Landscape: what is it?• Part of this module looked at both rural and urban landscapes and what they are – The environment we exist in – A resource for exploitation – An amenity for recreation• We are dependent on this environment and cannot escape from it, so we must manage it well
The rural landscape: an environment to be protected or exploited?
Urban landscape, the home and work place of most of us
Why manage the landscape?• If we do not control our exploitation, we destroy the resource• The landscape is our fundamental natural resource• Exploitation is not evil• The ideal is sustainable exploitation, but the reality of sustainability will be explored over the next two years of your course…
Exploiting the resources of the rural landscape Food production, water harvesting and power productionTimber Minerals
Landscape as an amenity• We use the landscape for recreation and relaxation• This is both an emotional/spiritual need and a multi-million pound industry• The landscape has both emotional and amenity value as well as monetary value
Using the landscape for recreationCanoeing and camping-France Vineyards and hotels-France Adventure tourism centre- Malaysia Farm tourism-Malaysia
Management: what is it?• “To bend to one’s will”; “To administer”; “To control”• To prepare for the future by your present actions.• Management is based on the belief that: – There will be a future of some sort – Some potential futures are preferable to others – Good management aims to encourage the achievement of a preferable future.
GIS as a tool for landscape management• Geographical information systems (GIS) are tools (amongst others) which we can use to achieve our desired outcomes• When managing the landscape we have a constant need for maps (or models) showing what we have now, what we would like to have in the future and the consequences of any actions we carry out• GIS allows us to produce, store, display and analyse this type of information quickly and accurately.
GIS to study historical change in the landscape• Elements of the contemporary landscape can be surveyed and mapped• Historic landscapes can be digitised from old records, maps and documents• Pre-historic landscapes can be mapped from archaeological survey and interpretation of soils, pollen, geology.• GIS can combine and compare all of these
Historical maps as sources of spatial data• Historical maps can be digitised as raster “background” images or as full vector maps• Once digitised they can be combined with modern maps to measure change and development “wilderness” map, USA, 1867
Historical GIS case study All towns “hurst”• History buried un names: – Mapping towns based on their names can show historical distribution of immigrants or land use. “by” – Towns ending in –by are Danish settlements. Their distribution shows extent of Danish occupation in 12th century
Historical distribution of surnames as a measure of mobilitySwindell in 1881 Swindell in 1998 http://www.nationaltrustnames.org.uk/default.aspx
GIS data collection: seismic studiesManaging a dangerous landscape,recording the changes in shape ofan active volcano.The data collected will be visualisedin GIS and areas of changeautomatically highlighted.
GIS data modelling: soil nutrientsModels built to show the distributionof soil nutrients, using isolated soilsamples as the data input and GISinterpolation to show the variationover the whole field.
GIS proximity analysis: Choosing development sites
Two basic types of proximity analysis• Overlay analysis – By overlaying different data layers, spatial coincidence can be studied• Neighbourhood analysis – What things happen within a certain distance of each other• These two techniques were explored in the a GIS workshop
Conclusions• Landscape management is a common, fundamental professional activity• Management is just decision making and implementation• Decisions can only be reliable if based on good information• Most landscape management is spatially influenced• GIS is designed to work with spatial information and so is a core tool for all professionals working with the landscape.