Juhm farming in nagaland1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Juhm farming in nagaland1






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



2 Embeds 136

http://gateway.rac.ac.uk 125
https://gateway.rau.ac.uk 11



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Juhm farming in nagaland1 Juhm farming in nagaland1 Presentation Transcript

  • Juhm Farming in Nagaland Sustainable slash and burn agriculture in North East India All photos © Julian Swindell
  • Nagaland, NE Indian state
  • Kohima, Capital of Nagaland
  • Kohima War Cemetery
  • Nagaland is intensely tribal
  • Quite tough tribes…
  • Angouli, from the Angami tribe
  • Hekani, from the Suomi tribe (with a “European”)
  • Kohnoma, home village of the Angami
  • Angouli at the very edge ofthe British Empire
  • All firewood is moved on footin back baskets
  • Traditional clothing is based on warm, woollenshawls, woven on back-strap looms
  • The valley is intensively cultivated in terraces
  • Smaller “market garden” terraces run up to the village itself
  • Villagers can be in the fields in minutes
  • Potatoes, corn, beans and over 20 varieties of rice
  • There are no written histories and all constructions are saidto be “about one hundred years old. They are clearly ancient.
  • Flooded terraces are used for rice at low level andfish farming at higher levels
  • Crops are planted and managed by hand and rotated
  • Towards the top of the terracing, things start tolook different. Notice all the trees
  • Juhm shifting farming, based on Nepalese alder trees
  • The trees are pollarded, traditionally on an eight yearRotation. Branches are used for firewood and building
  • The trees are not cut down. After each pollarding, waste woodis burnt and ash spread around trees, and crops planted.
  • These trees show about one year’s growth, and the land aroundis still being cropped.
  • After two years of cropping, the land and trees areleft to regenerate for another six years.
  • After four years it looks like completely abandonedfarm land, but it is actually under a careful management system
  • The Angami valley is unique in Nagaland. In all other tribes, nearlyall of the trees have been cleared and the land farmed conventionally
  • The Juhm system extends beyond the terraces, upthe open valley sides
  • Farming on the hillsides is not as easy or asproductive as in the terraces.
  • Where undergrowth is cleared on hillsides, steps aretaken to stop open soil erosion.
  • Livestock, semi-wild cattle, are confined to the hillsides above thearable fields. They are brought into the village for slaughter. Everyhousehold also has a pig. Nagas eat anything that moves…
  • Kohima market is not for the faint hearted, (such as me)These eels come from the terraced fields. I didn’t ask where thewriggly black things with a million little legs came from
  • But do go to Nagaland, it is wonderful and welcoming. But note,If two of you want to go together, you do have to be married!