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Floors slideshare

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  • 1. FloorsStructure and finish
  • 2. Floors: the basics• Two fundamental types: – Ground floors, which form part of the external enclosure – Upper floors, which subdivide the internal space• The ground floor can either be “floating” (supported by the ground) or “suspended”, supported by the walls at the edges.• Upper floors are always suspended
  • 3. Floor supportSuspended upperfloor: held up bywallsFloating groundfloor, resting onthe sub-soil
  • 4. Floor supportSuspended upperfloor: held up bywallsFloating groundfloor, resting onthe sub-soil
  • 5. Floating ground floor• Several functions: – Level, smooth structural surface to support furniture etc. – Damp exclusion – Insulation from the exterior• Most common type of floating floor is a multilayered insitu-concrete floor. Often referred to as a “solid floor”
  • 6. Relationship of floor to wall Top 50mm of fill isFill: topsoil and loose sand blinded to formsubsoil removed and smooth surfacereplaced withcompacted hardcore(broken stone orbrick) Floor Min 150mm Fill Ground
  • 7. Views of floor preparationReady for hardcore Sand blinding
  • 8. Water exclusion: damp proof membrane DPMEssential link betweenDPM and DPC Damp proof membrane: usually plastic sheeting. Seams sealed or very well overlapped
  • 9. The concrete slab itself, poured insituSlab 100-150 mm thick, poured inone go. Allowed to cure, keptdamp Floor Fill
  • 10. Smooth surface finish• Insitu concrete very rough• Smooth finish often achieved with 50mm sand/cement screed• Screed is applied when concrete is set but not fully cured• Surface is trowelled smooth.
  • 11. Floor layers Decorative finish: carpet, tile wood, etc 50mm smooth screed 100mm insitu concrete Damp proof membrane 50mm sand blinding Compacted hardcore, maximum depthHow to insulate? 600mm
  • 12. Insulate above slab Decorative finish: carpet, tile wood, etc 15mm chipboard layer 75mm expanded polystyrene 100mm insitu concreteDon’t use above slab insulation with below floor heating…
  • 13. Insulate below slab Decorative finish: carpet, tile wood, etc 50mm smooth screed 100mm insitu concrete DPM can be above or below insulation 75mm closed cell, high density, expanded polystyreneVery effective with below floor heating
  • 14. Suspended ground floor• If fill needs to be more than 600mm• If high speed construction is needed Beam and block: Beams are pre-cast, reinforced concrete,• Precast laid on the dpc and built into concrete walls at ends. suspended Finished with insulation and floors can be chipboard used.
  • 15. Expanded polystyrene block and beam floor Proprietary “Jetfloor” Polystyrene “blocks”supported by beams and topped with a reinforced screed
  • 16. Upper floors• Always suspended• Nearly always built of timber like a flat roof – Joists (multiple parallel beams) – Floor boards on top (usually sheets materials like plywood or chipboard) – Ceiling below (usually plasterboard)• No need for thermal insulation, but may incorporate sound insulation
  • 17. Timber suspended upper floorGalvanised steel joist hanger
  • 18. Timber suspended upper floor Softwood joists @ 600 centresGalvanised steel joist hanger
  • 19. Timber suspended upper floor Chipboard flooring. (Plywood in wet areas) Softwood joists @ 600 centresGalvanised steel joist hanger
  • 20. Timber suspended upper floor Chipboard flooring. (Plywood in wet areas) Softwood joists @ 600 centres Plasterboard ceilingGalvanised steel joist hanger
  • 21. Joist detailing 1 Joists braced at 2.5m centres by strutting Joists overlapping over supporting internal wallJoists supported byjoist hangers to amajor structural beam
  • 22. Joist detailing 2 Here the joists are resting directly on supporting walls and are braced with solid blocking piecesWaferboard flooring being laid
  • 23. Forming openingsTrimmer Doubled joist Large opening essential for the staircase
  • 24. Plasterboard ceiling Plasterboard: gypsum plaster between layers of strong paper Boards nailed to joists Nail heads plastered overJoints between boards filled with thinstrip of wet plaster Whole ceiling will be given a 3mm skim coat of finishing plaster
  • 25. References• CHUDLEY, R. ; GREENO, R. (2005). Construction technology. 4th ed. Pearson Education. CHUDLEY, R. ; GREENO, R. (2006). Building construction handbook. 6th ed. Butterworth- Heinemann.