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Cherished landscapes
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Cherished landscapes






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Cherished landscapes Cherished landscapes Presentation Transcript

  • Cherished landscape and Landscape protection Why do people value landscapes? How do we protect what we cherish?
  • Cherishing the land Why are some landscapes felt to be special?
  • The different natures of personal experience • People both react to and interact with their environment. These reactions and interactions take many forms; physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual. • • • • • • Exploitative Recreational Aesthetic Spiritual Rebellious Protective
  • Exploitation • There is a natural need to satisfy our immediate requirements – When we are hungry, we want food, we don’t think too hard about where it came from. – When we are cold, we want shelter and heat, and the consequences of exhausting resources are a low priority. • Human beings in their fundamental nature are exploitative. This is how they survive. • The challenge is how to make this exploitation sustainable.
  • Case study: How the first Europeans reacted to the Redwood forests • The largest living things on Earth, ever • Nearly the oldest, some are only 2,000 years old • Awe inspiring, beautiful, humbling • Or just 1,000 cubic meters of prime lumber at $100/m3
  • Forestry in British Columbia • Virgin forest clearance still underway in most countries • Forests are replanted, but you cannot regain 2,000 years of land evolution in a human life span
  • Response to landscape exploitation • Yosemite National Park in the USA set up in 1890, as the first national park in the world, specifically to stop the uncontrolled exploitation of the timber resources. • The trees were deemed to have a human value beyond their monetary worth. – This is an unmeasurable value – Many arguments in landscape management are based on differing values, and you will have to develop and defend your own.
  • Protected parks for human recreation or natural sanctuary? Periyar Wildlife sanctuary, India People aren’t allowed in at all Yosemite National Park, USA Heavily exploited for recreation
  • Landscape as a recreational resource • Is recreation just playing games? • Stopping, rebuilding and starting afresh? • Why do we go somewhere else for recreation? – A change of place leads to a change of pace? • Is the movement of people from urban population centres to rural recreational locations “sustainable”
  • Impact of urban recreation on the rural landscape • Some people seek rural solitude for personal recreation • What happens if everybody seeks it?
  • What is the aesthetic reaction to the landscape? • Personal interpretation • Spiritual interaction • Just observation and recording
  • Personal Interpretation • An artist's interpretation of a landscape often tells more about the artist than about the landscape • Complex, imaginary landscapes are more self portraits than topographic images
  • Immersion, the landscape becomes the art itself
  • Observation and recording There is a desire to record the view of the landscape to possess it
  • Sacred spiritual landscapes Croagh Patrick: Ireland Uluru: Australia Mount Kailas: Tibet
  • How can we protect the landscape? Statutory and voluntary bodies which aim to protect cherished landscapes
  • Exploitation vs. protection • We have to exploit the landscape – We need food, water, energy and building land, and that is where it comes from • How we exploit it and the timescales we plan for are the questions YOU must address – There are no simple answers – Once something is gone, it is soon forgotten – Once it is forgotten, it will never be retrieved • How can we protect our landscapes? • Should we protect them? • Legal protection…
  • Government protection • Natural England http://www.natural england.gov.uk • Scottish Natural Heritage http://www.snh.gov.uk • Natural Resources Wales http://naturalresourceswales.gov.uk • Northern Ireland Environment Agency http://www.doeni.gov.uk/niea/ • National Parks of England, Scotland and Wales http://www.nationalparks.gov.uk
  • National Parks in Great Britain • Established by law • Run by National Park Authorities with twin purposes of – conserving and enhancing the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage – providing opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of the Park by the public Source National Parks http://www.nationalparks.gov.uk
  • Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty • Areas designated AONB purely on basis of their visual landscape beauty • Managed by local voluntary partnerships and local authorities • Lower level of protection than a National Park Source National Association for AONBs http://www.landscapesforlife,org,uk
  • Heritage Coasts • Areas designated as Heritage Coasts by Natural England to highlight their value • This is a nonstatutory designation • Most Heritage coasts exists within AONBs or National Parks
  • Sites of Special Scientific Interest: SSSI Details of all sites available online at http://www.magic.gov.uk
  • Other landscape conservation bodies • Natural England – Government agency – Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) are designated and protected by English nature • World Wide Fund for Nature WWF: major international charity • Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust: example of national charity • Wildlife trusts: local private charities
  • National Trust • A major national land and property owner • It protects what it owns but may be consulted about developments near NT land, even if not on it • Too much property to list on a single map http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk
  • Historical land • English Heritage – Government statutory body • Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland • Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales • Northern Ireland Environment Agency
  • English Heritage • The Government's statutory adviser on the historic environment. • increase the understanding of the past • conserve and enhance the historic environment • broaden access and appreciation of the heritage • Works both through ownership and through statutory powers, particularly relating to listed and historic buildings and structures
  • Summary • Landscapes are protected in a variety of ways in the UK • Some protection is enshrined by act of parliament • Any protection can be over ridden by another act of parliament • Strongest form of protection comes from private ownership, but is subject to the desires of the owner.
  • Reading • The great modern classic of landscape design: – Ian McHarg 1969 (1992) Design with Nature John Wiley A supremely well written book which was one of the earliest to address the importance of ecology and surprisingly laid the foundations for the use of computers in the visualisation and management of the land