APUSH 1870-1900: cities, immigration, and labor unions


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APUSH 1870-1900: cities, immigration, and labor unions

  1. 1. Chapter 19: cities 1870-1900, immigration, unions, etc.
  2. 2. Economic and Social Forces that Changed the Cities <ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Rural to urban migration </li></ul>
  3. 3. Industrialization changes the cities… <ul><li>By attracting large numbers of immigrants of migrants from rural regions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Population Shifts <ul><li>1860 1 in 6 Americans lived in cities of 8,000 or more OR nearly 20 percent lived in cities </li></ul><ul><li>1890 3 in 10 lived in cities OR 33.3 percent lived in cities </li></ul><ul><li>1900 40 percent lived in cities </li></ul><ul><li>1920 50 percent lived in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Urban population increased 700 percent between 1865 and 1905 </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1870-1900 New Immigration <ul><li>80% immigrants Eastern / Southern European </li></ul><ul><li>75% single men, $1.00 room </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy tests </li></ul><ul><li>Cities and social geography </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is the push pull relationship In 1870-1900 to immigrate to America? How many stay in USA?
  7. 7. Literacy Test History <ul><li>Why have literacy tests? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ tests 1904 by Alfred Binet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthiest 1% own 50% of property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who to be educated and what immigrants can come into USA. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SAT by James B. Conant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select by merit not connections </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Diagram of a dumbbell tenement, c. 1879 Illegal by 1901
  9. 9. New York tenements at the turn of the century 500,000 people per square mile in the Lower East Side. One person per square foot.
  10. 10. Jacob Riis (1849-1914) Photographer and author of How the Other Half Lives (1890) Children sleeping in Mulberry Street (1890 )
  11. 11. Jacob Riis photos, How the Other Half Lives NY 1889 and an 8 Hour apartment rental
  12. 12. Jacob Riis photos, How the Other Half Lives 1892 NY
  13. 13. Jacob Riis photos, How the Other Half Lives 1892 NY
  14. 14. Showing Their Tricks: Hell’s Kitchen Boys, 1888-1889 Jacob Riis
  15. 15. Jacob Riis photos, How the Other Half Lives Pedlar in NY 1892
  16. 16. Jacob Riis photos, How the Other Half Lives Mulberry Bend, NY 1888
  17. 17. Jacob Riis photos, How the Other Half Lives Mullen’s Alley 1888
  18. 18. Chicago Slums c. 1900 Children playing near a dead horse
  19. 19. Room in a Tenement Flat, 1910 Jessie Tarbox Beals Museum of the City of New York
  20. 20. Child Labor’s continual increase… <ul><li>Why would the federal government wait until 1916 (and then the Supreme Court over turns in in 1923!) to pass child labor legislation? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Rural to Urban Migration <ul><li>Why are farmers moving from the country to the cities in the late 1800’s? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is there an increase in African-American migration from the South to the North? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Urban Reformers by 1900… <ul><li>Wanted the federal government to ensure safety and education </li></ul><ul><li>Until federal government became involved, middle and upper class women took on reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlement houses </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Jane Addams, founder of Hull House (1860-1935) In 1931, Addams became the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize  
  24. 24. Hull House, Chicago 1889
  25. 25. Lillian Wald (1867-1940), nurse, social worker Wald introduced the pioneering concept of public health nursing
  26. 26. Lillian Wald founded Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1895 Lillian Wald in her office
  27. 27. Cities and Social Geography <ul><li>Slums - area by the factory, back of the yards </li></ul><ul><li>Ghetto - dense immigrants split by ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Suburban Sprawl and the wealthy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trolley cars, street cars </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Horses were replaced by electric or gas trolley’s later replaced by buses
  29. 29. Transportation Revolution <ul><li>, </li></ul>Horse railways, 1880s Subways, elevated trains and electric trolleys,1890s
  30. 30. Hester Street, New York City c. 1902
  31. 31. Fifth Avenue in New York City on Easter Sunday in 1900
  32. 32. Chicago and Ethnicity http://www.dreamtown.com/neighborhoods/edgewater.html Public Transportation made it possible for middle/upper class families to move away from industrial core/city centers, away from immigrants -Cities become divided by class, ethnicity, and race -ie: Chicago!
  33. 33. <ul><li>Labor Movement and Labor Unions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great RR Strike of 1877 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knights of Labor 1869 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Federation of Labor 1886 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haymarket Riot 1886 </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. The Great RR Strike of 1877 This July 25th marks the 132th anniversary of the Shamokin Uprising, when desperation and starvation drove railroad workers and miners to join the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, America’s first nationwide strike.
  35. 35. Knights of Labor 1869 Uriah Stephens What makes the Knighs of Labor So democratic? What is the downfall of the Knights of Labor, why will it have trouble being the lead union? Terence Powderly
  36. 36. American federation of Labor 1886 Samuel Gompers Who joined the AFL compared To the Knights Of Labor?
  37. 37. August Spies and Albert Parsons Unions and Anarchy, a socialist movement Grows in America.
  38. 38. Haymarket Square Riot 1886 <ul><li>What was the goal of the May 1st rally in Chicago? </li></ul><ul><li>What role did Police Chief John “BlackJack” Bonfield play in the riot? </li></ul><ul><li>How are Spies and Parsons like John Brown? </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>On November 11, 1887 four men, Albert Parsons, August Spies, Adolph Fischer, and George Engel were hanged. Louis Lingg committed suicide in prison awaiting the death sentence. Oscar Neebe, Mike Schwab, and Samuel Fielden pardoned. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Unit 6: Chapter 19, lecture 8 <ul><li>Big City Bosses, Tammany Hall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln Steffens The Shame of The Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thomas Nast </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and leisure time develops in the cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Luis Sullivan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John and Washington Roebling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elisha Otis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick Olmstead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudolph Hering </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Tammany Hall and Machine Politics 1 st Ward 3 rd Ward 4 th Ward 2 nd Ward City Hall Mayor Bd. of Aldermen Tammany Hall Boss VOTES MONEY
  42. 42. Political Machine <ul><li>Organized group  that controlled the activities of a political party in a city. </li></ul><ul><li>Offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid with local precinct workers at bottom and political boss at top. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants fueled the machine as voters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They Received: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Big City Bosses “ Hinky Dink” Kenna & “ Bathhouse” John Coughlin Chicago William M. Tweed New York
  44. 44. Thomas Nast, political cartoonist Why were the political cartoons so effective?
  45. 45. Lincoln Steffens , The Shame of the Cities <ul><li>Exposed corruption within muncipial government </li></ul><ul><li>Connects/favorable contracts for big business </li></ul><ul><li>Graft </li></ul>
  46. 46. Chicago School of Architecture <ul><li>William Le Baron Jenney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Insurance Building, 1884 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louis Sullivan: “Form follows function” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago Board of Trade, 1894 </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. John Roebling and the Brooklyn Bridge Opened May 24, 1883 1890 1881
  48. 48. Elisha Otis and Elevator Elisha Graves Otis It was not until 1857 that the first passenger elevator began operation, in the New York City Haugwout department store. At that time, the steam-powered elevator traveled at a leisurely 40 feet per minute (4.8 miles per hour) Between 1880 and 1900, all major 10-or 12-story buildings in New York City used hydraulic elevators
  49. 49. Frederick Olmstead and NY Central Park Situated between 59th street and 110 streets in the heart of New York City
  50. 50. Rudolph Hering, the dean of sanitary <ul><li>Reversed the Chicago River. It carried waste water away from the lake, through the Des Plaines and Illinois rivers, to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. </li></ul>Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, finished in 1900