Chapter 1: True Maps, False Impressions

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  • © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This presentation may be used and adapted for use in classes using the fourth edition of Human Geography in Action . It may not be re-distributed except to students enrolled in such classes and in such case must be password protected to limit access to students enrolled in such classes. Students may not re-distribute portions of the original presentation.
  • Chapter 1: True Maps, False Impressions

    1. Chapter 1 True Maps, False Impressions: Making, Manipulating, and Interpreting Maps
    2. What is geography? The spatial perspective: how human activities are organized in space and how they relate to the natural environment.
    3. 1) Location 2) Place 3) Region 4) Movement 5) Human-Environmental Interaction Table 1.1 (p. 2) The Five Themes of Human Geography
    4. Maps A two-dimensional graphical representation of the surface of the earth.
    5. Projection Simplification Scale Aggregation Type of Map ( reference / thematic ) Ways that Cartographers Manipulate Maps
    6. Map Projections Figure 1.1 (p. 4) Mercator Mollweide
    7. Figure 1.1 (p. 4) Van Der Grinten Robinson Map Projections
    8. Figure 1.1 (p. 4) Polar Polar Map Projections
    9. Figure 1.1 (p. 4) varying point of orientation Dymaxion Map Map Projections
    10. Map Projections
    11. Figure 1.2 (p. 6) Map Simplification Lincoln, Nebraska
    12. Denver International Airport Figure 1.3 (p. 7) Map Scale
    13. Figures 1.4 (p. 8) Map Aggregation Percent of the population age 25+ with a bachelor's degree, 1990.
    14. Figures 1.4 & 1.5 (p. 8) Percent of the population age 25+ with a bachelor's degree, 1990. Map Aggregation
    15. Map Aggregation
    16. Map Aggregation
    17. USGS Southwest Pueblo Quadrangle Map Type: Reference Maps Figure 1.2 (p. 6)
    18. Figure 1.6 (p. 9) Isoline: Average Daily Solar Radiation Choropleth: Florida Senior Citizens Map Type: Thematic Maps
    19. Figure 1.6 (p. 9) Dot: Wisconsin Acerage in Potatoes Map Type: Thematic Maps
    20. Name That Key Term
    21. The flow of people, goods, money, ideas, or materials between locations near or far (the fourth theme of geography). Movement The local human and physical characteristics that uniquely define a place and give it meaning to its inhabitants (the second theme of geography). Place An area characterized by similarity or by cohesiveness that sets it apart from other areas (the third theme of geography). The absolute position of something on the surface of the earth and its relative proximity to other related things (the first theme of geography). Location Region
    22. The ways in which human society and the natural environment affect each other (the fifth theme of geography). Human-Environmental Interaction The ratio of map distance to earth distance, measured in the same units. Map Scale A systematic method of transferring a spherical surface to a flat map. A two-dimensional graphical representation of the surface of the earth (or of events that occur on the earth). Map Map Projection Elimination of unimportant detail on maps and retention and possibly exaggeration and distortion of important information, depending on the purpose of the map. Simplification
    23. The level of detail for dividing a thematic map into geographic units, ranging from a coarse division (e.g., countries) to a fine division (e.g., zip codes). Aggregation A thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable. Dot Map A map that demonstrates a particular feature or a single variable. Thematic Map A thematic map in which the size of a symbol varies in relation to the frequency or intensity of the mapped variable. A general-purpose map that shows recognizable landmarks, roads, and political units. Reference Map Proportional Symbol Map
    24. A thematic map with lines that connect points of equal value. Isoline Map A thematic map in which ranked classes of some variable are depicted with shading patterns or colors for predefined zones. Choropleth Map Information obtained indirectly from another source that was previously collected, processed, and made available to a larger audience. Secondary Data Information collected directly by the researchers or their equipment without any intermediary. This can include surveys, interviews, observations, or measurements obtained in the field. Primary Data
    25. A computer hardware and software system that handles geographically referenced data. A ___ uses and produces maps and has the ability to perform many types of spatial analysis. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Explanatory list of symbols in a map. Usually appears in a box in a lower corner. Legend The study of the distribution of humans and their activities on the surface of the earth and of the processes that generate these distributions. Human Geography Information that has a geographical or locational component. Spatial Data
    26. True Maps, False Impressions: Making, Manipulating, and Interpreting Maps Chapter 1 Case Study
    27. After completing this chapter, you will be able to: • Convert map scale to real-world distances. • Recognize choropleth, proportional symbol, isoline, and dot maps. • Recognize that changing the scale and type of a map changes its message. • Understand the difference between changing scale and changing level of aggregation. • Use GIS to change the class limits on a choropleth map. • Describe the geographic distribution of African-Americans in the United States.
    28. (pp. 15 & 16) Activity 1: Scale
    29. Figures 1.11 & 1.12 (pp. 17 & 19)
    30. Spatial Data & GIS • Primary vs. secondary data • Geographic information systems (GIS)
    31. Historical Geog. of African Americans • Slave trade 1619-1808 • Emancipation in 1863 • Post-World War I — Northward Migration • Post-1970 Reversal in Migration Flows • Census treatment of race and ethnicity • Race and ethnicity as socially constructed variables
    32. Activity 2: Thematic Maps Which format includes more detail? Which format can be read more quickly? Table 1.2 (p. 25) Online Activity
    33. Online Activity
    34. Understanding Isoline Maps Figure 1.13 (p. 28)
    35.  
    36. True Maps, False Impressions: Making, Manipulating, and Interpreting Maps Chapter 1 Case Study Canadian Examples
    37. Online Activity
    38.  

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