Is host specificity the cause or the consequence           of parasite diversification:   lessons from the population gene...
Evolution of novel taxa in parasites:host specificity vs. geografic distribution. •   Host specificity and speciation in m...
Timescale: long vs. short evolutionary periods Estimate the amount of co-speciations vs. host switches
Evolution of novel taxa in parasites:host specificity vs. geografic distribution. •   Speciation and host specificity •   ...
The importance of geography                              Štefka et al, in prep.
traditional taxonomymtDNA phylogeny                                  N. parvulus                                          ...
traditional taxonomymtDNA phylogeny                                  N. parvulus                                          ...
Myrsidea sp.98 specimens, 37 haps                 N. trifasciatus                 N. parvulus                            N...
Analges sp. (Acari, Astigmata)87 specimens, 71 haps           N. parvulus                                 N. trifasciatus ...
7.000 YA           approx. 2-3 MYA                             approx. 5 MYA                                             5...
7.000 YA           approx. 2-3 MYA                             approx. 5 MYA                                             5...
Polyplax serrata                   genus Apodemus
Michaux et al., 2003, 2005                               ?A. sylvaticus                     A. flavicollis
northern border of A. sylvaticus rangeA. sylvaticus   A. flavicollis        A. agrarius           A. uralensis
A                             A. flavicollis                             A. sylvaticus                                    ...
A                   colonizationB            molecular dating            -Clade A/B 1.5 Mya (1.4-1.6)            -Hosts Af...
Ligula intestinalis s.l.
A                                                TunisiaSympatric lineages,different host. spec.                          ...
Structure 2.2; 338 tapeworms               Europe Europe/Gobio TunisiaAlgeria/Barbus                             XCompatib...
Conclusions•    Host specificity arose in allopatry in P. serrata•    More complex picture in L. intestinalis: some lineag...
Václav HypšaThanks to:                                              Faculty of Science, USB, Č. Budějovice                ...
Is host specificity the cause or the consequence of parasite diversification: lessons from the population genetics of lice...
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Is host specificity the cause or the consequence of parasite diversification: lessons from the population genetics of lice and helminths. Evolutionary Biology Meeting, Marseilles 2010

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Is host specificity the cause or the consequence of parasite diversification: lessons from the population genetics of lice and helminths. Evolutionary Biology Meeting, Marseilles 2010

  1. 1. Is host specificity the cause or the consequence of parasite diversification: lessons from the population genetics of lice and helminths Štefka, Jan1,21Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UK2Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia and Biology Centre ASCR, České Budějovice, CZ
  2. 2. Evolution of novel taxa in parasites:host specificity vs. geografic distribution. • Host specificity and speciation in metazoan parasites – What is host specificity – Why bother – Established framework? • Timescale: long vs. short evolutionary periods
  3. 3. Timescale: long vs. short evolutionary periods Estimate the amount of co-speciations vs. host switches
  4. 4. Evolution of novel taxa in parasites:host specificity vs. geografic distribution. • Speciation and host specificity • Timescale: long vs. short evolutionary periods • Careful choise of model taxa (complexity of life-cycles and population histories…)
  5. 5. The importance of geography Štefka et al, in prep.
  6. 6. traditional taxonomymtDNA phylogeny N. parvulus N. melanotis N. trifasciatus N. macdonaldi
  7. 7. traditional taxonomymtDNA phylogeny N. parvulus N. melanotis N. trifasciatus N. macdonaldi
  8. 8. Myrsidea sp.98 specimens, 37 haps N. trifasciatus N. parvulus N. trifasciatus N. melanotis N. macdonaldi
  9. 9. Analges sp. (Acari, Astigmata)87 specimens, 71 haps N. parvulus N. trifasciatus N. melanotis N. macdonaldi
  10. 10. 7.000 YA approx. 2-3 MYA approx. 5 MYA 5-9 MYA
  11. 11. 7.000 YA approx. 2-3 MYA approx. 5 MYA 5-9 MYA Progression rule
  12. 12. Polyplax serrata genus Apodemus
  13. 13. Michaux et al., 2003, 2005 ?A. sylvaticus A. flavicollis
  14. 14. northern border of A. sylvaticus rangeA. sylvaticus A. flavicollis A. agrarius A. uralensis
  15. 15. A A. flavicollis A. sylvaticus colonizationCOI vs.Haplotypes B duplication ?+EF1α A. flavicollis C A. agrarius A. uralensis Štefka and Hypša, 2008 Martinů et al, in prep.
  16. 16. A colonizationB molecular dating -Clade A/B 1.5 Mya (1.4-1.6) -Hosts Af/As 4 Mya A duplication B Host specificity arose in allopatry
  17. 17. Ligula intestinalis s.l.
  18. 18. A TunisiaSympatric lineages,different host. spec. BMutual def. hosts Tunisia COI+COB haplotypes Bouzid et al, 2008, Int. J. Parasitol. Bouzid et al, in prep.
  19. 19. Structure 2.2; 338 tapeworms Europe Europe/Gobio TunisiaAlgeria/Barbus XCompatible with mtDNA Lake Tana (Ethiopia) B. humilis B. tsanensis B. intermedius B. brevicephalus Štefka et al., 2009, Mol. Ecol.
  20. 20. Conclusions• Host specificity arose in allopatry in P. serrata• More complex picture in L. intestinalis: some lineages arising in allopatry vs. ongoing host-dependant speciation in others.• Host specificity is at least in some cases a product of speciation processes not the motor of speciation in parasites.
  21. 21. Václav HypšaThanks to: Faculty of Science, USB, Č. Budějovice Czech Rep. Jana Martinů Faculty of Science, USB, Č. Budějovice Vince Smith Czech Rep. Entomology Dept., NHM, London UK Wafa Bouzid Université P. Sebatier, Toulouse FranceAcknowledgements:This work was supported by Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (projectNo. 206/08/1019) and by Marie Curie Fellowship (project Galápagos, no.235123, FP7-PEOPLE-IEF-2008).

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