0
Systematic
(searching for a) Review
June 26, 2014
Universiteitsbibliotheek
Specialist Wetenschappelijke Informatie
Psychology
Child Development and Education
Anthropology
Janneke Staaks
j.staaks@uv...
3
Evidence based practice
Literature review
“take a simmering topic, extract the juice of an argument,
add the essence of one filing cabinet, sprink...
 From research question to search question
 Systematic search
 Screening
 inclusion/exclusion criteria
 Critical appr...
From research question to search
question
 PICO(S)
 Population
 Intervention (or exposure)
 Comparison
 Outcome
 Stu...
From research question to search
question
 SPICE
 Setting – Where? In what context?
 Perspective – For who?
 Phenomeno...
Development of children from mothers with
epilepsy (anti-epileptics during pregnancy)
 Population
 Intervention/Exposure...
What is the effect of taking antiepileptics
while pregnant on child development?
 Population: Pregnant women with epileps...
Key concepts
Does it matter?
Pregnancy outcomes
AND
Anti-epileptics
Pregnancy
AND
Epilepsy
AND
Development
Does it matter?
Pregnancy outcomes
AND
Anti-epileptics
3.636 results 6.709 results
Pregnancy
AND
Epilepsy
AND
Development
Protocols
 Centre for Reviews and Dissemination
 Guidance: Systematic Reviews: CRD's guidance for
undertaking systematic...
Guidelines
 PRISMA statement
 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and
Meta-Analyses
 Equator network
 Rep...
Systematic searching
 General - specific
 ethnic minority or Asian
 physiological measures or cortisol
 Synonyms and related terms
 social...
 Spelling
 US – UK: behavior or behaviour
 Single - plural: child or children
 Verb tenses: cry, crying or cried etc
...
Abstract There is ample evidence for the existence of an association between
sleeplessness and worry. Not much is known, h...
Wildcards
depression
depressive
depressed
depress*depressogenic
depressie
depressotypic
Test
snake fear 54
"snake fear"
snake AND fear
famil* 295.000
family OR families 253.000
1 NOT 2
54
387
 Free text terms
 title, abstract etc.
 sleeplessness.ti,ab. (Medline - OvidSP)
 sleeplessness[tiab] (Pubmed)
 Contro...
Tip: finding more search terms
(Medical)
Subject Heading
Sleep initiation and
maintenance disorders
8.816
Title + abstract...
Combining your search terms
Boolean Operators
OR AND NOT
 Idiom* ADJ4 distress
 Idiom of distress
 Idioms of psychological distress
 Distress idioms
 Idioms of wellness and d...
Adjacency searching
*Databases: OvidSP (e.g. Medline PsycINFO)
Combining your key concepts
You searched a database and found far too
few results. How can you broaden your
search and increase the search results?
Ch...
You searched a database and found far too
few results. How can you broaden your
search and increase the search results?
Ch...
You searched a database and found far too
few results. How can you broaden your
search and increase the search results?
Ch...
You searched a database and found far too
few results. How can you broaden your
search and increase the search results?
Ch...
You searched a database and found far too
few results. How can you broaden your
search and increase the search results?
Ch...
You searched a database and found far too
few results. How can you broaden your
search and increase the search results?
Ch...
Databases
Medline - Pubmed
 Life sciences and biomedical
information
Other Databases
 Health care
 Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL
 Sportdiscus, Pilots, LILACS
 Cochrane Library
 Sociology
 So...
Google Scholar search query
 Maximum of 1000 search results
 Screen first 200-500 results and report date and search
que...
Other complementary search
strategies
 Citation tracking
 Web of Science and Google Scholar (cited by..)
 Systematic re...
Challenges
 Books
 Worldcat, Picarta, Google Books
 Grey literature
 What: reports, conference proceedings, dissertati...
42
Reference manager software
https://www.flickr.com/photos/sherlock77/416909735
Refworks
Reference Manager
Endnote
Publication Bias
 Statistics
 Unpublished research
 Contacting authors
 Clinicaltrials.gov
 International Clinical Tr...
Questions?
Extra information
Source: http://www.scielo.br/img/revistas/reeusp/v45n5/en_a33fig1.jpg
Further reading - General
 Booth, A., Papaioannou, D., & Sutton, A. (2011).
Systematic approaches to a successful literat...
Further reading – Qualitative research
 Hannes, K., & Lockwood, C. (2011). Synthesizing qualitative research:
Choosing th...
More..
 Filters for qualitative research – ISSG Search
Filters Resource
 Goodyear-Smith, F. A., van Driel, M. L., Arroll...
Systematic (searching for a) Review
Systematic (searching for a) Review
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  • EBM-(evidence based) guidelines.
    Synopses & Syntheses*: a synopsis is a summary and critical appraisal of one article, whereas synthesis is a summary and critical appraisal of a topic (which may answer several questions and may cover many articles).
    Systematic Reviews (a systematic summary and critical appraisal of original studies) which may or may not include a meta-analysis.
    Original Studies.
  • Purposes for a review
    To place work(s) in the context of how it contributes to an understanding of the subject under review
    To identify new ways to interpret previous research
    To resolve conflicts across seemingly controdictory studies
    Avoid reinventing the wheel, or worse, the flat tire
    Source: Booth, A., Papaioannou, D., & Sutton, A. (2011). Systematic approaches to a successful literature review. Sage.
  • P Patient/Population - What people or patient group do I want information on?
    I Intervention – What is the intervention (treatment, cause, prognostic factor) of interest?
    C Comparison – What is the main alternative to compare with the intervention (if necessary)?
    O Outcomes - What do I hope to accomplish? What could this exposure affect?
  • Search query Pubmed:
    "sleep initiation and maintenance disorders"[MeSH] NOT (sleeplessness[tiab] OR sleep disorder[tiab])
    Search query Medline (OvidSP):
    "sleep initiation and maintenance disorders“/ NOT (sleeplessness.ti,ab. OR sleep disorder.ti,ab.)
  • Problematic aspects of Pubmed
    - Limited amount of truncation (*) possibilities (only 600 word variations)
    - Quotation marks with asterix doesn’t work (compare "word combination*" with word combination* and word and combination* )
    - Some word combinations won’t work because Pubmed does phrase indexing instead of word indexing (e.g. "right not to know"[tiab] )
  • Grey literature is informally published written material (such as reports) that may be difficult to trace via conventional channels such as published journals and monographs because it is not published commercially or is not widely accessible
  • See end of powerpoint for bibliography
  • Transcript of "Systematic (searching for a) Review"

    1. 1. Systematic (searching for a) Review June 26, 2014 Universiteitsbibliotheek
    2. 2. Specialist Wetenschappelijke Informatie Psychology Child Development and Education Anthropology Janneke Staaks j.staaks@uva.nl @jstaaks
    3. 3. 3 Evidence based practice
    4. 4. Literature review “take a simmering topic, extract the juice of an argument, add the essence of one filing cabinet, sprinkle liberally with your own publications and sift out the work of noted detractors or adversaries” https://www.flickr.com/photos/litlnemo/3181163906 https://www.flickr.com/photos/rachelandrew/178930904
    5. 5.  From research question to search question  Systematic search  Screening  inclusion/exclusion criteria  Critical appraisal  validity/relevance  Data synthesis The systematic review process
    6. 6. From research question to search question  PICO(S)  Population  Intervention (or exposure)  Comparison  Outcome  Study
    7. 7. From research question to search question  SPICE  Setting – Where? In what context?  Perspective – For who?  Phenomenon of Interest – What?  Comparison – what else?  Evaluation – How well? What result?
    8. 8. Development of children from mothers with epilepsy (anti-epileptics during pregnancy)  Population  Intervention/Exposure  Comparison  Outcome  Study https://www.flickr.com/photos/erin_ryan/2718885808
    9. 9. What is the effect of taking antiepileptics while pregnant on child development?  Population: Pregnant women with epilepsy  Intervention: anti-epileptics  Comparison: none  Outcome: child development  Study: cohort studies and observational research
    10. 10. Key concepts
    11. 11. Does it matter? Pregnancy outcomes AND Anti-epileptics Pregnancy AND Epilepsy AND Development
    12. 12. Does it matter? Pregnancy outcomes AND Anti-epileptics 3.636 results 6.709 results Pregnancy AND Epilepsy AND Development
    13. 13. Protocols  Centre for Reviews and Dissemination  Guidance: Systematic Reviews: CRD's guidance for undertaking systematic reviews in health care  Campbell Collaboration  The production of a systematic review  PROSPERO database
    14. 14. Guidelines  PRISMA statement  Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses  Equator network  Reporting guidelines  E.g. ENTREQ for synthesis of qualitative research  See www.equator-network.org/
    15. 15. Systematic searching
    16. 16.  General - specific  ethnic minority or Asian  physiological measures or cortisol  Synonyms and related terms  social phobia or social anxiety or blushing  Acronyms  Major Depressive Disorder or MDD Search terms
    17. 17.  Spelling  US – UK: behavior or behaviour  Single - plural: child or children  Verb tenses: cry, crying or cried etc  Opposites  fertility or infertility  Historical language  Changes in DSM  Countries Search terms
    18. 18. Abstract There is ample evidence for the existence of an association between sleeplessness and worry. Not much is known, however, concerning the nature of this relationship. Therefore, a study was conducted investigating the causal relationship between sleeplessness and nocturnal worry. A 2 x 2 (Worry x Induced sleeplessness) analysis of covariance design was used. The first factor consisted of a subject variable defined by scoring either high or low on a trait measure of worry (the Penn State Worry Questionnaire) and the second factor consisted of 300 mg caffeine or placebo. A total of 96 female undergraduate students participated. The dependent variables comprised measures of nocturnal worry (the Night-Time Thoughts Questionnaire) and subjective and objective sleep parameters. Overall, caffeine caused an increase in nocturnal worry and sleeplessness. A significant interaction effect occurred between Worry and Induced sleeplessness on one of the objective sleep parameters, but no other interaction effects were significant. The results suggest that worry may occur as an epiphenomenon of sleeplessness. Subject Headings *Anxiety *Caffeine *Cognitions *Insomnia Database: PsycINFO Night-time thoughts in high and low worriers: Reaction to caffeine-induced sleeplessness
    19. 19. Wildcards depression depressive depressed depress*depressogenic depressie depressotypic
    20. 20. Test snake fear 54 "snake fear" snake AND fear famil* 295.000 family OR families 253.000 1 NOT 2 54 387
    21. 21.  Free text terms  title, abstract etc.  sleeplessness.ti,ab. (Medline - OvidSP)  sleeplessness[tiab] (Pubmed)  Controlled vocabulary  Subject headings, Mesh terms, thesaurus etc.  Insomnia/ (PsycINFO)  "Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders "/ (Medline) Search terms
    22. 22. Tip: finding more search terms (Medical) Subject Heading Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders 8.816 Title + abstract sleeplessness 483 Title + abstract sleep disorder 1.825 1 NOT (2 OR 3) Database: Medline/Pubmed 8.496
    23. 23. Combining your search terms
    24. 24. Boolean Operators OR AND NOT
    25. 25.  Idiom* ADJ4 distress  Idiom of distress  Idioms of psychological distress  Distress idioms  Idioms of wellness and distress  Idioms through which emotional distress is expressed Adjacency searching* *Databases: OvidSP (e.g. Medline PsycINFO)
    26. 26. Adjacency searching *Databases: OvidSP (e.g. Medline PsycINFO)
    27. 27. Combining your key concepts
    28. 28. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your search and increase the search results? Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. D. Combine the search terms with OR. E. Use different search terms, for example synonyms. parent* OR child* OR family 694.000 titles De rolwisseling tussen ouders en kinderen in allochtone gezinnen
    29. 29. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your search and increase the search results? Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. D. Combine the search terms with OR. E. Use different search terms, for example synonyms. role reversal OR role conflict 694.000 titles parent* OR child* OR family 3.200 titles De rolwisseling tussen ouders en kinderen in allochtone gezinnen
    30. 30. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your search and increase the search results? Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. D. Combine the search terms with OR. E. Use different search terms, for example synonyms. immigra* OR ethnic 82.000 titles role reversal OR role conflict parent* OR child* OR family 694.000 titles 3.200 titles De rolwisseling tussen ouders en kinderen in allochtone gezinnen
    31. 31. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your search and increase the search results? Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. D. Combine the search terms with OR. E. Use different search terms, for example synonyms. immigra* OR ethnic role reversal OR role conflict parent* OR child* OR family ANDAND ANDAND De rolwisseling tussen ouders en kinderen in allochtone gezinnen
    32. 32. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your search and increase the search results? Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. D. Combine the search terms with OR. E. Use different search terms, for example synonyms. parent* OR child* OR family role reversal OR role conflict immigra* OR ethnic De rolwisseling tussen ouders en kinderen in allochtone gezinnen
    33. 33. You searched a database and found far too few results. How can you broaden your search and increase the search results? Choose the three right answers from the following. A. Add search terms and combine with AND. B. Search more fields, for example "words in abstract". C. Limit to the most recent publications. D. Combine the search terms with OR. E. Use different search terms, for example synonyms. immigra* OR ethnic parents OR child OR family role reversal OR role conflict 36 titles 694.000 titles 3.200 titles 82.000 titles De rolwisseling tussen ouders en kinderen in allochtone gezinnen
    34. 34. Databases
    35. 35. Medline - Pubmed  Life sciences and biomedical information
    36. 36. Other Databases  Health care  Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL  Sportdiscus, Pilots, LILACS  Cochrane Library  Sociology  Sociological Abstracts, IBSS, SocIndex, Campbell Library  Other  ERIC, Linguistic and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA)  Web of Science, Google Scholar
    37. 37. Google Scholar search query  Maximum of 1000 search results  Screen first 200-500 results and report date and search query  Maximum of 200 characters per query  OR can be replaced by vertical line (above Enter on your keyboard)  AND is the default combination; use " " for phrases  Less need for word variations  parents | children | family "role reversal" | "role
    38. 38. Other complementary search strategies  Citation tracking  Web of Science and Google Scholar (cited by..)  Systematic reviews and meta-analyses  Authors  Hand searching  Journals  Conference proceedings  Consulting experts
    39. 39. Challenges  Books  Worldcat, Picarta, Google Books  Grey literature  What: reports, conference proceedings, dissertations  Where: websites, repositories..  E.g. Afrika Studies Centre Leiden  Other languages https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batgirl#mediaviewer/File:Batgirls.jpg
    40. 40. 42 Reference manager software https://www.flickr.com/photos/sherlock77/416909735 Refworks Reference Manager Endnote
    41. 41. Publication Bias  Statistics  Unpublished research  Contacting authors  Clinicaltrials.gov  International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) from the World Health Organization (WHO)  Grey literature  Dissertations  Conference Proceedings https://www.flickr.com/photos/rdennis/11948643
    42. 42. Questions?
    43. 43. Extra information
    44. 44. Source: http://www.scielo.br/img/revistas/reeusp/v45n5/en_a33fig1.jpg
    45. 45. Further reading - General  Booth, A., Papaioannou, D., & Sutton, A. (2011). Systematic approaches to a successful literature review. SAGE Publications Limited.  Gough, D., Oliver, S., & Thomas, J. (2012). An introduction to systematic reviews. Sage Publications  Systematic searching for reviews (online tutorial, VU university)
    46. 46. Further reading – Qualitative research  Hannes, K., & Lockwood, C. (2011). Synthesizing qualitative research: Choosing the right approach. John Wiley & Sons.  Michael Saini, Aron Shlonsky (2012) Systematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research. Oxford University Press. 978-0195387216  Harris Cooper (2010) Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis. A Step-by- Step Approach Fourth Edition. Sage  Pope, C., Mays, N. & Popay, J. (2007). Synthesizing qualitative and quantitative health evidence. A guide to methods. Open University Press  Dixon-Woods M, Agarwal S, Young B, Jones D, Sutton A. (2004) Integrative approaches to qualitative and quantitative evidence. London: Health Development Agency
    47. 47. More..  Filters for qualitative research – ISSG Search Filters Resource  Goodyear-Smith, F. A., van Driel, M. L., Arroll, B., & Del Mar, C. (2012). Analysis of decisions made in meta-analyses of depression screening and the risk of confirmation bias: A case study. BMC medical research methodology, 12(1), 76 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/12/76
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