America’s First Newspapers • 1690- Publick Occurences, published in Boston by Benjamin Harris. The British Colonials oppressed the paper after just one issue on a technicality because they didn’t like what it printed. (Reported on sex scandal involving King of France). • 1704- The Boston News Letter started by John Campbell became the first continuously published newspaper.
Government Criticism• Early newspapers had to step carefully. Any government criticism was considered “sedition” which means the stirring of rebellion and could result in jail time.• Under this system, the press operated under the idea that “the greater the truth, the greater the libel.”
Government Criticism • In 1735 New York Weekly Journal’s publisher John Peter Zenger was charged with “seditious libel” and thrown in jail after criticizing the governor of New York. • The courts ruled in favor of Zenger, establishing the truth as a solid defense against libel.
Early Newspapers helped Promotethe Revolutionary War • The leaders of the revolt used the press to incite the public to join their cause. • Almost all newspapers favored the Revolution because they felt the Colonials suppressed the rights and freedoms of the press.
1791- The Bill of Rights • After the Revolutionary War was won, the leaders of the new country put into place the Bill of Rights, granting the press more freedoms than ever before. • “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition to the Government for a redress of grievances.” -First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Partisan Press • The period following the Revolutionary War early U.S. leaders fought bitterly over how the new government should be run. • Partisan newspapers backed opposing views and attacked their opponents fiercely. • They mixed news and opinion indiscriminately. • This period was known as the Partisan Press
The Partisan Press• http://www.newseum.org/digital-classroom/video/45- words/default.aspx
The Penny Press • New technology brought about the cylinder press, capable of printing 4,000 copies of a newspaper in an hour. • This reduced costs to 1 cent a paper creating the first truly mass media papers. • Thus the “Penny Press” was born paving the way for modern newspapers.
Birth of the Modern Newspaper • In 1835, The New York Herald became the first “modern newspaper” It was: • Free of government/ party control • Had simple wording, making it easy to read for the public • Organized in a modern pattern covering regular beats (or topics) and news. • First found in D.C. • It was like the penny papers but more profitable
Advances in Technology • The steamboat, the Pony Express and the railroads in the mid 1800’s made news cheaper and allowed information to travel faster. • 1861- reporters began using the telegraph as a means of covering the news during the Civil War. • This led to the invention of the inverted pyramid (modern “hard” news style. It allowed information to be transmitted information to be submitted quickly, but at a cost. The fewer words used the better.
Civil War brought many firsts • Inverted pyramid style • Objectivity • Photojournalism • Press credentials • War correspondents
Yellow Journalism• By the end of the 19th century, newspapers were the nation’s main source of information.• As huge newspaper empires grew, so did competition and circulation wars• “Yellow journalism” used sensationalism as a way to increase readership: loud headlines on sin, sex, rumors, even fake stories (think the National Enquirer)
Famous “yellow” Journalists • Joseph Pulitzer- • owned the St. Louis Post Dispatch and took over New York World • Crusader for hard news but liked to sensationalize • At first, demanded accuracy from reporters • The prestigious Pulitzer prizes, are now awarded to journalists every year. • Founder of Columbia University School of Journalism1861- reporters began using the telegraph as a means of covering the news.
Famous “yellow” Journalists • William Randolph Hearst- • Owner of the San Francisco Examiner, bought New York Journal • Loved politics and planned to run for president • Competed against Pulitzer • Paper emphasized crime, sex, scandals and violence
Famous “yellow” Journalists • Nellie Bly a.k.a.Elizabeth Cochrane- • Used publicity stunts to create news or expose injustice • Once had herself committed in order to investigate conditions in an insane asylum • Pulitzer once sent her in a hot air balloon to travel around the world like the Jules Verne novel “Around the World in 80 Days”.
Muckraking • The end of Yellow journalism ushered in the “golden age” of journalism. • Muckraking: Investigative, socially conscious reporting • Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle leads to new, much more stringent food and drug laws
Muckraking • Industrialization led to slums and terrible conditions for the poor. Journalists exposed these problems and helped start sweeping reforms: • Better working conditions • Sanitation • Laws to protect people • Honest government • Regulation of big business
Birth of the Radio/ Broadcast • 1901- first wireless signal sent across ocean by Gugliemo Marconi • 1912- first radio broadcast • 1920- first radio station- KDKA in Pittsburg • 1926-27- national radio networks- NBS and CBS • 1930- FDR’s fireside chats
Birth of Television • 1939 first TV broadcasts made, but WWII delays progress • By 1950’s powerful networks emerge. • Edward R. Murrow is the first network news “star” • Challenged Senator McCarthy’s communist hunts. • He set the standard for later news anchors
Newspapers Decline • It was hard to compete with TV’s speed and visual appeal • Newspapers strike back with: • Tighter, more concise writing • Better formatting • Improved design • In-Depth reporting • Shorter stories • Lots of color and graphics
Investigative Journalism • The Pentagon Papers proved U.S. government had lied to the public about Vietnam War • 1972, Washington Post reporters broke the Watergate story that led to President Nixon’s resignation.
The Internet • In 1990’s the Internet first made its appearance. • Now it is the number one news source in the world while other news media continues to decline. • News is now available 24/7 in various formats. • The only solution to the decline of newspapers Is convergence.
The End of the Newspaper?• http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=4901034n
The Good News• The way we deliver and receive news is changing but Journalism isn’t dead.• The public will ALWAYS require news.• Journalism is going to survive, but in different forms.• Convergence is key