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6. law presentation

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  • 1. Scholastic Publication Law Students as Journalists Adapted from Travis Feil’s presentation
  • 2. The First Amendment  Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. "
  • 3. Tinker v. Des Moines - 1969What Happened"  Students wore black armbands to school in protest of the Vietnam conflict."  Administration said, Take em off! You re being unpatriotic! "  Students said, Uh, like, try to make me. "  They all got suspended. "
  • 4. Tinker"
  • 5. Tinker - The Outcome"  The case went to the Supreme Court.""  The court ruled in favor of the students.""  1ST AMENDMENT RIGHTS DO NOT STOP AT THE SCHOOL DOOR!"
  • 6. Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier - 1988What Happened"  Student journalists wrote a story about teen pregnancy and a story about divorce.""  The principal gasped in horror and removed the spread. The pages printed blank.""  Student journalists and adviser were, like, really upset and took it to court screaming Tinker! all the way."
  • 7. Hazelwood"
  • 8. Hazelwood - The Outcome"  The Supreme Court heard the case."  The court found in favor of the principal claiming that school should be able to set high standards and should not be made to sponsor speech inconsistent with shared values of a civilized social order. "  Such censorship was limited to situations of educational concern. "
  • 9. Hazelwood - The Impacts"  Prior Review…administration can read/ censor material before it prints."  Although the courts established criteria for censorship, almost any concern a principal had could fit within those bounds."
  • 10. Hazelwood: the Exceptions"  Applies to school-sponsored speech"  Independent or “underground” student publications are not limited by Hazelwood.""
  • 11. Hazelwood: the Exceptions"  Doesnot apply to student media where students have been given the authority to make their own content decisions, either by a written school policy or by an established practice. Such student media organizations are considered “public forums” and are also protected by Tinker."
  • 12. Missouri = Hazelwood"  So guess what? WE ARE A HAZELWOOD STATE! "  What that means is we are subject to prior review if our administrators choose to enforce it."""
  • 13. Missouri = Hazelwood"  Things to keep in Mind:"   We operate as an open forum for student expression. This grants us stronger protection from censorship, closer along the lines of Tinker."   Although our administration COULD censor our work, they would then be taking legal responsibility for what we print- instead of us being legally responsible."
  • 14. YOUR RESPONSIBILITY"  Despite being a Hazelwood state, for the most part you are held to the same standards as a professional journalist."  With freedom comes RESPONSIBILITY!"   You, the staff, will be held responsible for what goes in our publications."   You must, therefore, understand what can/cannot be published under the 1st Amendment."
  • 15. Bethel v. Fraser 1986"  Matthew Fraser, a student at Bethel High School, delivered campaign speech during a required assembly. "  Speech contained humor that was considered inappropriate by school officials. After, he was prohibited from giving graduation speech."  District court ruled the schoolʼs disciplinary actions violated Fraserʼs rights and the Court of Appeals affirmed the ruling. "
  • 16. Bethel v. Fraser 1986"  The Courts addressed the following: Does the First Amendment “prevent a school district from disciplining a high school student for giving a lewd speech at a school assembly.”"  Both courts said: No.""
  • 17. Bethel v. Fraser"  But, the Supreme Court reversed the decision. "  Court observed that in Tinker v. Des Moines, it ruled school cannot punish a student for expressing a political message. But court stated in Fraser, the conduct was more severe and the type of conduct which cannot be allowed in high school. The court stated it must balance Fraserʼs constitutional rights and societyʼs interest in teaching students socially acceptable behavior."
  • 18. Bethel v. Fraser"  Not a political message"  Teaching students acceptable behavior in society"  The entire student body was required to attend the speech."
  • 19. Bethel v. Fraser"  MatthewFraser is the Executive Director of the SNFI and the Director of Forensics at Stanford University and at the Head- Royce School."
  • 20. Morse v. Frederick 2007"  Joseph Frederick held up a sign that read “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” during the Olympic Torch relay in Alaska. "  The problem? The relay was across from the high school during a school- sponsored activity."  Frederick was suspended for violating anti-drug policy."
  • 21. Morse v. Frederick 2007 "
  • 22. Morse v. Frederick: Key Points"  Does Tinker apply to non-political speech?"  Was event truly school- sponsored?"  How was it “disruptive”?"  Was punishment simply viewpoint discrimination?"
  • 23. Morse v. Frederick- Outcome"  Schools may prohibit student expression that can be interpreted as advocating drug use. "  Schools still canʼt prohibit speech focused on political or social issues."
  • 24. Morse v. Frederick- Impact"  Determined what constitutes “school- sponsored” activities" •  Event occurs during school hours" •  Sanctioned by principal as approved social event with student-conduct rules applied" •  Teachers and administrators among students for supervision" "
  • 25. Morse v. Frederick The Dissent"  “The First Amendment protects student speech if the message itself neither violates a permissible rule nor expressly advocates conduct that is illegal and harmful to students. This nonsense banner does neither, and the court does serious violence to the First Amendment in upholding- indeed lauding- a schoolʼs decision to punish Frederick for expressing a view with which it disagreed.”" - Justice Paul Stevens"
  • 26. What Do YOU think?"
  • 27. QUIZ TIME"
  • 28. QUIZ TIME"  Students wore armbands to protest Vietnam, they got in trouble but won in court…
  • 29. QUIZ TIME"  Students wore armbands to protest Vietnam, they got in trouble but won in court… •  A. Hazelwood in 1969
  • 30. QUIZ TIME"  Students wore armbands to protest Vietnam, they got in trouble but won in court… •  A. Hazelwood in 1969 •  B. Tinker in 1988
  • 31. QUIZ TIME"  Students wore armbands to protest Vietnam, they got in trouble but won in court… •  A. Hazelwood in 1969 •  B. Tinker in 1988 •  C. Tinker in 1969
  • 32. QUIZ TIME"  Students wore armbands to protest Vietnam, they got in trouble but won in court… •  A. Hazelwood in 1969 •  B. Tinker in 1988 •  C. Tinker in 1969 •  D. Hazelwood in 1988
  • 33. QUIZ TIME"  Students wore armbands to protest Vietnam, they got in trouble but won in court… •  C. Tinker in 1969
  • 34. Five Big Oopsies …stuff you can t do……stuff your adviser can/has to censor…
  • 35. 1. Libel - A Definition"  The printing of false, defamatory information.""
  • 36. 1. Libel - The Four Factors"  The courts look at these 4 factors when determining if a staff is guilty of libel.""
  • 37. 1. Libel - The Four Factors"  The courts look at these 4 factors when determining if a staff is guilty of libel."   A. Publication - others found out"
  • 38. 1. Libel - The Four Factors"  The courts look at these 4 factors when determining if a staff is guilty of libel."   A. Publication - others found out"   B. Identification - direct of indirect"
  • 39. 1. Libel - The Four Factors"  The courts look at these 4 factors when determining if a staff is guilty of libel."   A. Publication - others found out"   B. Identification - direct of indirect"   C. Harm - concrete and measurable"
  • 40. 1. Libel - The Four Factors"  The courts look at these 4 factors when determining if a staff is guilty of libel."   A. Publication - others found out"   B. Identification - direct of indirect"   C. Harm - concrete and measurable"   D. Fault - malice (mean) or neglect (lazy)"
  • 41. 1. Libel - DEFENSE"  In ALL libel cases, it is necessary that the information causing the problem is false. If the information is true, you re not dealing with libel."  Therefore…"
  • 42. 1. Libel - DEFENSE"  ONLY PRINT THE TRUTH."   Check your sources!"   Get more than one source!"   Don t accept anonymous sources without checking the info!"
  • 43. QUIZ TIME"  Name the four factors a court will examine in determining a libel case."
  • 44. QUIZ TIME"  Name the four factors a court will examine in determining a libel case."   Publication"   Identification"   Harm"   Fault"
  • 45. 2. Invasion of Privacy "  Privacy is defined as an individual s right to avoid unwanted publicity."  Not everyone has an equal right to privacy. The more public a figure, the less his/her right to privacy."
  • 46. 2. Invasion of Privacy "  There are four invasions of this right."   A. Public Disclosure (Embarrassing Facts)"   B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"   C. False Light"   D. Misappropriation"
  • 47. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"" " "
  • 48. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"  There are 3 factors that separate legal/illegal embarrassing facts." " "
  • 49. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"  There are 3 factors that separate legal/illegal embarrassing facts."   I. Public domain - available to everyone" " "
  • 50. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"  There are 3 factors that separate legal/illegal embarrassing facts."   I. Public domain - available to everyone" •  As a rule of thumb, if you can find it using legal methods, you can print it." " "
  • 51. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"  There are 3 factors that separate legal/illegal embarrassing facts."   I. Public domain - available to everyone" •  As a rule of thumb, if you can find it using legal methods, you can print it." " •  If you have to do something sneaky to find it, you probably shouldn t have it. "
  • 52. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"  There are 3 factors that separate legal/illegal embarrassing facts."   I. Public domain - available to everyone" •  As a rule of thumb, if you can find it using legal methods, you can print it." " •  If you have to do something sneaky to find it, you probably shouldn t have it.   II. Intimacy - how personal is the info"
  • 53. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"  There are 3 factors that separate legal/illegal embarrassing facts."   I. Public domain - available to everyone" •  As a rule of thumb, if you can find it using legal methods, you can print it." " •  If you have to do something sneaky to find it, you probably shouldn t have it.   II. Intimacy - how personal is the info" •  How does the subject handle the information"
  • 54. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"  There are 3 factors that separate legal/illegal embarrassing facts."   I. Public domain - available to everyone" •  As a rule of thumb, if you can find it using legal methods, you can print it." " •  If you have to do something sneaky to find it, you probably shouldn t have it.   II. Intimacy - how personal is the info" •  How does the subject handle the information"   III. Offensiveness - how shocking is the info"
  • 55. 2. Invasion - A. Public Disclosure"  There are 3 factors that separate legal/illegal embarrassing facts."   I. Public domain - available to everyone" •  As a rule of thumb, if you can find it using legal methods, you can print it." " •  If you have to do something sneaky to find it, you probably shouldn t have it.   II. Intimacy - how personal is the info" •  How does the subject handle the information "   III. Offensiveness - how shocking is the info" •  Family conditions within a home" •  The circumstances of a death" •  Common knowledge health issues not technically classified as private"
  • 56. 2.Invasion A. Public Disclosure
DEFENSE""
  • 57. 2.Invasion A. Public Disclosure
DEFENSE"  There are three good defenses to this type of suit." "
  • 58. 2.Invasion A. Public Disclosure
DEFENSE"  There are three good defenses to this type of suit."   Consent: Get written permission to write the story/ take the picture from the subject. " "
  • 59. 2.Invasion A. Public Disclosure
DEFENSE"  There are three good defenses to this type of suit."   Consent: Get written permission to write the story/ take the picture from the subject. " •  Minors CAN give consent if they are of sound mind."
  • 60. 2.Invasion A. Public Disclosure
DEFENSE"  There are three good defenses to this type of suit."   Consent: Get written permission to write the story/ take the picture from the subject. " •  Minors CAN give consent if they are of sound mind."   Newsworthiness: Even if the information is private, intimate, and offensive, it may be of legitimate concern to the public." "
  • 61. 2.Invasion A. Public Disclosure
DEFENSE"  There are three good defenses to this type of suit."   Consent: Get written permission to write the story/ take the picture from the subject. " •  Minors CAN give consent if they are of sound mind."   Newsworthiness: Even if the information is private, intimate, and offensive, it may be of legitimate concern to the public." •  Public officials have basically forfeited their right to privacy." •  What stake does the public have in the information?" "
  • 62. 2.Invasion A. Public Disclosure
DEFENSE"  There are three good defenses to this type of suit."   Consent: Get written permission to write the story/ take the picture from the subject. " •  Minors CAN give consent if they are of sound mind."   Newsworthiness: Even if the information is private, intimate, and offensive, it may be of legitimate concern to the public." •  Public officials have basically forfeited their right to privacy." •  What stake does the public have in the information?"   Privilege: Certain settings/documents void an individual s right to privacy."
  • 63. 2.Invasion A. Public Disclosure
DEFENSE"  There are three good defenses to this type of suit."   Consent: Get written permission to write the story/ take the picture from the subject. " •  Minors CAN give consent if they are of sound mind."   Newsworthiness: Even if the information is private, intimate, and offensive, it may be of legitimate concern to the public." •  Public officials have basically forfeited their right to privacy." •  What stake does the public have in the information?"   Privilege: Certain settings/documents void an individual s right to privacy." •  Court rooms, public record reprinting, etc."
  • 64. QUIZ TIME"" " "
  • 65. QUIZ TIME"  Whichof the following is considered public domain information?" " "
  • 66. QUIZ TIME"  Whichof the following is considered public domain information?" 1. Employment status" 2. Board meeting minutes" 3. Medical records" 4. Sexual predator status" 5. Home address / telephone number" 6. Grade/transcript history" 7. Salaries of tax-fed positions" "
  • 67. QUIZ TIME"  Whichof the following is considered public domain information?" 1. Employment status" 2. Board meeting minutes" 3. Medical records" 4. Sexual predator status! 5. Home address / telephone number" 6. Grade/transcript history" 7. Salaries of tax-fed positions" "
  • 68. QUIZ TIME"" "
  • 69. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. ""
  • 70. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. "While covering football practice, you notice an open wound injury not being treated according to the safety procedures outlined by your school. A severe cut was swabbed with alcohol but not bandaged."
  • 71. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. "While covering football practice, you notice an open wound injury not being treated according to the safety procedures outlined by your school. A severe cut was swabbed with alcohol but not bandaged."You interview 6 players who have suffered injuries and learn proper procedures are followed during games but not during practices.""
  • 72. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. "While covering football practice, you notice an open wound injury not being treated according to the safety procedures outlined by your school. A severe cut was swabbed with alcohol but not bandaged."You interview 6 players who have suffered injuries and learn proper procedures are followed during games but not during practices.""Is it an invasion of privacy to write a story about the dangers to which the students are exposed by not bandaging wounds if you" "
  • 73. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. "While covering football practice, you notice an open wound injury not being treated according to the safety procedures outlined by your school. A severe cut was swabbed with alcohol but not bandaged."You interview 6 players who have suffered injuries and learn proper procedures are followed during games but not during practices.""Is it an invasion of privacy to write a story about the dangers to which the students are exposed by not bandaging wounds if you""A. name the student with Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"
  • 74. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. "While covering football practice, you notice an open wound injury not being treated according to the safety procedures outlined by your school. A severe cut was swabbed with alcohol but not bandaged."You interview 6 players who have suffered injuries and learn proper procedures are followed during games but not during practices.""Is it an invasion of privacy to write a story about the dangers to which the students are exposed by not bandaging wounds if you""A. name the student with Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"B. mention that a player has Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"
  • 75. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. "While covering football practice, you notice an open wound injury not being treated according to the safety procedures outlined by your school. A severe cut was swabbed with alcohol but not bandaged."You interview 6 players who have suffered injuries and learn proper procedures are followed during games but not during practices.""Is it an invasion of privacy to write a story about the dangers to which the students are exposed by not bandaging wounds if you""A. name the student with Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"B. mention that a player has Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"C. don t mention the player/disease but do name your sources"yes "no"
  • 76. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. "While covering football practice, you notice an open wound injury not being treated according to the safety procedures outlined by your school. A severe cut was swabbed with alcohol but not bandaged."You interview 6 players who have suffered injuries and learn proper procedures are followed during games but not during practices.""Is it an invasion of privacy to write a story about the dangers to which the students are exposed by not bandaging wounds if you""A. name the student with Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"B. mention that a player has Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"C. don t mention the player/disease but do name your sources"yes "no"D. don t mention the player/disease but do name the coaches "yes "no"
  • 77. QUIZ TIME"It is common knowledge (not publicly disclosed) that a member of the football team has and is being treated for Hepatitis C. "While covering football practice, you notice an open wound injury not being treated according to the safety procedures outlined by your school. A severe cut was swabbed with alcohol but not bandaged."You interview 6 players who have suffered injuries and learn proper procedures are followed during games but not during practices.""Is it an invasion of privacy to write a story about the dangers to which the students are exposed by not bandaging wounds if you""A. name the student with Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"B. mention that a player has Hepatitis C " " "yes "no"C. don t mention the player/disease but do name your sources"yes "no!D. don t mention the player/disease but do name the coaches "yes "no"
  • 78. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"
  • 79. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  Definition: Gathering of news in a place where the subject would expect privacy, or using a method of which the subject is unaware.
  • 80. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  The three types of intrusion are
  • 81. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  The three types of intrusion are   I. Trespassing: going somewhere you re not suppose to go
  • 82. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  The three types of intrusion are   I. Trespassing: going somewhere you re not suppose to go   II. Secret Surveillance: getting info via a secret method like tape recorders, video tapes, telescopes or high powered lenses
  • 83. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  The three types of intrusion are   I. Trespassing: going somewhere you re not suppose to go   II. Secret Surveillance: getting info via a secret method like tape recorders, video tapes, telescopes or high powered lenses   III. Misrepresentation: pretending to be someone you re not in order to gain access to info you shouldn t have.
  • 84. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"
  • 85. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  hanging out in a bathroom stall or in the locker room and taking notes…
  • 86. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  hanging out in a bathroom stall or in the locker room and taking notes…  taking pictures through someone s window…
  • 87. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  hanging out in a bathroom stall or in the locker room and taking notes…  taking pictures through someone s window…  spying with a telescope…
  • 88. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  hanging out in a bathroom stall or in the locker room and taking notes…  taking pictures through someone s window…  spying with a telescope…  using a hidden camera or tape recorder…
  • 89. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  hanging out in a bathroom stall or in the locker room and taking notes…  taking pictures through someone s window…  spying with a telescope…  using a hidden camera or tape recorder…  pretending to be someone you re not…
  • 90. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"
  • 91. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  If witnesses can see/hear it happening in public, it is fair game.
  • 92. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  If witnesses can see/hear it happening in public, it is fair game.  If the subject has a reasonable expectation of privacy, BE CAREFUL.
  • 93. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion"  If witnesses can see/hear it happening in public, it is fair game.  If the subject has a reasonable expectation of privacy, BE CAREFUL.  Use the naked eye rule.
  • 94. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion
DEFENSE"
  • 95. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion
DEFENSE" -Newsworthiness: it was too important not to print.
  • 96. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion
DEFENSE" -Newsworthiness: it was too important not to print. -Right of Reply: you tried to let the subject respond to your information before you published it.
  • 97. 2. Invasion B. Intrusion upon Seclusion
DEFENSE" -Newsworthiness: it was too important not to print. -Right of Reply: you tried to let the subject respond to your information before you published it. -Consent consent consent
  • 98. QUIZ TIME"
  • 99. QUIZ TIME"  The temperature has been over 100 degrees for 3 weeks straight, and a photographer is told to get a picture of people dealing with the heat. ""
  • 100. QUIZ TIME"  The temperature has been over 100 degrees for 3 weeks straight, and a photographer is told to get a picture of people dealing with the heat. "  He loads his camera up with an ultra-powerful lens and pans a rural residential street in town, but because it is so hot, nobody is around. ""
  • 101. QUIZ TIME"  The temperature has been over 100 degrees for 3 weeks straight, and a photographer is told to get a picture of people dealing with the heat. "  He loads his camera up with an ultra-powerful lens and pans a rural residential street in town, but because it is so hot, nobody is around. "  Through his ultra-powerful lens, he notices an elderly woman sitting in a rocker on her screened-in porch approximately 50 yards off the road. Her dress hiked up to her waist.""
  • 102. QUIZ TIME"  The temperature has been over 100 degrees for 3 weeks straight, and a photographer is told to get a picture of people dealing with the heat. "  He loads his camera up with an ultra-powerful lens and pans a rural residential street in town, but because it is so hot, nobody is around. "  Through his ultra-powerful lens, he notices an elderly woman sitting in a rocker on her screened-in porch approximately 50 yards off the road. Her dress hiked up to her waist."  Her granny-panties thoroughly exposed.""
  • 103. QUIZ TIME"  The temperature has been over 100 degrees for 3 weeks straight, and a photographer is told to get a picture of people dealing with the heat. "  He loads his camera up with an ultra-powerful lens and pans a rural residential street in town, but because it is so hot, nobody is around. "  Through his ultra-powerful lens, he notices an elderly woman sitting in a rocker on her screened-in porch approximately 50 yards off the road. Her dress hiked up to her waist."  Her granny-panties thoroughly exposed."  Is it an invasion of privacy to run the photo? "Yes "No"
  • 104. QUIZ TIME"  The temperature has been over 100 degrees for 3 weeks straight, and a photographer is told to get a picture of people dealing with the heat. "  He loads his camera up with an ultra-powerful lens and pans a rural residential street in town, but because it is so hot, nobody is around. "  Through his ultra-powerful lens, he notices an elderly woman sitting in a rocker on her screened-in porch approximately 50 yards off the road. Her dress hiked up to her waist."  Her granny-panties thoroughly exposed."  Is it an invasion of privacy to run the photo? "Yes "No"
  • 105. QUIZ TIME"
  • 106. QUIZ TIME"  On your way into the school one morning (15 minutes before classes begin), you see a bus driver accidentally hit a student s car while pulling out of the parking lot.""
  • 107. QUIZ TIME"  On your way into the school one morning (15 minutes before classes begin), you see a bus driver accidentally hit a student s car while pulling out of the parking lot."  Because you re a great journalism student, you happen to have your camera and start shooting pictures of him surveying the damage.""
  • 108. QUIZ TIME"  On your way into the school one morning (15 minutes before classes begin), you see a bus driver accidentally hit a student s car while pulling out of the parking lot."  Because you re a great journalism student, you happen to have your camera and start shooting pictures of him surveying the damage."  The bus driver refuses to talk to you and is quite upset that you re taking pictures.""
  • 109. QUIZ TIME"  On your way into the school one morning (15 minutes before classes begin), you see a bus driver accidentally hit a student s car while pulling out of the parking lot."  Because you re a great journalism student, you happen to have your camera and start shooting pictures of him surveying the damage."  The bus driver refuses to talk to you and is quite upset that you re taking pictures."  Within a minute, the principal is in the lot and tells you that you have to put the camera away and threatens to suspend you if you don t.""
  • 110. QUIZ TIME"  On your way into the school one morning (15 minutes before classes begin), you see a bus driver accidentally hit a student s car while pulling out of the parking lot."  Because you re a great journalism student, you happen to have your camera and start shooting pictures of him surveying the damage."  The bus driver refuses to talk to you and is quite upset that you re taking pictures."  Within a minute, the principal is in the lot and tells you that you have to put the camera away and threatens to suspend you if you don t."  Is it an invasion of privacy (either public disclosure or intrusion) to take or print the photos? "Yes "No "
  • 111. QUIZ TIME"  On your way into the school one morning (15 minutes before classes begin), you see a bus driver accidentally hit a student s car while pulling out of the parking lot."  Because you re a great journalism student, you happen to have your camera and start shooting pictures of him surveying the damage."  The bus driver refuses to talk to you and is quite upset that you re taking pictures."  Within a minute, the principal is in the lot and tells you that you have to put the camera away and threatens to suspend you if you don t."  Is it an invasion of privacy (either public disclosure or intrusion) to take or print the photos? "Yes "No "
  • 112. QUIZ TIME"
  • 113. QUIZ TIME"  A female senior decides to enter a wet t-shirt contest in a neighboring city.""
  • 114. QUIZ TIME"  A female senior decides to enter a wet t-shirt contest in a neighboring city. "  Your staff, by whatever means, ends up with a photo of the student participating in the event.""
  • 115. QUIZ TIME"  A female senior decides to enter a wet t-shirt contest in a neighboring city. "  Your staff, by whatever means, ends up with a photo of the student participating in the event."  Assuming there is no nudity or otherwise questionable content in the photo, can she win a lawsuit against you for invasion of privacy if you run a story/photo about it?" " "Yes "No"
  • 116. QUIZ TIME"  A female senior decides to enter a wet t-shirt contest in a neighboring city. "  Your staff, by whatever means, ends up with a photo of the student participating in the event."  Assuming there is no nudity or otherwise questionable content in the photo, can she win a lawsuit against you for invasion of privacy if you run a story/photo about it?" " "Yes "No"
  • 117. 2. Invasion C. False Light"
  • 118. 2. Invasion C. False Light"  FalseLight: the unflattering or offensive portrayal - in words or images - of someone as something he/she is not"
  • 119. 2. Invasion C. False Light"  Don t insinuate or mislead" "
  • 120. 2. Invasion C. False Light"  Don t insinuate or mislead"   sold drugs to v. has been charged with ""
  • 121. 2. Invasion C. False Light"  Don t insinuate or mislead"   sold drugs to v. has been charged with "  Be careful with attributions" "
  • 122. 2. Invasion C. False Light"  Don t insinuate or mislead"   sold drugs to v. has been charged with "  Be careful with attributions"   Senior Emily Walker cradles newborn Makaila Miller outside the gym. Miller was born July 18 in Lyons, Kansas. Makaila s so precious, her mother said.""
  • 123. 2. Invasion C. False Light"  Don t insinuate or mislead"   sold drugs to v. has been charged with "  Be careful with attributions"   Senior Emily Walker cradles newborn Makaila Miller outside the gym. Miller was born July 18 in Lyons, Kansas. Makaila s so precious, her mother said."  Be careful with old photos and how you organize/store them" "
  • 124. 2. Invasion C. False Light"  Don t insinuate or mislead"   sold drugs to v. has been charged with "  Be careful with attributions"   Senior Emily Walker cradles newborn Makaila Miller outside the gym. Miller was born July 18 in Lyons, Kansas. Makaila s so precious, her mother said."  Be careful with old photos and how you organize/store them"   You run a story about sex offenders who live near the school and a picture of your principal accidentally ends up in the same photo folder."
  • 125. 2. Invasion C. False Light
DEFENSE"  Most of the time this type of suit is brought against people who created the false light intentionally. There really is no defense for that."
  • 126. 2. Invasion C. False Light
DEFENSE"  Most of the time this type of suit is brought against people who created the false light intentionally. There really is no defense for that."   Reasonable Caution: if the false light was created unintentionally, you may get off by proving that you tried your best to ensure accuracy before printing. " "
  • 127. 2. Invasion C. False Light
DEFENSE"  Most of the time this type of suit is brought against people who created the false light intentionally. There really is no defense for that."   Reasonable Caution: if the false light was created unintentionally, you may get off by proving that you tried your best to ensure accuracy before printing. "   Retraction: apologize for and correct your error"
  • 128. QUIZ TIME"
  • 129. QUIZ TIME"  Your staff runs a photo of two football players hugging each other after a big win."
  • 130. QUIZ TIME"  Your staff runs a photo of two football players hugging each other after a big win."  They ve already showered and are wearing their street clothes."
  • 131. QUIZ TIME"  Your staff runs a photo of two football players hugging each other after a big win."  They ve already showered and are wearing their street clothes."  Which of the following (poorly written) captions would MOST LIKELY get the staff sued for false light? "  Assume they re hugging because they won and not because they re homosexuals."
  • 132. QUIZ TIME"  Your staff runs a photo of two football players hugging each other after a big win."  They ve already showered and are wearing their street clothes."  Which of the following (poorly written) captions would MOST LIKELY get the staff sued for false light? "  Assume they re hugging because they won and not because they re homosexuals."  A. You didn t even play, scrub, but nice job anyway! "
  • 133. QUIZ TIME"  Your staff runs a photo of two football players hugging each other after a big win."  They ve already showered and are wearing their street clothes."  Which of the following (poorly written) captions would MOST LIKELY get the staff sued for false light? "  Assume they re hugging because they won and not because they re homosexuals."  A. You didn t even play, scrub, but nice job anyway! "  B. A couple of fairy nice fellows. "
  • 134. QUIZ TIME"  Your staff runs a photo of two football players hugging each other after a big win."  They ve already showered and are wearing their street clothes."  Which of the following (poorly written) captions would MOST LIKELY get the staff sued for false light? "  Assume they re hugging because they won and not because they re homosexuals."  A. You didn t even play, scrub, but nice job anyway! "  B. A couple of fairy nice fellows. "  C. I love you, man. This bud s for you. "
  • 135. QUIZ TIME"  Your staff runs a photo of two football players hugging each other after a big win."  They ve already showered and are wearing their street clothes."  Which of the following (poorly written) captions would MOST LIKELY get the staff sued for false light? "  Assume they re hugging because they won and not because they re homosexuals."  A. You didn t even play, scrub, but nice job anyway! "  B. A couple of fairy nice fellows. "  C. I love you, man. This bud s for you. "  D. After the game, the queerterback embraces the tight end. "
  • 136. QUIZ TIME"  Your staff runs a photo of two football players hugging each other after a big win."  They ve already showered and are wearing their street clothes."  Which of the following (poorly written) captions would MOST LIKELY get the staff sued for false light? "  Assume they re hugging because they won and not because they re homosexuals."  A. You didn t even play, scrub, but nice job anyway! "  B. A couple of fairy nice fellows. !  C. I love you, man. This bud s for you. "  D. After the game, the queerterback embraces the tight end. !
  • 137. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation""
  • 138. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  DEFENITION: Unauthorized use of a person s name, likeness, image, or voice to promote a commercial product or service"
  • 139. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation""
  • 140. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  If you re saying it because it happened, it s reporting." "
  • 141. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  If you re saying it because it happened, it s reporting."   70% of students preferred American Eagle to Abercrombie." "
  • 142. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  If you re saying it because it happened, it s reporting."   70% of students preferred American Eagle to Abercrombie."   Pepsi sponsored the athletics programs." "
  • 143. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  If you re saying it because it happened, it s reporting."   70% of students preferred American Eagle to Abercrombie."   Pepsi sponsored the athletics programs."   The Cook s Nook sold the crafts created by the FCCLA group." "
  • 144. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  If you re saying it because it happened, it s reporting."   70% of students preferred American Eagle to Abercrombie."   Pepsi sponsored the athletics programs."   The Cook s Nook sold the crafts created by the FCCLA group."   For those who wish to support the Pattersons, breast cancer awareness wrist bands are available for purchase at thinkpink.org or in the library before and after school.""
  • 145. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  If you re saying it because it happened, it s reporting."   70% of students preferred American Eagle to Abercrombie."   Pepsi sponsored the athletics programs."   The Cook s Nook sold the crafts created by the FCCLA group."   For those who wish to support the Pattersons, breast cancer awareness wrist bands are available for purchase at thinkpink.org or in the library before and after school."  If someone paid you, its advertising." "
  • 146. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  If you re saying it because it happened, it s reporting."   70% of students preferred American Eagle to Abercrombie."   Pepsi sponsored the athletics programs."   The Cook s Nook sold the crafts created by the FCCLA group."   For those who wish to support the Pattersons, breast cancer awareness wrist bands are available for purchase at thinkpink.org or in the library before and after school."  If someone paid you, its advertising."   Senior pics with photographer advertisements." "
  • 147. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation"  If you re saying it because it happened, it s reporting."   70% of students preferred American Eagle to Abercrombie."   Pepsi sponsored the athletics programs."   The Cook s Nook sold the crafts created by the FCCLA group."   For those who wish to support the Pattersons, breast cancer awareness wrist bands are available for purchase at thinkpink.org or in the library before and after school."  If someone paid you, its advertising."   Senior pics with photographer advertisements."   Mug shot with dental ad."
  • 148. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation 
DEFENSE" "
  • 149. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation 
DEFENSE"  Two-partyCONSENT: both the individual and the company agree to your use in writing." "
  • 150. 2. Invasion D. Misappropriation 
DEFENSE"  Two-party CONSENT: both the individual and the company agree to your use in writing."  A model release form is standard practice any time a person is used in a commercial context." "
  • 151. QUIZ TIME"
  • 152. QUIZ TIME"  Josh Miller is a senior boy whose father owns a car dealership. It s cleverly named Miller Motors. ""
  • 153. QUIZ TIME"  Josh Miller is a senior boy whose father owns a car dealership. It s cleverly named Miller Motors. "  One day after school, Josh and his friend Mike Otter are hanging out at Miller Motors and decide to sit in a couple of Mustangs on the lot.""
  • 154. QUIZ TIME"  Josh Miller is a senior boy whose father owns a car dealership. It s cleverly named Miller Motors. "  One day after school, Josh and his friend Mike Otter are hanging out at Miller Motors and decide to sit in a couple of Mustangs on the lot."  Josh s dad takes a picture of the boys and submits it to the school paper for use in the Miller Motors ad.""
  • 155. QUIZ TIME"  Josh Miller is a senior boy whose father owns a car dealership. It s cleverly named Miller Motors. "  One day after school, Josh and his friend Mike Otter are hanging out at Miller Motors and decide to sit in a couple of Mustangs on the lot."  Josh s dad takes a picture of the boys and submits it to the school paper for use in the Miller Motors ad."  Could the paper face a misappropriations suit for using this photo? " "Yes " "No""
  • 156. QUIZ TIME"  Josh Miller is a senior boy whose father owns a car dealership. It s cleverly named Miller Motors. "  One day after school, Josh and his friend Mike Otter are hanging out at Miller Motors and decide to sit in a couple of Mustangs on the lot."  Josh s dad takes a picture of the boys and submits it to the school paper for use in the Miller Motors ad."  Could the paper face a misappropriations suit for using this photo? " "Yes " "No""
  • 157. QUIZ TIME"  Josh Miller is a senior boy whose father owns a car dealership. It s cleverly named Miller Motors. "  One day after school, Josh and his friend Mike Otter are hanging out at Miller Motors and decide to sit in a couple of Mustangs on the lot."  Josh s dad takes a picture of the boys and submits it to the school paper for use in the Miller Motors ad."  Could the paper face a misappropriations suit for using this photo? " "Yes " "No"  The paper is vulnerable in this situation…""
  • 158. QUIZ TIME"  Josh Miller is a senior boy whose father owns a car dealership. It s cleverly named Miller Motors. "  One day after school, Josh and his friend Mike Otter are hanging out at Miller Motors and decide to sit in a couple of Mustangs on the lot."  Josh s dad takes a picture of the boys and submits it to the school paper for use in the Miller Motors ad."  Could the paper face a misappropriations suit for using this photo? " "Yes " "No"  The paper is vulnerable in this situation…"  …especially since the staff doesn t realize that Mike Otter s father owns a car lot in town also . . . Otter Autos."
  • 159. 3. Obscenity""
  • 160. 3. Obscenity"  Obscenity is relative to the community in which you live. It is based on community standards and is difficult to define.""
  • 161. 3. Obscenity"  Obscenity is relative to the community in which you live. It is based on community standards and is difficult to define."  Purposeless (or pornographic ) sexual content is strictly off limits. Present all questionable material in a journalistic context. Why are you covering it in the first place?""
  • 162. 3. Obscenity"  Obscenity is relative to the community in which you live. It is based on community standards and is difficult to define."  Purposeless (or pornographic ) sexual content is strictly off limits. Present all questionable material in a journalistic context. Why are you covering it in the first place?"  Compare your material to that of a professional publication. CHECK YOUR MOTIVES.""
  • 163. 3. Obscenity"  Obscenity is relative to the community in which you live. It is based on community standards and is difficult to define."  Purposeless (or pornographic ) sexual content is strictly off limits. Present all questionable material in a journalistic context. Why are you covering it in the first place?"  Compare your material to that of a professional publication. CHECK YOUR MOTIVES."  Compare images to the school dress code as a rule of thumb.""
  • 164. 3. Obscenity"  Obscenity is relative to the community in which you live. It is based on community standards and is difficult to define."  Purposeless (or pornographic ) sexual content is strictly off limits. Present all questionable material in a journalistic context. Why are you covering it in the first place?"  Compare your material to that of a professional publication. CHECK YOUR MOTIVES."  Compare images to the school dress code as a rule of thumb."  Compare language to what is allowed in class. FCC rules are much " more liberal than your school will probably tolerate.
  • 165. QUIZ TIME""
  • 166. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes " "No""
  • 167. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes ! "No""
  • 168. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes ! "No"  Same story/different pic - girl in a bathing suit in a tanning bed…" "Yes " "No""
  • 169. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes " "No"  Same story/different pic - girl in a bathing suit in a tanning bed…" "Yes ! "No""
  • 170. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes ! "No"  Same story/different pic - girl in a bathing suit in a tanning bed…" !Yes ! "No"  Volleyball team rents the city pool for team bonding activity in August… bikinis galore…" "Yes " "No"
  • 171. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes " "No"  Same story/different pic - girl in a bathing suit in a tanning bed…" !Yes " "No"  Volleyball team rents the city pool for team bonding activity in August… bikinis galore…" "Yes " "No""
  • 172. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes " "No"  Same story/different pic - girl in a bathing suit in a tanning bed…" !Yes " "No"  Volleyball team rents the city pool for team bonding activity in August… bikinis galore…" !Yes " "No"  Student garage band in basement of drummer s house. . .topless woman on a poster in the background of the photo…" "Yes " "No""
  • 173. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes " "No"  Same story/different pic - girl in a bathing suit in a tanning bed…" !Yes " "No"  Volleyball team rents the city pool for team bonding activity in August… bikinis galore…" "Yes ! "No"  Student garage band in basement of drummer s house. . .topless woman on a poster in the background of the photo…" "Yes " "No""
  • 174. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes ! "No"  Same story/different pic - girl in a bathing suit in a tanning bed…" !Yes " "No"  Volleyball team rents the city pool for team bonding activity in August… bikinis galore…" !Yes ! "No"  Student garage band in basement of drummer s house. . .topless woman on a poster in the background of the photo…" "Yes " "No"  You ask ask student what he thought of the D.J. at prom and he says Dude was bitch n. " "Yes " "No"
  • 175. QUIZ TIME"  You re doing a story on prom preparation. Is it ok to picture a department store dressing room door with a student s head sticking out the top and legs sticking out the bottom…pile of clothes at feet.." "Yes " "No"  Same story/different pic - girl in a bathing suit in a tanning bed…" "Yes ! "No"  Volleyball team rents the city pool for team bonding activity in August… bikinis galore…" !Yes ! "No"  Student garage band in basement of drummer s house. . .topless woman on a poster in the background of the photo…" "Yes " "No"  You ask ask student what he thought of the D.J. at prom and he says Dude was bitch n. " "Yes " "No"
  • 176. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity ""
  • 177. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  A school publication can objectively report on but may not ADVOCATE any activity that would be illegal for the majority of its readership." "
  • 178. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  A school publication can objectively report on but may not ADVOCATE any activity that would be illegal for the majority of its readership." •  Drinking" •  Smoking" •  Sexual relationships" •  Etc."
  • 179. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  A school publication can objectively report on but may not ADVOCATE any activity that would be illegal for the majority of its readership." •  Drinking" •  Smoking" •  Sexual relationships" •  Etc."  Certain dangerous activities, although not illegal, can be censored if the coverage ADVOCATES the activity and could lead to endangering readers."
  • 180. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  A school publication can objectively report on but may not ADVOCATE any activity that would be illegal for the majority of its readership." •  Drinking" •  Smoking" •  Sexual relationships" •  Etc."  Certain dangerous activities, although not illegal, can be censored if the coverage ADVOCATES the activity and could lead to endangering readers." •  Self mutilation" •  Eating disorders" •  Reckless endangerment (racing cars)" •  Etc."
  • 181. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity ""
  • 182. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  Report on everything that is happening in your school. Even sex, drugs, and rock n roll."""
  • 183. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  Report on everything that is happening in your school. Even sex, drugs, and rock n roll.""  Report on everything that is relevant to your readers."""
  • 184. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  Report on everything that is happening in your school. Even sex, drugs, and rock n roll.""  Report on everything that is relevant to your readers.""  JUST REMAIN OBJECTIVE - do not stand in support of activities that are illegal or dangerous."""
  • 185. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  Report on everything that is happening in your school. Even sex, drugs, and rock n roll.""  Report on everything that is relevant to your readers.""  JUST REMAIN OBJECTIVE - do not stand in support of activities that are illegal or dangerous.""  CHECK YOUR MOTIVES - why is it newsworthy? ""
  • 186. 4. Advocacy of Illegal Activity "  Report on everything that is happening in your school. Even sex, drugs, and rock n roll.""  Report on everything that is relevant to your readers.""  JUST REMAIN OBJECTIVE - do not stand in support of activities that are illegal or dangerous.""  CHECK YOUR MOTIVES - why is it newsworthy? "  Have an advertising policy."
  • 187. QUIZ TIME""
  • 188. QUIZ TIME"  Which of the following would be considered advocacy of illegal activity?"""
  • 189. QUIZ TIME"  Which of the following would be considered advocacy of illegal activity?""  A. printing a picture of someone nude in the locker room""
  • 190. QUIZ TIME"  Which of the following would be considered advocacy of illegal activity?""  A. printing a picture of someone nude in the locker room"  B. writing a false story about a teacher getting a DUI over Christmas break""
  • 191. QUIZ TIME"  Which of the following would be considered advocacy of illegal activity?""  A. printing a picture of someone nude in the locker room"  B. writing a false story about a teacher getting a DUI over Christmas break"  C. running a picture of a drunk student in a sidebar for alternatives to the school s after prom party""
  • 192. QUIZ TIME"  Which of the following would be considered advocacy of illegal activity?""  A. printing a picture of someone nude in the locker room"  B. writing a false story about a teacher getting a DUI over Christmas break"  C. running a picture of a drunk student in a sidebar for alternatives to the school s after prom party"  D. using a hidden camera to catch a custodian stealing from a teacher s desk"
  • 193. QUIZ TIME"  Which of the following would be considered advocacy of illegal activity?""  A. printing a picture of someone nude in the locker room"  B. writing a false story about a teacher getting a DUI over Christmas break"  C. running a picture of a drunk student in a sidebar for alternatives to the school s after prom party"  D. using a hidden camera to catch a custodian stealing from a teacher s desk"
  • 194. 5. Substantial Disruption ""
  • 195. 5. Substantial Disruption "  DEFINITION: reporting on activities or distributing news during a time or in such a manner that the staff KNOWS doing so will destroy the educational atmosphere of the school.""
  • 196. 5. Substantial Disruption "  DEFINITION: reporting on activities or distributing news during a time or in such a manner that the staff KNOWS doing so will destroy the educational atmosphere of the school."  The school CAN set your distribution time and method.""
  • 197. 5. Substantial Disruption "  DEFINITION: reporting on activities or distributing news during a time or in such a manner that the staff KNOWS doing so will destroy the educational atmosphere of the school."  The school CAN set your distribution time and method."  Don t organize and publicize protests, don t distribute your publication during class, etc.""
  • 198. 5. Substantial Disruption "  DEFINITION: reporting on activities or distributing news during a time or in such a manner that the staff KNOWS doing so will destroy the educational atmosphere of the school."  The school CAN set your distribution time and method."  Don t organize and publicize protests, don t distribute your publication during class, etc."  Do your job, but allow the school to function as it should."
  • 199. Copyright Law"  This is a whole separate issue - it has nothing to do with your 1st amendment rights.""
  • 200. Copyright Law"  Copyright laws protect"   Photos"   Stories"   Illustrations"   Logos"   Cartoons"   Songs/Lyrics"   Etc."  Copyright generally does NOT protect"   Facts/Ideas"   Public Records"   Short portions of copyrighted materials (gray area)"   Familiar phrases / symbols """
  • 201. Copyright Law"  Attribution is NOT the same as PERMISSION."   Contact the owner(s)."   Follow their procedures."   It will cost money."   It will be a pain in the butt.""""
  • 202. ETHICS v. LAW" "
  • 203. ETHICS v. LAW"  Law refers to the rules and guidelines established by and enforced by a government agency."   …what you CAN do…""
  • 204. ETHICS v. LAW"  Law refers to the rules and guidelines established by and enforced by a government agency."   …what you CAN do…""  Ethics refers to the moral principles enforced by the staff and the self. "   …what you SHOULD do…""
  • 205. ETHICS v. LAW"  Law refers to the rules and guidelines established by and enforced by a government agency."   …what you CAN do…""  Ethics refers to the moral principles enforced by the staff and the self. "   …what you SHOULD do…""  Use good taste, be honest, be objective, be considerate, be consistent.""
  • 206. ETHICS v. LAW"  Law refers to the rules and guidelines established by and enforced by a government agency."   …what you CAN do…""  Ethics refers to the moral principles enforced by the staff and the self. "   …what you SHOULD do…""  Use good taste, be honest, be objective, be considerate, be consistent.""  Code of Ethics for the Society of Professional Journalists "   Seek and report the truth. "   Minimize harm. "   Act independently. "   Be accountable."
  • 207. Ethical Practices """
  • 208. Ethical Practices "  Does the law require you to show your principal a controversial story that will be distributed that day?""
  • 209. Ethical Practices "  Does the law require you to show your principal a controversial story that will be distributed that day?"  Wouldn t it be nice to give him a heads up about the story and your motivations for covering it?""
  • 210. Ethical Practices "  Does the law require you to show your principal a controversial story that will be distributed that day?"  Wouldn t it be nice to give him a heads up about the story and your motivations for covering it?"  Does the law require you to allow the school board president to preview a story about decisions they ve made that have negatively impacted the school?""
  • 211. Ethical Practices "  Does the law require you to show your principal a controversial story that will be distributed that day?"  Wouldn t it be nice to give him a heads up about the story and your motivations for covering it?"  Does the law require you to allow the school board president to preview a story about decisions they ve made that have negatively impacted the school?"  Wouldn t it be smart to fact check with the president to make sure your story is accurate?"""
  • 212. Ethical Practices "  Does the law require you to show your principal a controversial story that will be distributed that day?"  Wouldn t it be nice to give him a heads up about the story and your motivations for covering it?"  Does the law require you to allow the school board president to preview a story about decisions they ve made that have negatively impacted the school?"  Wouldn t it be smart to fact check with the president to make sure your story is accurate?"  Is there anything illegal about printing a picture of the compound fracture that occurred during the football game?"""
  • 213. Ethical Practices "  Does the law require you to show your principal a controversial story that will be distributed that day?"  Wouldn t it be nice to give him a heads up about the story and your motivations for covering it?"  Does the law require you to allow the school board president to preview a story about decisions they ve made that have negatively impacted the school?"  Wouldn t it be smart to fact check with the president to make sure your story is accurate?"  Is there anything illegal about printing a picture of the compound fracture that occurred during the football game?"  Wouldn t the picture of the concerned fans tell the story better?""
  • 214. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "
  • 215. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality."
  • 216. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality."   Altering the orientation of a shot"
  • 217. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality."   Altering the orientation of a shot"   Pasting someone into a photo "
  • 218. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality."   Altering the orientation of a shot"   Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"
  • 219. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality."   Altering the orientation of a shot"   Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"   Splicing pictures together"
  • 220. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality."   Altering the orientation of a shot"   Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"   Splicing pictures together"   Etc."
  • 221. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality."   Altering the orientation of a shot"   Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"   Splicing pictures together"   Etc."  Stick to the basics"
  • 222. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality." Altering the orientation of a shot"     Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"   Splicing pictures together"   Etc."  Stick to the basics"   Lighting"
  • 223. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality." Altering the orientation of a shot"     Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"   Splicing pictures together"   Etc."  Stick to the basics"   Lighting"   Contrast" "
  • 224. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality." Altering the orientation of a shot"     Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"   Splicing pictures together"   Etc."  Stick to the basics"   Lighting"   Contrast"   Color adjustments"
  • 225. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality." Altering the orientation of a shot"     Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"   Splicing pictures together"   Etc."  Stick to the basics"   Lighting"   Contrast"   Color adjustments"   Dust/scratches""
  • 226. ETHICS: Photo Manipulation "  Photo manipulation refers to altering a photograph in such a way that the viewer is presented with a false reality." Altering the orientation of a shot"     Pasting someone into a photo "   Cleaning up blemishes on someone s face"   Splicing pictures together"   Etc."  Stick to the basics"   Lighting"   Contrast"   Color adjustments"   Dust/scratches"  You re a journalistic publication, not a photo studio.""
  • 227. ETHICS: What s at Stake? """
  • 228. ETHICS: What s at Stake? "  Credibility""
  • 229. ETHICS: What s at Stake? "  Credibility"  Without it, you have no readership." "
  • 230. ETHICS: What s at Stake? "  Credibility"  Without it, you have no readership."  Without a readership, you have no publication." "
  • 231. ETHICS: What s at Stake? "  Credibility"  Without it, you have no readership."  Without a readership, you have no publication."  Why can tabloids break all the rules and get away with it?" "
  • 232. ETHICS: What s at Stake? "  Credibility"  Without it, you have no readership."  Without a readership, you have no publication."  Why can tabloids break all the rules and get away with it?"  They have sacrificed their credibility which keeps them out of legal trouble. No reasonable person believes that junk.""
  • 233. ETHICS: What s at Stake? "  Credibility"  Without it, you have no readership."  Without a readership, you have no publication."  Why can tabloids break all the rules and get away with it?"  They have sacrificed their credibility which keeps them out of legal trouble. No reasonable person believes that junk."  They are not trying to be journalists. They exist for entertainment."
  • 234. QUIZ TIME"  Name the 5 violations of 1st amendment rights your adviser can and must censor.""
  • 235. QUIZ TIME"  Name the 5 violations of 1st amendment rights your adviser can and must censor."  Libel"  Invasion of Privacy"  Obscenity"  Advocacy"  Disruption"
  • 236. Summary"  There are great freedoms guaranteed to you as student journalists."   1st Amendment, Tinker, Hazelwood, Student Publications Act "  There are also serious limitations. "   Libel" •  Publication" •  Identification" •  Harm" •  Fault"   Invasion of Privacy" •  Disclosure " •  Public Domain, Intimacy, Offensiveness" •  Intrusion" •  False Light" •  Misappropriation"   Obscenity"   Advocacy"   Disruption"
  • 237. Summary"  Within the confines of the law, practice good ethics."  Be a journalist, not a scrap-booker."  Your adviser is here to make sure you stay within bounds, but this is YOUR publication."  When in doubt, get legal advice. "   www.splc.org"

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