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Acrylamide Presentation

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Presenation on Acrylamide

Presenation on Acrylamide

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  • 1. Acrylamide CHM230 Jeremy Sanner Leena Tarin Anita Wadkar Background: Digital images were captured in brightfield illumination with a Nikon Eclipse E600 microscope attached to a DXM 1200 digital camera system
  • 2. What is Acrylamide?
    • The chemical formula of Acrylamide is . 
    • The lUPAC name is 2-propenamide. It is a white odorless crystalline solid, soluble in water, ethanol, ether and chloroform. Acrylamide is in-compatible with acids, bases, oxidizing agents, iron and iron salts.
    • It decomposes non-thermally to form ammonia, and thermal decomposition produces carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen.
  • 3. Acrylamide in Your Food
    • Just mention hot french fries as a substitute for a serving of vegetable in a meal to a child and you will get no complaints.
      • According to a recent study posted by Journal of the American Dietetic Association french fries are the most common vegetable consumed by children in America.
      • Researchers from Ohio State University also found that fries account for one quarter of a child's weekly vegetable intake.
    • How does that effect them?
      • Apart from obesity, which is linked to consumption of fatty foods like fries, there is also one more factor to be considered and that is chemical called "ACRYLAMIDE".
      • According to a study commissioned by the Center For Science In Public Interest french fries contain a phenomenally high level of acrylamide compared to other foods.
      • The amount of acrylamide in an order of french fries is approximately 300 times more than what the EPA allows in a glass of water.
  • 4. How is Acrylamide formed
    • Acrylamide formation is a result of the Maillard reaction.
      • A reaction occurs between the carbohydrates (sugar) and proteins, and is responsible for changes in color, flavor and nutritive in food.
      • It has been confirmed that asparagine is the main amino acid responsible for its formation. Available evidence suggests that sugars and other carbonyl compounds play a specific role in the decarboxylation process of asparagine,
  • 5. Statistics
    • Average American:
      • Consumes 141lbs of potatoes per year
      • Consumes 30lbs of french fries per year
      • This equates to 205 servings per year.
    • Amount of acrylamide that average US person eats per day is 22 µg.
    • Amount of acrylamide found in top selling US french fries is 82µg.
  • 6. Industrial Uses of Acrylamide
    • Acrylamide may be released into the environment from waste during production and manufacturing of polyacrylamides and other polymers.
    • Common Industrial Uses include:
      • Additives for water treatment
      • Oil recovery
      • Flocculants
      • Sewage processing
      • Ore processing
      • Synthesis of dyes
  • 7. Effects of Acrylamide on People
    • If acrylamide is safely used in water treatment plants, then why be concerned?
      • Acrylamide is considered to be a mutagen and possibly a carcinogen in humans.
      • According to case studies provided by the National Cancer Institute some of the cancers that are believed to be related to acrylamide are:
        • oral cavity
        • pharynx
        • esophagus
        • larynx
        • kidney
        • breast
        • ovary
      • However like many cancer research this is not definitive.
    • Neurological damage has been associated to exposure of high levels of acrylamide in water treatment plants.
    • There have been cases of human poisoning due to contaminated well water in proximity to ground injection sites where acrylamide is disposed of.
  • 8. Effects of Acrylamide on Environment
    • Most acrylamide waste ends up in the ground and then leaches from the soil into ground water. Acrylamide is highly mobile in aqueous environments, easily moves through soil, it is carried great distances in ground water through deep rock aquifers.
    • Acute (short term) toxic effects could include the death of animals, birds and fish as well as death or low growth rates in plants.
  • 9. Handling and Storage to Reduce Acrylamide Formation
    • To reduce the production of acrylamide:
      • Soak raw potato slices in water for 15-30 minutes before frying or roasting to help reduce acrylamide formation.
      • Storing potatoes in the refrigerator can result in increased acrylamide during cooking. Therefore, store potatoes outside the refrigerator, preferably in a dark, cool place, such as a closet or a pantry.
  • 10. Preparation Methods to Reduce Acrylamide Formation
    • Steps to reduce acrylamide formation in french fries/potatoes:
      • 1. Methods to cook potatoes.
        • Microwaving (best)
        • Boiling
        • Roasting
        • Frying (worst)
      • 2. Cooking at lower temperatures. French fries should be golden yellow rather than to a more brown color.
      • 3. Optimum cooking temperatures to reduce acrylamide formation is below 180 degrees.
      • 4. Use margarine instead of oil when frying.
  • 11. Conclusion
    • While at this time research has proven that only acute contact of acrylamide will cause cancer it is strongly believed that ingestion of this chemical will increase the likelihood of developing some type of cancer in a persons life.
    • Is the risk worth it or would it be better to look into a better alternative the next time you run through the drive-thru for yourself or a child?
  • 12. Work Cited
    • “ Acrylamide Fact Sheet”. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 05 May 2005. 03 Apr.
    • 2009. <http://www.npi.gov.au/database/substance-info/profiles/5.html#common>.
    • “ Acrylamide Fact Sheet”. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 05 May 2005. 03 Apr.
    • 2009. <http://www.npi.gov.au/database/substance-info/profiles/5.html#environmentaleffects>.
    • “ Acrylamide in Food and Cancer Risk”. 29 Jul. 2008. National Cancer Institute. 01 Apr. 2009. < http://www.cancer
    • .gov/cancertopics/factsheet/risk/acrylamide-in-food>.
    • “ Acrylamide Questions and Answers”. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 22 May 2008. USFDA. 29 Mar.
    • 2009. <http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/acryfaq.html>.
    • “ Additional Information on Acrylamide, Diet, and Food Storage and Preparation”. Center for Food Safety and
    • Applied Nutrition. 22 May 2008. USFDA. 02 Apr. 2009. <http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/acryladv.html>.
    • Boyles, Salynn. “Acrylamide in Diet: Cancer Risk?”. 09 May 2008. WebMD Health News. Medicine Net Inc. 29 Mar.
    • 2009. < http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=89411>.
    • “ Chemical Summary for Acrylamide”. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxic U.S. Environmental Protection
    • Agency. Sep. 2004. 06 Apr. 2009. <http://www.epa.gov/chemfact/s_acryla.txt>.
    • “ Consumer Factsheet on: ACRYLAMIDE”. National Drinking Water Regulations. 28 Nov. 2006. U.S. Environmental
    • Protection Agency. 03 Apr. 2009. <http://www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/dw_contamfs/acrylami.html>.
    • Mesley, Wendy. “ What you can do: Reducing acrylamide in your food”. CBC. 14 Jan. 2003. 29 Mar. 2009.
    • < http://www.cbc.ca/consumers/market/files/health/acrylamide/can_do.html>.
    • “ New Tests Confirm Acrylamide in American Foods”. Copyright 2009. CSPI Newsroom. 29 Mar 2009.
    • <http://www.cspinet.org/new/200206251.html>.
  • 13. Works Cited
    • “ Physical Development-Obesity”. 356 Collard. University of Michigan. 31 Mar. 2009. <http://sitemaker. umich.edu
    • /356.collard/physical_development__obesity_>.
    • Schlosser, Eric. “ The Dark Side of the All-American meal ”. Pg.277. 2001. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing. 29 Mar. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=yNFN1OpnkBkC&pg=PA277&lpg=PA277&dq=Average+consumption+of+ french+fries+in+america&source=bl&ots=l-gkrAau0Z&sig=Kn1xlpcoIow-UzTHQMAmr3gZxno &hl=en&ei=ms7PSbbRHNCJtgfMr7HVCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result>.
    • Yaylayan, VA. “Acrylamide formation in food: a mechanistic perspective”. 2005. McGill University. Department of
    • Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry. 12 Apr. 2009. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 15759750?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=4&log$=relatedreviews&logdbfrom=pubmed>.
    • Zuckerman, Laurence D., Omar Thomas J. Fellers, Omar Alvarado, and Michael W Davidson. “Starch Granules in
    • Potato Tissues .” 01 Mar. 2004. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. Florida State University. 29 Mar. 2009. < http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/burgersnfries/burgersnfries.html>.

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