Clarence Earl Gideon – father: died when he was 3; dropped out of school in 8th grade; record by age 16; juvenile system; drifter; 6 kids by 4 women. All taken away by authorities. In and out of jail, prison and poor health. Settled down a little and did electrical work.In Panama City, FL in 1961. At age 51, bottle of wine, $5 in change and some money from a jukebox were missing.Per local custom, denied a lawyer. Convicted. 5 year sentence. Petitioned FBI, Florida Supreme Court. 5-page petition to SCOTUS. Heard it. Remanded for a new trial. Acquitted with help of counsel.
In Panama City, FL in 1961. At age 51, bottle of wine, $5 in change and some money from a jukebox were missing.Per local custom, denied a lawyer. Convicted. 5 year sentence. Petitioned FBI, Florida Supreme Court. 5-page petition to SCOTUS. Heard it. Remanded for a new trial. Acquitted with help of counsel.2,000 people were released in Florida alone.
This is the promise of Gideon!
U.S. Spends $14 on Corrections for every $1 spent on public defense.
We observed a misdemeanor docket of 192 total cases of a mixture of offenses, of which 60 had already been assigned to the two public defenders assigned to the courtroom (30 each). Assuming the docket ran for a full eight hours, ending by 5:00pm, an average client would have access to only 16 minutes of his attorney’s time that day.7/1/11 to 11/30/11 8,221 closed misdemeanor files by 21 attorneys for an average of 391 cases each in less than half a FYPerspective: Washington State Supr Ct considering caseload limits in similar courts of 300-400
Story of Corey
Established 1917.3rd oldest PD office in the nation
Established 1917.4th oldest PD office in the nation
For the PD’s officeFor our clients and those with criminal justice system involvement.
Underlying issues of clients. Highlight 34,000 contacts
30% arrest stat is from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – a Federal survey.
Story of Fred
End w/ request for text/email for contact info (explain cards)
Law Offices of the Shelby County Public Defender Established 1917
• 34,000 cases in FY2010 at Shelby County PD’s Office • 74 staff attorneys • An average day; an average yearThe Justice Gap
• The promise of Gideon – “lawyers in criminal courts are necessities, not luxuries.”• An estimated 80-90 percent of those charged with criminal offenses qualify for indigent defense.• 73% of county-based public defender systems DO NOT have enough attorneys to meet national guidelines.• Median starting salary for attorney in county-based PD office is $42,000 – $45,000.The Justice Gap
• 74 lawyers; 10 investigators; 15 administrative professionals• 34,000 cases in FY2010• Serving in 18 divisions of court at the Criminal Justice Center at 201 Poplar and 8 outlying municipal courts and appellate courts• Capital Defense Team – Gerald Skahan leads a team of death penalty certified attorneys and investigators.• Special Litigation Team – Leads the Jericho Project, a nationally recognized intervention and re-entry program serving those with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance abuse issues.• Know The Law! – a partnership with the Memphis City Schools’ Driver Education Program• Project Homeless Connect – a one-day resource fair for homeless individuals serving nearly 1000 people in its first yearShelby County Public Defender’s Office
• Established in 1917• 4th oldest PD office in the nation• Memphis Mayor AC Wharton – former chief PD• Shelby County Mayor Mark Luttrell – former sheriff with corrections background familiar with impact of indigent defense system on jail population• Current Chief Public Defender, Stephen Bush, was appointed in September of 2010 after 18 years in the office.• Stephen Bush was instrumental in creating the Jericho Project, which helps control jail population and reduces costs of caring for the mentally ill.• Justice For a New GenerationShelby County Public Defender’s Office
• Inmates with serious mental illness tend to stay in jail two to five times longer than those without mental illness.• Jericho assists defendants with serious mental illness by linking them with community-based mental health treatment.• 74% of those with serious mental illness also have substance abuse problems.• Linkage to community mental health treatment takes place over 120 days with Recovery Support Specialist assisting client in accessing all eligible community services.• Participants spend 99 fewer days in jail per year.• Over half of participants are never re-arrested.Jericho Project
• Opened in 1997; 12-month program for non-violent defendants with drug-related charges• One of 12 state-certified treatment courts in Tennessee• Named a “Mentor Court” by Nat’l Drug Court Association• Public Defender team participates in referral and treatment decisions• 37% recidivism rate vs. 80% for non-drug court participants• Over 1500 graduatesShelby County Drug Court
• One-day event targeting the city’s homeless population; key part of Mayors’ 10-year Plan to End Homelessness• 963 Homeless Individuals• 1090 Volunteers• 271 Housing Applications• 297 Dental Screenings; 22-24 Procedures Completed• 145 Haircuts• 340 City of Memphis ID Cards Issued• 97 Legal ConsultationsProject Homeless Connect
BACK INTO THE COMMUNITY What do rehabilitation and redemption really look like?
SafetyNetServices&CommunityResources Employment Assistance & Opportunities Homeless & Crisis Services Tennessee Career Center. Services include job search assistance, job skills training, career The Hospitality HUB. Serving the immediate needs of homeless individuals and making referrals development workshops and counseling. 444 N. Main St. (MATA Terminal); Memphis, TN 38105 elsewhere for longer-term solutions. General services and intake: M, W, F; 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. 146 (and additional locations). 545-2240. www.memphiscareercenter.com Jefferson Ave.; Memphis, TN 38103. 522-1808. www.hospitalityhub.org Memphis Urban League. Assistance and training for skilled job-seekers. 413 N. Cleveland; Memphis Union Mission. Men’s emergency shelter meeting immediate needs of food, clothing, Memphis, TN 38104. 272-2491. www.memphisul.org shelter. First 4 nights free, then $6/night (free if temperature is freezing or below). Dinner for overnight guests; lunch free to all at 10:45 a.m. daily. 383 Poplar Ave.; Memphis, TN 38103. 522- The Arc Mid-South. Career development services for people with disabilities. 3485 Poplar Ave., 8819. www.memphisunionmission.org Ste. 210; Memphis, TN 38111. 327-2473. www.thearcmidsouth.org Memphis/Shelby County Emergency Housing Partnership. Call for immediate help securing HopeWorks, Inc. Four-month Personal and Career Development curriculum for people housing and benefits if you and your children are either currently homeless or are facing imminent overcoming lives of crime, poverty, and/or addiction. 1930 Union Ave.; Memphis, TN 38104. 272- homelessness: 260-HOME. (Only those with children are eligible.) 3700. Application available at www.whyhopeworks.org. MIFA. Assistance with rent, utilities, food, clothing, and other necessities for families suffering an Lowenstein House. Counseling, skills training, job placement, and housing assistance for unexpected loss of income. 910 Vance Avenue, Memphis, TN 38126. 527-0208. individuals diagnosed with mental illness. 821 S. Barksdale St.; Memphis, TN 38114. 274-5486. www.mifa.org/housing www.orgsites.com/tn/lowensteinhouse YWCA Abused Women’s Services. Emergency shelter for women with or without children who Express Employment Prof’ls. Temporary employment, including industrial jobs. 6100 Primacy are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless due to domestic violence. (Address unlisted.) 725- Pkwy., Ste. 111; Memphis, TN 38119. 680-1933. sememphistn.expresspros.com 4277. www.memphisywca.org LSI Staffing. Temporary employment, including industrial jobs. 134 Monroe Ave.; Memphis, TN Citizen’s Dispute. Orders of Protection. 201 Poplar Ave., Lower Level, Room LL-01; Memphis, TN 38103. 526-1111. 5 a.m. to 6 p.m. M-F, 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. Sat. www.lsitemps.com 38103. 545-2520. Paramount Staffing. Industrial employment opportunities. 5888 Distribution Dr.; Memphis, TN Youth Villages Specialized Crisis Services. Call for help when a child experiences severe 38141. 367-8888. Apply in person 9 a.m. to 1 p.m., M-W. www.paramountstaffing.com depression, exhibits destructive/bizarre behavior, or is otherwise out of control: 1-866-791-9226. HOTLINES: Abused Women’s Services 725-4277…HIV/AIDS 544-7575…Child Abuse/Neglect 274-7477…Mobile Crisis Team (Mental Illness) 577-9400 Health Care & Mental Health Services Substance Abuse Recovery Services MedCall. Speak with a nurse about your symptoms. Call day or night: 579-4797. Justice Center After Care Support Groups. 12-step programs for AA, CA and NA with evening nd meetings at 201 Poplar, 2 Floor. Contact Ms. Maurise at 278-1007 for details. MedPlex Clinic. Medical care for un- and under-insured citizens of Shelby County. 880 Madison Ave.; Memphis, TN 38103. 545-7185. www.uthsc.edu/gim/medplex/clinic-info.html Alcoholics Anonymous. 12-step program for help living with alcohol addiction. 1835 Union Ave., Ste. 302; Memphis, TN 38104. 726-6750. www.memphis-aa.org Christ Community Health Services. Services include adult and pediatric primary care, obstetrics/gynecology, HIV management, prenatal & parenting classes, social work, dentistry. Narcotics Anonymous. 12-step program for help living w/ addiction. 276-5483. www.na-wt.org Multiple locations. Appointment line: 271-6000. www.christcommunityhealth.org Alcohol & Chemical Abuse Rehab Center (ACAR). Outpatient treatment, counseling, and Church Health Center. Services include acute care, primary and specialty care, dentistry, eye intervention; anger management classes, alcohol safety school, drug offender school. 633 care, and counseling. Patients pay on a sliding scale. 1210 Peabody Ave.; Memphis, TN 38104. Monroe Ave.; Memphis, TN 38103. 527-3100. http://bellsouthpwp.net/a/c/acarctr 272-7170. www.churchhealthcenter.org Cocaine & Alcohol Awareness Program, Inc. (CAAP). Extended residential drug and alcohol Memphis Health Center. Services include family practice, obstetrics & gynecology, podiatry, treatment at various locations, primarily for homeless individuals, including those with co-occurring ophthalmology, pediatrics. 360 E. E.H. Crump Blvd.; Memphis, TN 38126. 261-2000. mental health disorders. 360-0442. www.caapincorporated.com Comprehensive Counseling Network (CCN). Mental health counseling and case management Synergy Treatment Centers. One-year residential program for individuals with an alcohol or services for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors. 2150 Whitney Ave.; Memphis, TN 38127. drug and/or co-occurring problem; participants are employed in exchange for their treatment. 353-5440. www.ccnmemphis.org 2305 Airport Interchange; Memphis, TN 38132. 332-2227. www.synergytc.org Case Management Inc. Comprehensive community mental health center. 4041 Knight Arnold, Grace House. Women’s long-term residential alcohol and drug treatment center, with extended- 38118; 1087 Alice, 38106; 14 N. Bellevue, 38104. 821-5600. care programs. Pregnant women and IV drug users with co-occurring disorders are given priority. 329 N. Bellevue; Memphis, TN 38105. 722-8460. www.gracehousememphis.org Southeast Mental Health Center. Services include individual and group counseling, treatment of co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders, substance abuse counseling, HIV/AIDS Harbor House. Men’s residential center with individualized treatment programs. Continuing care education. 3628 Summer, 38122, 452-6941; 2578 Douglas, 38106, 369-1480; 3810 Winchester, is provided for all clients who complete their treatment programs. 1979 Alcy Rd.; Memphis, TN 38118, 369-1400 38114. 743-1836. www.harborhousememphis.orgSafety Net Services &Community Resources
• 30% of Americans have been arrested by age 23• ABA identified 38,000 punitive provisions applying to those convicted of crimes; over 700 in Tennessee• Two-thirds of states allow hiring or licensing decisions to made on basis of arrest alone; no conviction is necessary• Unemployment rates for those coming out of prison are as high as 60% one year after release• Between 15% to 27% of prisoners expect to go to homeless shelters upon release• Many states require full payment of court costs, restitution, jail fees and other costs before voting rights are restored.• Many states suspend driving privileges for missed debt payments.• Criminal justice debt damage credit and compete with other financial obligations like child support payments.Collateral Consequences
• Four-fifths (4/5) of low-income people DO NOT have access to a lawyer when they need one.• Requests for services at Memphis Area Legal Services have tripled to 21,000 per year since 2007.• Legal services appropriations: $404 million in 2011. That’s down one-third from 15 years ago. Proposed 2012 amount: $300 million.• 1 legal aid lawyer for every 6,415 low-income persons• 1 lawyer for every 429 people in general populationThe Justice Gap