Information skills for DL Infectious Diseasesstudents      Six steps to an effective literature searchLibrary & Archives S...
Dophil Maternity and Nursing Home, nr Siaya, W. Kenyaby Moving Mountains Trusthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/movingmountains...
Six steps to an effective literature search:      • Scoping your search topic 1.      • Choosing the resources to search 2...
• Scoping your search topic1.     • Choosing the resources to search2.     • Choosing your search terms3.     • Compiling ...
What do you want the literatureto tell you?                        Ask questions…                              Question x4...
• Scoping your search topic1.     • Choosing the resources to search2.     • Choosing your search terms3.     • Compiling ...
Search engines• Includes Google• Good for grey literature• Can return thousands of  results• No quality control• Gives ful...
Databases• Includes PubMed• Good for academic  literature• Items are chosen to be  included• Usually only gives an  abstra...
Doesn’t PubMed has all theinformation I need?                           All academic peer-reviewed                        ...
Doesn’t PubMed contain all ofEmbase?                                        Only 15% of titles              Global Health ...
So, how many databases should Isearch?Background      MSc              MSc              PhDsearch          dissertation   ...
• Scoping your search topic1.     • Choosing the resources to search2.     • Choosing your search terms3.     • Compiling ...
Identifying your conceptsWhat subjects must items you find address inorder to answer your search question?      Which inte...
Using synonyms                             US and UK             AbbreviationsUS and UK spellings          terminology    ...
Which interventions are themost effective at preventingmaternal transmission of HIV?    Maternal transmission             ...
What are subject headings?Indexing terms added to each article by the databasecompilers NOT the authorTerms are chosen fro...
Example from Medline®Myer L, Zulliger R, Black S, Pienaar D, Bekker LG. Pilot programme forthe rapid initiation of antiret...
Subject tree for HIV Infections inMedline®     •   Diseases          – Virus Diseases               • RNA Virus Infections...
Exploding your subject•   Diseases     – Virus Diseases          • RNA Virus Infections               – Retroviridae Infec...
Focusing your subject• Adult• *Anti-HIV Agents / administration &  dosage• CD4 Lymphocyte Count• Female• *HIV Infections /...
Subheadings•    Adult•   *Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage•   CD4 Lymphocyte Count•   Female•   *HIV Infections /...
• Scoping your search topic1.     • Choosing the resources to search2.     • Choosing your search terms3.     • Compiling ...
Using Boolean operators -OR                Human            immunodeficiency                 virus                        ...
Using Boolean operators -AND                        HIV AND maternal           Maternal     transmission  HIV         tran...
Truncation• Truncation finds alternative endings to words.• Enter the beginning of the word, then end with  the truncation...
Wildcards      Optional            Compulsory• Character does     • Character DOES  NOT have to be       have to be presen...
Proximity searching• Look for words in the same sentence or within n words of  each other• Useful when the vocabulary used...
Impact of increased complexity oncomprehensiveness of results1   Mother-to-child transmission                             ...
Putting it all together1. ((vertical OR maternal OR fetal OR foetal OR fetomaternal   OR mother-to-child) ADJ3 transmiss*)...
• Scoping your search topic1.     • Choosing the resources to search2.     • Choosing your search terms3.     • Compiling ...
Why is authentication required?    Cost of electronic   Licences limit use    resources linked       to current staff    t...
Routes to access                          Resource specific          Institution specific   IP address                    ...
Which password do I use?  The username and password you use to      log on to Moodle / School email                       ...
• Scoping your search topic1.     • Choosing the resources to search2.     • Choosing your search terms3.     • Compiling ...
Help available viaIT Training
More help• Email library@lshtm.ac.uk• DL staff and students can ask a question on the Moodle  discussion boards
Six steps to an effective literature search:      • Scoping your search topic 1.      • Choosing the resources to search 2...
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The Library and Reviewing Literature

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The Library and Reviewing Literature

  1. 1. Information skills for DL Infectious Diseasesstudents Six steps to an effective literature searchLibrary & Archives Servicewww.lshtm.ac.uk/library
  2. 2. Dophil Maternity and Nursing Home, nr Siaya, W. Kenyaby Moving Mountains Trusthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/movingmountainstrust/5050634424/Reproduced under a Creative Commons Licence
  3. 3. Six steps to an effective literature search: • Scoping your search topic 1. • Choosing the resources to search 2. • Choosing your search terms 3. • Compiling your search strategy and running your search 4. • Finding the full text 5. • Managing your information 6
  4. 4. • Scoping your search topic1. • Choosing the resources to search2. • Choosing your search terms3. • Compiling your search strategy and running your search4. • Finding the full text5. • Managing your information6
  5. 5. What do you want the literatureto tell you? Ask questions… Question x4 by Mike Coghlan http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikecogh/4256561918/ Reproduced under a Creative Commons Licence
  6. 6. • Scoping your search topic1. • Choosing the resources to search2. • Choosing your search terms3. • Compiling your search strategy and running your search4. • Finding the full text5. • Managing your information6
  7. 7. Search engines• Includes Google• Good for grey literature• Can return thousands of results• No quality control• Gives full text• Covers all subject areas and types of information• Free
  8. 8. Databases• Includes PubMed• Good for academic literature• Items are chosen to be included• Usually only gives an abstract• Covers a specific subject area and type of information• Often need to subscribe
  9. 9. Doesn’t PubMed has all theinformation I need? All academic peer-reviewed literature All biomedical academic PubMed peer-reviewed literature
  10. 10. Doesn’t PubMed contain all ofEmbase? Only 15% of titles Global Health are found in all three databases 3235 380 306 1520 1533 1586 Figures reproduced with permission from www.cabi.org. Global health: solving local problems 1411 with global information. Figure 1. Online at: http://www.cabi.org/Uploads/ProductAdmin/a832dacf Medline Embase -4063-4669-9c1f-4023856fa767.pdf
  11. 11. So, how many databases should Isearch?Background MSc MSc PhDsearch dissertation dissertation • As many as are• 1 or 2 (primary (secondary practicable research) research) • 3 or 4 • 4 or 5This is a general guideline only. The number of resources tosearch is dependent on the scope of your search
  12. 12. • Scoping your search topic1. • Choosing the resources to search2. • Choosing your search terms3. • Compiling your search strategy and running your search4. • Finding the full text5. • Managing your information6
  13. 13. Identifying your conceptsWhat subjects must items you find address inorder to answer your search question? Which interventions are the most effective at preventing maternal transmission of HIV? Dophil Maternity and Nursing Home, nr Siaya, W. Kenya by Moving Mountains Trust http://www.flickr.com/photos/movingmountainstrust/505063 4424/ Reproduced under a Creative Commons Licence
  14. 14. Using synonyms US and UK AbbreviationsUS and UK spellings terminology (acquired (behavior and (physiotherapist and immunodeficiency behaviour) physical therapist) syndrome and AIDS) Generic and trade Different word Diseases and names of drugs endings disease vectors ( Fluoxetine and(climate and climatic) (dengue and aedes) Prozac)
  15. 15. Which interventions are themost effective at preventingmaternal transmission of HIV? Maternal transmission HIV• vertical transmission • HTLV-III• maternal transmission • HTLV-III-LAV• fetal transmission • human immunodeficiency• foetal transmission virus• fetomaternal transmission • T-Lymphotropic Virus Type• mother-to-child III transmission• PMTCT• MTCT• perinatally acquired
  16. 16. What are subject headings?Indexing terms added to each article by the databasecompilers NOT the authorTerms are chosen from a pre-defined list, updated annuallyTerms are specific to each databaseCan help make subject searches more comprehensive
  17. 17. Example from Medline®Myer L, Zulliger R, Black S, Pienaar D, Bekker LG. Pilot programme forthe rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy in Cape Town,South Africa. AIDS Care 2012; 24(8): 986-92.Adult Pilot Projects*Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage PregnancyCD4 Lymphocyte Count *Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drugFemale therapy*HIV Infections / drug therapy *Prenatal Care / organization &HIV Infections / transmission administrationHumans South Africa*Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / Young Adultprevention & control
  18. 18. Subject tree for HIV Infections inMedline® • Diseases – Virus Diseases • RNA Virus Infections – Retroviridae Infections » Lentivirus Infections • HIV Infections • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy • AIDS Dementia Complex • AIDS-Related Complex • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections • HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome • HIV Enteropathy • HIV Seropositivity • HIV Wasting Syndrome
  19. 19. Exploding your subject• Diseases – Virus Diseases • RNA Virus Infections – Retroviridae Infections » Lentivirus Infections • HIV Infections • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy • AIDS Dementia Complex • AIDS-Related Complex • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections • HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome • HIV Enteropathy • HIV Seropositivity • HIV Wasting Syndrome
  20. 20. Focusing your subject• Adult• *Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage• CD4 Lymphocyte Count• Female• *HIV Infections / drug therapy• HIV Infections / transmission• Humans• *Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control• Pilot Projects• Pregnancy• *Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy• *Prenatal Care / organization & administration• South Africa• Young Adult
  21. 21. Subheadings• Adult• *Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage• CD4 Lymphocyte Count• Female• *HIV Infections / drug therapy• HIV Infections / transmission• Humans• *Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control• Pilot Projects• Pregnancy• *Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy• *Prenatal Care / organization & administration• South Africa• Young Adult
  22. 22. • Scoping your search topic1. • Choosing the resources to search2. • Choosing your search terms3. • Compiling your search strategy and running your search4. • Finding the full text5. • Managing your information6
  23. 23. Using Boolean operators -OR Human immunodeficiency virus HIV OR human immunodeficiencyHTLV-III- HIV virus OR HTLV-III OR LAV HTLV-III-LAV HTLV-III
  24. 24. Using Boolean operators -AND HIV AND maternal Maternal transmission HIV transmission
  25. 25. Truncation• Truncation finds alternative endings to words.• Enter the beginning of the word, then end with the truncation symbol (usually *)ExampleYou could type in ‘transmission’, ‘transmitted’, ‘transmit’ORYou could type in ‘transmi*’
  26. 26. Wildcards Optional Compulsory• Character does • Character DOES NOT have to be have to be present present but can be any letter• Useful for US/UK • Useful for US/UK spelling spelling• eg tumo?r • eg organi#e
  27. 27. Proximity searching• Look for words in the same sentence or within n words of each other• Useful when the vocabulary used to describe your subject is variableExampleYou could type in vertical transmission or maternaltransmission or fetal transmission or foetal transmission orfetomaternal transmission or mother-to-child transmissionORYou could type in (vertical OR maternal OR fetal OR foetalOR fetomaternal OR mother-to-child) ADJ3 transmiss*
  28. 28. Impact of increased complexity oncomprehensiveness of results1 Mother-to-child transmission 2,3282 Mother-to-child transmi* 2,3493 vertical transmi*or maternal transmi* or fetal transmi*or foetal 2,889 transmi* or fetomaternal transmi* or mother-to-child transmi* or PMTCT or MTCT or perinatal* acquire*4 ((vertical OR maternal OR fetal OR foetal OR fetomaternal OR 15,689 mother-to-child) ADJ3 transmi*) OR PMTCT OR MTCT OR perinatal* acquire*5 ((vertical OR maternal OR fetal OR foetal OR fetomaternal OR 15,736 mother-to-child) ADJ3 transmi*) OR PMTCT OR MTCT OR perinatal* acquire* or Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/Numbers correspond to number of results retrieved fromOvid MEDLINE® 1946 to September week 4 2012.
  29. 29. Putting it all together1. ((vertical OR maternal OR fetal OR foetal OR fetomaternal OR mother-to-child) ADJ3 transmiss*) OR PMTCT OR MTCT OR perinatal* acquire*2. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/3. 1 OR 24. HIV OR HTLV-III OR HTLV-III-LAV OR human immunodeficiency virus OR T-Lymphotropic Virus Type III5. HIV Infections/6. 4 OR 57. 3 AND 6
  30. 30. • Scoping your search topic1. • Choosing the resources to search2. • Choosing your search terms3. • Compiling your search strategy and running your search4. • Finding the full text5. • Managing your information6
  31. 31. Why is authentication required? Cost of electronic Licences limit use resources linked to current staff to the number of and students of users the institution Allows publishers and librarians to analyse usage patterns
  32. 32. Routes to access Resource specific Institution specific IP address password password Linked to the Can be used from Can be used from computer you are any computer any computer using Must be using Requires users to Users only need designated remember to remember one computer for this multiple password to work passwordsThe School uses IP addresses and the institutional passwordsystem called Shibboleth. We do NOT use Athens
  33. 33. Which password do I use? The username and password you use to log on to Moodle / School email London-based Distance learning Staff students students This is provided by IT This is provided by IT This is provided by theServices and is derived Services and begins University of London from your department ‘lsh…’ and begins ‘lon…’ and your name
  34. 34. • Scoping your search topic1. • Choosing the resources to search2. • Choosing your search terms3. • Compiling your search strategy and running your search4. • Finding the full text5. • Managing your information6
  35. 35. Help available viaIT Training
  36. 36. More help• Email library@lshtm.ac.uk• DL staff and students can ask a question on the Moodle discussion boards
  37. 37. Six steps to an effective literature search: • Scoping your search topic 1. • Choosing the resources to search 2. • Choosing your search terms 3. • Compiling your search strategy and running your search 4. • Finding the full text 5. • Managing your information 6
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