Secrets to Success for Cost-Effective LNAPL Management


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During Webinar 2 of COLUMBIA’s HRSC Webinar Series, learn about the successful techniques for cost-effective implementation in developing an LNAPL management strategy. Petroleum subsurface investigation and risk evaluation have long presented a difficult challenge, so join our webinar for further discussion on evaluating LNAPL distribution and soil hydraulic permeability. Case studies discussed during this session will include retail stations, pipelines, terminals, railyards, refineries, complex UST sites, military installations, and trucking refueling facilities.

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Secrets to Success for Cost-Effective LNAPL Management

  1. 1. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Secrets to Success for Cost-EffectiveLNAPL ManagementJohn Sohl, President/CEOCOLUMBIA Technologies(888) 344-2704 ext. 201jsohl@columbiatechnologies.comwww.columbiatechnologies.comRapid, Real-Time High Resolution Site Characterization© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.An advanced global approach for site investigation and remediation toreduce the risk, cost, and uncertainty at LNAPL contaminated propertiesMay 7, 2013
  2. 2. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 2Webinar Housekeeping Rules• Recording will be provided after today’s presentation• 45 minutes• Submit your questions via Panel on GoToWebinar• Q&A Session after today’s webinar• More information at
  3. 3. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 3Today’s PresenterJohn SohlCEOCOLUMBIA Technologies
  4. 4. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.U.S. Industry ResourcesAmerican PetroleumInstitute (API)© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 4American Society forTesting and Materials (ASTM)Association for EnvironmentalHealth and Sciences (AEHS)Contaminated Site Clean-UpInformation (CLU-IN)Interstate TechnologyRegulatory Council (ITRC)National Ground WaterAssociation (NGWA)United States EnvironmentalProtection Agency (USEPA)Sustainable RemediationForum (SURF)
  5. 5. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.- LNAPL saturation level (thickness is one indicator)- Groundwater conditions (now and then; perched,unconfined, confined)- Soil grain size & structure- Pore pressure and pore space availability- Condition of the monitoring wells and their adjacentformation, filter pack, and seals- What elevation (depth) intervals are we working with?- What tools do we have that can provide useful dataregarding these conditions?The LNAPL Challenge5
  6. 6. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.What is LNAPL?© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 6NAPL = Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid- Do not mix with water and remain as a separate phase- Include petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinatedsolventsLNAPL = NAPL that is less dense than water- Gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and crude oil- Multi-component mixturesCourtesy of:LNAPL
  7. 7. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Underground – It’s Complicated© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 7Courtesy of:
  8. 8. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.LNAPL Site Conceptual ModelSome Factors to be Considered-LNAPL Saturation- In-well thickness (and condition of well)- Saturated vs. unsaturated zones- Pore sharing (water, air, other fluids)- Water level response (current and historical)- Heterogeneous conditions (soil and water)- Head and gradient (both LNAPL and groundwater)- Hydraulic conductivity & transmissivity- Mobile vs. migrating© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 8Courtesy of:
  9. 9. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Terminology and DefinitionsTPH - Total Petroleum HydrocarbonsCsat - Sorbed, dissolved, and soil gas have a finite capacity for organicchemicalsLNAPL – When the TPH concentration exceeds Csat, then a fourth phase,LNAPL must exist TPH > Csat -> LNAPL© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 9LNAPL present, but cannot flowinto wellsLNAPL can flow into wellsLNAPLCsatCsat Residual Mobile Migrating
  10. 10. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Pores and Pore PressureQuick Notes:- LNAPL share pore space with other fluids including air- The head pressure of the LNAPL must overcome the poreentry pressure for LNAPL migration© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 10Courtesy of:WaterLNAPLFlowFlowFor water wet media
  11. 11. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.High Resolution SystemsMethod Target DataMIP (Membrane Interface Probe)(MIP-EC, MiHPT, MIP-HTL, LL MIP, MIP-XSD)Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)(Dissolved phase petroleum and/or Solvents )LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence)(UVOST®, ROST®, TarGOST®, FFD)LNAPL/Residual phase petroleumLight petroleum fuels to coal tarsHPT (Hydraulic Profiling Tool) Soil hydraulics (pore pressure, soil permeability)PST (Pneumatic Slug Test) Soil characteristic - permeabilityEC (Electrical Conductivity) Soil characteristic - electricalCPT (Cone Penetrometer) Soil characteristic, behavior typeDiscrete Groundwater ProfilingShort, discrete screen interval (0.2 – 1.0 meter)VOCs, SVOCs, Metals, Biologics, GasesOnsite Laboratory AnalysesRapid Laboratory grade GC, GCMS, HPLC, otherVOCs, SVOCs, Metals, GasesReal Time Data ManagementMapping and vertical profile chartsQuality Assurance and Decision MakingResults presented via Internet in real time11© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.
  12. 12. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Membrane Interface Probe (MIP)Quick Notes:- Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)- Vapor, Dissolved Phase, Sorbed Phase,some NAPL- Typical DL: 1 ppm fuel / 200 ppb solvent(can be lower with special procedures)- Integrated Electrical Conductivity and/or- Hydraulic Profiling Tool- Optional Heated Trunk Line- Matrix effects- Performance Test Required!© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 12
  13. 13. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.MiHpt Response to LNAPL –Unsaturated Zone© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 13Think Sponge
  14. 14. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Sample LIF LogLaser Induced Fluorescence (LIF)UltraViolet Optical Screening Tool®(UVOST®)Quick Notes:- Responds to PAH containing compounds- Residual Phase Petroleum Hydrocarbons- Excellent mapping of NAPL- Matrix effects- Reference Emitter (RE) source test requiredCompoundWaveformsDepth© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 14
  15. 15. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies. 15© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.LIF Principles of Operation• PAHs fluoresce when struck with UV light• Each PAH has a unique fluorescence spectrum• Heavier PAHs are more red-shiftedLIF responds to free-phase PAHs – anything withmore than one benzene ring
  16. 16. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies. 16© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.LIF Principles of Operation• PAHs fluoresce when struck with UV light• Each PAH has a unique fluorescence spectrum• Heavier PAHs are more red-shiftedLIF responds to free-phase PAHs – anything withmore than one benzene ring16
  17. 17. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies. 17© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.Linear Response Over Wide Rangeof Saturation
  18. 18. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies. 18© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.Optical Spectroscopy:- FOUR different frequency bands- Fluorescent light received from thedown hole window- Lighter, shorter chain hydrocarbonsblue-green- Heavier, longer chain hydrocarbonsorange-red- Matrix effects- Reference Emitter (RE) source testrequiredKerosene/Diesel at water tableDeeper but lighter LNAPLUltraViolet Optical Screening Tool®
  19. 19. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Sample HPT LogHydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT)Quick Notes:- Used to profile hydraulic pore pressureand permeability “effective K”- Integrated EC- Positive pressure flow of watersupplied from surface- Determine migration pathways,remediation injection regions, andplacements for monitoring wells© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 19
  20. 20. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies. 20Classic “shark fin”Evidence of higher NAPL saturations aboveSupported by high pore pressure – low flowzone beneathCombined HPT and LIF
  21. 21. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.$$ ofMonitoringWellsNAPLDistributionLaser Mapping of PetroleumPipeline LeakageCost-effectively characterizeContaminated sites21© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.
  22. 22. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Starting with The “Monitoring” WellSituation:- Historical release- Multiple MWs installed- New or recurring free product thickness (1.5-ft) in one or morewells- Investigate for unidentified source© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 22Fact:- Recurring presence of LNAPL in a monitoring wellOR continued elevated groundwater concentrationsof hydrocarbons are clear evidence of a remainingsource…it just may not be mobile or moving
  23. 23. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Initial LIF Profile Adjacent to the MWQuick Notes:- Performance test is GOOD- Background check is GOOD- Material in the formation isdifferent than performance teststandard and repeatable- Material is at 17 and 19 feetbelow grade© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 23
  24. 24. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.LIF Profile of Product in the MWQuick Notes:- Performance test is GOOD- Background check is GOOD- Material in the well is lighter(more fresh, less degraded) thanproduct in the formation- Material in the well is differentthan the performance teststandard- Response is repeatable© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 24
  25. 25. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.MIP Response Adjacent to the MW© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 25Remember Csat
  26. 26. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Options and Next Steps:Is the problem the LNAPL concentration, the Wellperformance, the formation, or GW levels?• Are we at Csat, Residual, Mobile, or Moving?• What are the historical records for groundwater levels?• Are the hydrocarbons competing for pore space with thegroundwater?• Has a lowering groundwater level in the past opened porespace that enabled LNAPL to move into the well?• What is the relative elevation relationship between theformation response, the monitoring well screen, the filterpack, the seal, and the groundwater level (now andhistorically)• Do we have a confined LNAPL situation beneath a claywith tight pore space?• Is the MW performing as expected?© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 26
  27. 27. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Concept of Vertical Equilibrium© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 27LNAPLLNAPLWater WaterClayGravel
  28. 28. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Pneumatic Slug Test (PST)Quick Notes:- Used to measure hydraulic conductivity “K”- Portable, manual tool kit- Pressurizes formation and then monitorsformation recovery after releasing thepressure- Test performed in existing monitoring wellor via direct push drive point- Development and condition of the well ordrive point screen critical to the quality ofthe test© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies. 28
  29. 29. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.Sample PST LogPneumatic Slug Test (PST)29Geoprobe Systems, Salina KS
  30. 30. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies. 30© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.Important Final Thoughts• LOE – Use a (Multiple) Lines of Evidence Approach (no onetool, sampling methodology, or analytical method works inevery soil and every situation)• Measure the heterogeneity - Local lithologic changes andlocal hydraulics control your outcome• LNAPL thickness can be an important contributor to head,the pressure, of the LNAPL and therefore an indictor ofmobility – however, make sure you measure true thicknessin both the formation on the well• Equally important are the competing hydraulic conductivityand pore pressure• Remember Csat!
  31. 31. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies. 31© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.Next in the HRSC Webinar SeriesTips for Identifying Contaminant Transport and Storage ZonesTuesday, May 21, 2013 | 12:00 PM ESTRegister
  32. 32. © 2011 COLUMBIA Technologies.One More Final ThoughtIt is far better to be approximately correct with a huge data setthan precisely wrong with a limited data set.Thank You!Questions?www.columbiatechnologies.com32© 2013 COLUMBIA Technologies.