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Global Warming A Glimpse
 

Global Warming A Glimpse

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This presentation was very useful when the LMDA conducted an Lake Mainit Environmental Symposium

This presentation was very useful when the LMDA conducted an Lake Mainit Environmental Symposium

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Global Warming A Glimpse Global Warming A Glimpse Presentation Transcript

  •  
  • Topics
    • What is Global Warming?
    • What are Greenhouse Gases and Greenhouse Effect?
    • Causes of Global Warming?
    • Present Danger on Global Warming on Earth?
    • Possible solution to reduce Global Warming. 
  • What is Global Warming?
    • Global warming , a recent warming of the Earth, is believed to be the result of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect#Greenhouse_gases
    • Global Warming , term denoting the accelerated warming of the Earth’s surface due to anthropogenic (human activity-related) releases of greenhouse gases due to industrial activity and deforestation . 
    • Microsoft ® Encarta ® Premium Suite 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation
  • What are Greenhouse Gases?
    • Many greenhouse gases occur naturally, such as water vapor , carbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxide , and ozone . But others such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) result exclusively from human industrial processes.
    • http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/marchweb-only/113-52.0.html
    • Greenhouse gases are components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect . Without the greenhouse effect the Earth would be uninhabitable . 
    • http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas
  • What is Greenhouse effect…
    • Refers to the way in which gases in the Earth’s atmosphere warm the Earth like the glass roof of a greenhouse—by letting sunlight in but keeping the reflected heat energy trapped inside..
    • Microsoft ® Encarta ® Premium Suite 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation
    • Greenhouse gases vary in their ability to absorb and hold heat in the atmosphere, a phenomenon known as the " greenhouse effect ." HFCs and PFCs are the most heat-absorbent, but there are also wide differences between naturally occurring gases. For example, nitrous oxide absorbs 270 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide, and methane absorbs 21 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide . 
    • http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/marchweb-only/113-52.0.html
  • HOW GREENHOUSE EFFECT WORKS?  1 Energy from the Sun beats down on the Earth. 1 2 Some energy is reflected into space, the rest enters the atmosphere. 2 3 The Earth absorbs the energy and emits heat. 3 4 Unlike other gases, greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit the heat energy - some is emitted into space and some back to Earth. 4 5 The heat is effectively trapped and warms the Earth. 5
  • Sun Atmosphere Methane Carbon Dioxide Nitrous Oxide Water vapor
  • Sun Solar Energy Atmosphere Reflected solar energy Absorbed heat
  • Sun Atmosphere Absorbed heat Methane Carbon Dioxide Nitrous Oxide Water vapor Methane Carbon Dioxide Nitrous Oxide Water vapor
  • Earth’s Temperature If the amount of solar energy is greater than the amount radiated, then the earth heats up Sun Solar Energy Radiative Cooling
  • Earth’s Temperature If the amount of solar energy is less than the amount radiated, then the earth cools down Sun Solar Energy Radiative Cooling
  • Cause of Global Warming… Generally global warming is brought about by the increase of Greenhouse Gases in the atmosphere. While the greenhouse effect is an essential environmental prerequisite for life on Earth, there really can be too much of a good thing. The problems begin when human activities distort and accelerate the natural process by creating more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere than are necessary to warm the planet to an ideal temperature http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/marchweb-only/113-52.0.html 
  • How human contribute to the Greenhouse Gases Effect?
    • Burning natural gas, coal and oil —including gasoline for automobile engines—raises the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
    • Some farming practices and land-use changes increase the levels of methane and nitrous oxide.
    • Many factories produce long-lasting industrial gases that do not occur naturally, yet contribute significantly to the enhanced greenhouse effect and “global warming” that is currently under way.
    • http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/marchweb-only/113-52.0.html  
  • How human contribute to the Greenhouse Gases Effect?
    • Deforestation: T rees use carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in its place, which helps to create the optimal balance of gases in the atmosphere. As more forests are logged for timber or cut down to make way for farming, however, there are fewer trees to perform this critical function.  
    http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/marchweb-only/113-52.0.html
  • How human contribute to the Greenhouse Gases Effect?
    • Population growth… b ecause as more people use fossil fuels for heat, transportation and manufacturing the level of greenhouse gases continues to increase. As more farming occurs to feed millions of new people, more greenhouse gases enter the atmosphere. 
    http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/marchweb-only/113-52.0.html IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
  • Present Danger of Global Warming
    • Death due to climate change (WHO determines death of 154,000 people a year; Professor Andrew Haines)
    • Increasing storms and flooding (Dr. Thomas Karl: Increase in precipitation in the 20th century)
    • Killer heat waves (1700 people died in India in 2003)
    • Forest and Wildfires Increasing (In Alaska and Canada’s boreal forest, fire consumed an average of 7 million acres a year in 1990.) Source: www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm 
    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warned that the world's poorer nations face spiraling rates of death and disease due to increased risk of droughts, floods, storms and other severe climate effects spurred by human-caused greenhouse gas emissions:
  • http://www.climatehotmap.org The impact of global warming in Europe and Russia Present Danger of Global Warming Heat waves and periods of unusually warm weather Ocean warming, sea-level rise and coastal flooding Glaciers melting Arctic and Antarctic warming Spreading disease Earlier spring arrival Plant and animal range shifts and population changes Coral reef bleaching Downpours, heavy snowfalls, and flooding Droughts and fires Arctic Ocean - Decreasing ice cover . Satellite measurements indicate the area of perennial ice cover has decreased by about 7% per decade since 1978. Caucasus Mountains, Russia -- Half of all glacial ice disappeared in the past 100 years . United Kingdom -- Birds shift northward . Over a 20-year period, many birds have extended the northern margins of their ranges by an average of about 12 miles Mediterranean -- Intense drought and fires . Spain lost more than 1.2 million acres (485,622 hectares) of forest to wildfires in 1994, and 370,000 acres (149,734 hectares) burned in each of Greece and Italy in 1998. Germany -- Mollusc range shift . 20% of 40 mollusc species in a national park have changed their distribution in response to warming. United Kingdom - British birds extend their ranges northward . A comparison of the breeding distributions of birds for two time periods, 1968-72 and 1988-91, showed that the northern margins for many species had moved northwards by an average of about 12 miles (19 km).
  • The impact of global warming in Asia Present Danger of Global Warming Heat waves and periods of unusually warm weather Ocean warming, sea-level rise and coastal flooding Glaciers melting Arctic and Antarctic warming Spreading disease Earlier spring arrival Plant and animal range shifts and population changes Coral reef bleaching Downpours, heavy snowfalls, and flooding Droughts and fires http://www.climatehotmap.org Garhwal Himalayas, India -- Glacial retreat at record pace . The Dokriani Barnak Glacier retreated 66 ft (20.1 m) in 1998 despite a severe winter. The Gangorti Glacier is retreating 98 ft (30 m) per year. At this rate scientists predict the loss of all central and eastern Himalayan glaciers by 2035. Coral reef bleaching in the Philippines, Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean -- Coral reef bleaching (include Seychelles; Kenya; Reunion; Mauritius; Somalia; Madagascar; Maldives; Indonesia; Sri Lanka; Gulf of Thailand [Siam]; Andaman Islands; Malaysia; Oman; India; and Cambodia). Indonesia -- Malaria spreads to high elevations . Malaria was detected for the first time as high as 6,900 feet (2103 m) in the highlands of Irian Jaya in 1997. Indonesia -- Burning rainforest, 1998 . Fires burned up to 2 million acres (809,371 hectares) of land, including almost 250,000 acres (101,172 hectares) of primary forest and parts of the already severely reduced habitat of the Kalimantan orangutan. Bangladesh - Link between stronger El Ni񯠥vents and cholera prevalence . Researchers found a robust relationship between progressively stronger El Ni񯠥vents and cholera prevalence, spanning a 70-year period from 1893-1940 and 1980-2001. 119. Chokoria Sundarbans, Bangladesh - Flooded mangroves . Rising ocean levels have flooded about 18,500 acres (7,500 hectares) of mangrove forest during the past three decades. Global sea-level rise is aggravated by substantial deltaic subsidence in the area with rates as high as 5.5 mm/year. 155. China - Disappearing Lakes, 2001 . More than half of the 4,000 lakes in the Qinghai province are disappearing due to drought
  • Heat waves and periods of unusually warm weather Ocean warming, sea-level rise and coastal flooding Glaciers melting Arctic and Antarctic warming Spreading disease Earlier spring arrival Plant and animal range shifts and population changes Coral reef bleaching Downpours, heavy snowfalls, and flooding Droughts and fires http://www.climatehotmap.org The impact of global warming in Africa Present Danger of Global Warming Senegal -- Sea-level rise ; Sea-level rise is causing the loss of coastal land at Rufisque, on the South Coast of Senegal. 121. World Ocean - Warming water . The world ocean has experienced a net warming of 0.11?F (0.06?C) from the sea surface to a depth of 10,000 feet (3000 m) over the past 35-45 years. Kenya - Worst drought in 60 years, 2001 . Over four million people were affected by a severely reduced harvest, weakened livestock, and poor sanitary conditions. 154. Lake Chad - Disappearing Lake . The surface area of the lake has decreased from 9,650 square miles (25,000 km2) in 1963 to 521 (1,350 km2) today Kenya -- Deadly malaria outbreak, summer, 1997 . Hundreds of people died from malaria in the Kenyan highlands where the population had previously been unexposed. Tanzania -- Malaria expands in mountains . Higher annual temperatures in the Usamabara Mountains have been linked to expanding malaria transmission.
  • Heat waves and periods of unusually warm weather Ocean warming, sea-level rise and coastal flooding Glaciers melting Arctic and Antarctic warming Spreading disease Earlier spring arrival Plant and animal range shifts and population changes Coral reef bleaching Downpours, heavy snowfalls, and flooding Droughts and fires http://www.climatehotmap.org The impact of global warming in Oceania Present Danger of Global Warming Fiji -- Sea-level rise . Reports from local inhabitants at 16 sites indicate that the island's average shoreline has been receding half a foot (0.15 m) per year over at least the past 90 years. American and Western Samoa -- Land loss . Western Samoa has experienced shore recession of about 1.5 feet (0.46 m) per year for at least the past 90 years Coral reef bleaching in Australia, Great Barrier Reef, Papua New Guinea, American Samoa and Indian Ocean. New Zealand - Ocean warming . The oceans around New Zealand have been warming over the past decade at a rate not seen since the 1930s. Australia - 2002 - Warmest April on record . This occurred in the context of an average annual temperature increase of 0.9-1.8?F (0.5-1.0?C) per decade over the past century. There has also been an increase in warm days and a decrease in cold winter days.
  • http://www.climatehotmap.org The impact of global warming in North America Present Danger of Global Warming 42. Hawaii -- Beach loss . Sea-level rise at Waimea Bay, along with coastal development, has contributed to considerable beach loss over the past 90 years. 69. Barrow, Alaska -- Less snow in summer . Summer days without snow have increased from fewer than 80 in the 1950's to more than 100 in the 1990's. 16. Mexico -- Dengue fever spreads to higher elevations . Dengue fever has spread above its former elevation limit of 3,300 feet (1,006 m) and has appeared at 5,600 feet (1,707 m). 19. Central America -- Dengue fever spreads to higher elevations . Dengue fever is spreading above its former limit of 3,300 feet (1,006 m) and has been reported above 4,000 feet (1,219 m). 85. Mexico -- Worst fire season ever, 1998 . 1.25 million acres burned during a severe drought. Smoke reaching Texas triggered a statewide health alert. 82. Florida -- Worst wildfires in 50 years, 1998 . Fires burned 485,000 acres (196,272 hectares) and destroyed more than 300 homes and structures. 84. Florida, Texas, Louisiana -- Driest period in 104 years, April-June 1998 33. Alaska -- Sea bird population decline . The black guilemot population is declining from 1990 levels because melting sea ice has increased the distance the birds must fly to forage for food and reduced the number of resting sites available. 86. Nicaragua -- 2.2 million acres (890,308 hectares) burned, 1998 . Over 15,000 fires burned in 1998, and the blazing acreage included protected lands in the Bosawas Biosphere Reserve.
  • Wildlife Effects
    • Polar Bears
      • Require pack ice to live
      • Might eventually go extinct in the wild
    • Sea turtles
      • Breed on the same islands as their birth
      • Could go extinct on some islands as beaches are flooded
    • More than a million species face extinction from disappearing habitat, changing ecosystems, and acidifying oceans 
    Present Danger of Global Warming IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
  • Impacts on Coastal Areas
    • Erosion
    • Inundation of coastal lands
    • Additional costs to protect coastal communities 
    Present Danger of Global Warming IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
  • US Geological Survey Understanding: Medium
    • Everywhere:
    • Increase in intensity of hurricanes
    • Increase in droughts in some places
    • Increase in intense rain in some places
    • What After:
    • Changes in how well forests grow
    • Increased habitat for pests
    • Farming: some crops will grow better, some will grow worse. 
    Present Danger of Global Warming
    • Everywhere:
    • Increased winter flooding
    • Increased landslides
    • Overall forest health
    • Coastal erosion
    • What After
    • How will humans react Surprise changes? 
    US Geological Survey Present Danger of Global Warming
  • projected present Increased risk of floods, potentially displacing tens of millions of people, due to sea level rise and heavy rainfall events, especially in Small Island States and low-lying deltaic areas. Bangladesh is projected to lose about 17% of its land area with a sea level rise of one meter - very difficult to adapt due to lack of adaptive capacity.  Present Danger of Global Warming IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
  • Food production needs to double to meet the needs of an additional 3 billion people in the next 30 years Climate change is projected to decrease agricultural productivity in the tropics and sub-tropics for almost any amount of warming.  Present Danger of Global Warming IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
  • Wood demand will double in the next 50 years. Forest management will become more difficult due to an increase in pests and fires.  Present Danger of Global Warming Wood fuel is the only source of fuel for one third of the world’s population. IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
  • One third of the world’s population is now subject to water scarcity.  Population facing water scarcity will more than double over the next 30 years Climate change is projected to decrease water availability in many arid- and semi-arid regions Present Danger of Global Warming IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
  • Present Danger of Global Warming IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre 
  • Climate forecast In 2001, scientists predicted the Earth would warm by 1.4 - 5.8 ˚ C by 2100. Most of the warming, they believed, was a result of humanity's use of fossil fuels, like oil and coal.  Comparison of Climatic Forecast Present Danger of Global Warming Global scenarios: Worst case (left) and best case (right)
  • Possible Solutions to Global Warming What we can do now to reduce global warming ?
  • Reduce global warming by…
    • Reducing, Reusing and Recycling.
    http://www.christianitytoday.com
    • Reduce energy needs
      • Changing light bulb
    • Wherever practical, replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. CFLs also last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less heat. 
    • Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables. By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.
    IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
    • Reduce energy needs
      • Use the "Off" Switch
      • Save electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights when you leave a room, and using only as much light as you need. And remember to turn off your television, video player, stereo and computer when you're not using them. Use natural light whenever possible.
      • Buy Energy-Efficient Products
      • When it’s time to buy a new car, choose one that offers good gas mileage. Home appliances now come in a range of energy-efficient models, and compact florescent bulbs are designed to provide more natural-looking light while using far less energy than standard light bulbs. 
    Reduce global warming by… http://www.christianitytoday.com http://environmentalist.article-ok.com .
    • Use alternative energy sources
    Reduce global warming by… http://www.christianitytoday.com
      • Solar
    • Give priority on sustainable development
    • Adopt nature farming technology system, organic farming, composting and other sustainable agriculture practices. 
      • Wind
      • Geothermal
      • Hydroelectric
    IPCC 2001 Hadley Centre
    • Planting more trees.
    • During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused by automobile traffic, manufacturing and other human activities. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime. 
    Reduce global warming by… http://www.christianitytoday.com http://environmentalist.article-ok.com .
    • Educating and encouraging others to conserve
    • Share information about recycling and energy conservation with your friends, neighbors and co-workers, and take opportunities to encourage public officials to establish programs and policies that are good for the environment. 
    Reduce global warming by…
  • Reduce Global Warming… START NOW!
  • Prepared by: JOHNY S. NATAD Lake Mainit FOCAS Management Committee Lake Mainit Development Alliance 3/F New Public Market Building Kitcharao, Agusan del Norte http://lmda.wordpress.com http://lmda.blogspot.com .