Doing more with LESS
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Doing more with LESS

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LESS is a flexible and dynamic way to develop CSS. A developer can quickly utilize CSS3 features, including browser specific implementations, with little effort. LESS is what everyone dreamed CSS......

LESS is a flexible and dynamic way to develop CSS. A developer can quickly utilize CSS3 features, including browser specific implementations, with little effort. LESS is what everyone dreamed CSS could be. With such things as variables, mixins, nested rules and operations. He will show you how to use LESS to make your development process faster and more efficient.

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  • 1. Doing more with LESS December 14, 2010 - DallasPHP Jake Smith http://joind.in/talk/view/2478
  • 2. What is LESS?• Dynamic CSS• CSS pre-processor• Leaner/Meaner CSS• Minified CSS (optional)
  • 3. Other Types of LESS• SASS (Ruby) • http://sass-lang.com/• Scaffold (PHP) • http://github.com/anthonyshort/Scaffold• LESSPHP • http://leafo.net/lessphp/
  • 4. SASS vs. LESS• Not as native syntax (css) as LESS • SASS mimics ruby• SASS.js under development now• In the end it’s all about preference
  • 5. LESS Features
  • 6. Variables@base_red: #e20d15;@base_blue: #0067b0;@default_gap: 10px;
  • 7. Importing@import ‘reset’;@import ‘global.css’;
  • 8. Comments/* Default CSS Comment */// Easier Commenting!
  • 9. Nested Rules.main { background: #F7F7F7; padding-bottom: 20px; .module { background: #FFF; border: 1px #CCC solid; padding: 10px; } .content { width: 650px; .float_left; .module; .shadow(2px, 2px, 10px, #666); .rounded(10px); .title { background: @base_red; border-bottom: 1px @base_red solid; font-weight: bold; margin-bottom: 1px; padding: 5px; .comments { } } }}
  • 10. Nested Rules (Links) a { color: #F00; text-decoration: none; &:hover { color: #999; } &:active { color: #666; } &:visited { text-decoration: underline; } }
  • 11. Mixins.float_left { display: inline; float: left;}.float_right { display: inline; float: right;}.header { background: #f7f7f7; border-top: 3px @base_red solid; padding: 15px 0; .logo { .float_left; } .navigation { .float_right; }}
  • 12. Operators@the-border: 1px;@base-color: #111;#header { color: @base-color * 3; border-left: @the-border; border-right: @the-border * 2;}#footer { color: (@base-color + #111) * 1.5;} Source: http://lesscss.org/
  • 13. Namespacing#bundle { .button { display: block; border: 1px solid black; background-color: grey; &:hover { background-color: white } } .tab { ... } .citation { ... }}#header a { color: orange; #bundle > .button;} Source: http://lesscss.org/docs
  • 14. Rule Sets#defaults { @width: 960px; @color: #333;}#darkTheme { @color: #FFF;}.article { color: #294366; }.comment { width: #defaults[@width]; color: .article[color];}
  • 15. Scope Variables@default_color: #FFF; // Global Variable#bundle { @default_color: #000; // Scope Variable .button { display: block; border: 1px solid black; background-color: grey; &:hover { background-color: white } } .tab { ... } .citation { ... }}#header a { color: orange; #bundle > .button;} Source: http://lesscss.org/docs
  • 16. Built-in Mixins• saturate(color, amount)• desaturate(color, amount)• lighten(color, amount)• darken(color, amount)• greyscale(color, amount)
  • 17. LESS Development
  • 18. Environment *nix/OSX• Install node.js• Install NPM (Node Package Manager)• Install LESS
  • 19. Environment Windows• http://blog.dotsmart.net/2010/11/26/ running-the-less-js-command-line-compiler- on-windows/• lessc screen.less [output.css] [-compress]
  • 20. LESS App• Compile CSS from LESS file on save• Ability to Minify• Reports error line number for failed compiles• Growl Notifications Source: http://incident57.com/less/
  • 21. LESS.js• 40 times faster than Ruby (gem)• Caches generated CSS to local storage (newer browsers only)
  • 22. LESS.js Code <link rel="stylesheet/less" href="/stylesheets/main.less" type="text/css" /> <script src="http://lesscss.googlecode.com/files/less-1.0.21.min.js" />Source: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/html-css-techniques/quick-tip-you-need-to-check-out-less-js/
  • 23. Live Watch • Only do this in development environment! <script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8"> less.env = "development"; less.watch(); </script>Source: http://fadeyev.net/2010/06/19/lessjs-will-obsolete-css/
  • 24. TextMate Bundle• Syntax Highlighting• On Save, produces parsed CSS• https://github.com/appden/less.tmbundle
  • 25. LESS Examples
  • 26. Mixins
  • 27. Rounded.roundedExpanded(@radius: 3px, @tl: 0, @tr: 0, @br: 0, @bl: 0) { // Webkit -webkit-border-top-right-radius: @radius + @tr; -webkit-border-top-left-radius: @radius + @tl; -webkit-border-bottom-right-radius: @radius + @br; -webkit-border-bottom-left-radius: @radius + @bl; // Firefox -moz-border-radius-topleft: @radius + @tl; -moz-border-radius-topright: @radius + @tr; -moz-border-radius-bottomright: @radius + @br; -moz-border-radius-bottomleft: @radius + @bl; // Implemented Standard border-top-right-radius: @radius + @tr; border-top-left-radius: @radius + @tl; border-bottom-right: @radius + @br; border-bottom-left: @radius + @bl;}// Basic Rounded Corner.rounded(@radius: 3px) { -webkit-border-radius: @radius; -moz-border-radius: @radius; border-radius: @radius;}
  • 28. Gradient.gradient (@start: #ffffff, @end: #EDEDED){ background: @start; background: -webkit-gradient(linear, left top, left bottom, from(@start), to(@end)); background: -moz-linear-gradient(-90deg, @start, @end); filter: %("progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=%d, endColorstr=%d)", @start,@end); /* IE6 & 7 */ -ms-filter: %("progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=%d, endColorstr=%d)", @start,@end); /* IE8 */}
  • 29. Shadow.shadow(@x: 3px, @y: 3px, @blur: 5px, @color: #333) { box-shadow: @x @y @blur @color; -moz-box-shadow: @x @y @blur @color; -webkit-box-shadow: @x @y @blur @color;}
  • 30. Import (include) @import css3; @import buttons; @import theme; @import reset;
  • 31. Operators@base_font: 24px;@base_color: #5b8cff;h1 { color: @base_color; font-size: @base_font;}h2 { color: @base_color - #333; font-size: @base_font * 0.8;}h3 { color: @base_color + #333; font-size: @base_font * 0.7;}h4 { color: @base_color + #666; font-size: @base_font * 0.6;}// Outputh1{color:#5b8cff;font-size:24px;}h2{color:#2859cc;font-size:19.200000000000003px;}h3{color:#8ebfff;font-size:16.799999999999997px;}h4{color:#c1f2ff;font-size:14.399999999999999px;}
  • 32. Grid Layout @unit: @pageWidth / 24; // Grid Margin @gm: 10px; .g(@u: 20px, @margin: @gm, @marginTop: 0, @marginBottom: 0) { // Scope Variables .gpadding: @gpadding + 0; .gborder: @gborder + 0; display: inline; float: left; margin: @marginTop @margin @marginBottom @margin; width: (@u * @unit) - ((@margin * 2) + @gpadding + @gborder); } .shift(@pu: -20px){ left: @pu * @unit; position: relative; } .newRow { clear: left; }Source: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/php/how-to-squeeze-the-most-out-of-less/
  • 33. Grid Layout Cont. h1 { .gpadding: 6; .g(6); .header(); } #site-navigation { padding: 0; .g(18, 0); li { background: @color2; padding: @gm / 2; @gpadding: @gm; .g(3, @gm, @gm); &.selected { background: @color4; } } a { color: #FFF; text-decoration: none; } }Source: http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/php/how-to-squeeze-the-most-out-of-less/
  • 34. With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility
  • 35. Nest for need// Unecessary Nesting // Outputs.wrapper { .wrapper section.page .container aside a { section.page { display: block; .container { font-size: 0.9em; aside { padding: 3px; width: 440px; text-decoration: none; a { } display: block; font-size: 0.9em; // Could easily and more efficiently be padding: 3px; aside a { text-decoration: none; display: block; } font-size: 0.9em; } padding: 3px; } text-decoration: none; } }}
  • 36. Gotchas!• LESS.app is not always using the latest version of LESS.js• LESS.js is still officially BETA• Only caches output when live, not local machine (text/less only)• Chrome local development is broken
  • 37. Resource Links• http://fadeyev.net/2010/06/19/lessjs-will-obsolete- css/• http://lesscss.org/docs• http://net.tutsplus.com/tutorials/html-css- techniques/quick-tip-you-need-to-check-out-less- js/• http://incident57.com/less/
  • 38. Questions? Concerns? Complaints?
  • 39. Thanks for listening!Contact Information[t]: @jakefolio[e]: jake@dallasphp.org[w]: http://www.jakefolio.com[irc]: #dallasphp