The Current Status Of Nuclear Power In The
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  • 1. The Current Status ofNuclear Power in the World Presented at the Energy Committee Colloquium II July 29, 2012 by Joseph S. Miller, PE, ASME Fellow EDA, Inc. Vienna, VA Chair – ASME Nuclear Engineering Division(NED) Member of ASME Energy Committee jsmeda@cox.net 1
  • 2. STATUS OF NUCLEARPOWER IN THE USA 2
  • 3. USA Summary of Nuclear Power The USA is the worlds largest producer of nuclear power, accounting for more than 30% of worldwide nuclear generation of electricity. The countrys 104 nuclear reactors produced 807 billion kWh in 2010, over 20% of total electrical output. Following a 30-year period in which few new reactors were built, it is expected that 4-6 new units may come on line by 2020, the first of those resulting from 16 license applications made since mid-2007 to build 24 new nuclear reactors. However, lower gas prices since 2009 have put the economic viability of some of these projects in doubt. Also, the accidents in Japan may put a hold on construction projects. Government policy changes since the late 1990s have helped pave the way for significant growth in nuclear capacity. Government and industry are working closely on expedited approval for construction and new plant designs.Source: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf41.html 3
  • 4. USA Reactors Number of operating reactors: 104 (35 boiling water reactors, 69 pressurized water reactors) 14 BWR plants have one reactor; nine have two reactors; one has three reactors 15 PWR plants have one reactor; 24 have two reactors; two have three reactors 4
  • 5. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) 5
  • 6. Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) 6
  • 7. Percent of Total Electric Power Generated by Nuclear Power Plants in the U.S. Percent Nuclear Electricity 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year 7
  • 8. U.S. Nuclear Generating Statistics1971 - 2011 Total Electricity Nuclear Generation Nuclear Fuel Capacity Summer Generation (MWh) (MWh) Share (Percent) 4,500,000,000 Factor CapacityYear (Percent) (MW)1971 1,615,853,616 38,104,545 2.4 48.2 9,033 4,000,000,0001972 1,752,978,413 54,091,135 3.1 42.5 14,4811973 1,864,056,631 83,479,463 4.5 53.5 22,683 3,500,000,0001974 1,870,319,405 113,975,740 6.1 47.8 31,8671975 1,920,754,569 172,505,075 9.0 55.9 37,267 3,000,000,0001976 2,040,913,681 191,103,531 9.4 54.7 43,8221977 2,127,447,487 250,883,283 11.8 63.3 46,303 2,500,000,000 Total Electricity1978 2,209,376,911 276,403,070 12.5 64.5 50,824 Generation (MWh)1979 2,250,665,025 255,154,623 11.3 58.4 49,747 2,000,000,0001980 2,289,600,364 251,115,575 11.0 56.3 51,810 Nuclear Generation1981 2,297,973,339 272,673,503 11.9 58.2 56,042 1,500,000,000 (MWh)1982 2,244,372,488 282,773,248 12.6 56.6 60,0351983 2,313,445,685 293,677,119 12.7 54.4 63,009 1,000,000,0001984 2,419,465,368 327,633,549 13.5 56.3 69,6521985 2,473,002,122 383,690,727 15.5 58.0 79,397 500,000,0001986 2,490,470,952 414,038,063 16.6 56.9 85,2411987 2,575,287,666 455,270,382 17.7 57.4 93,583 01988 2,707,411,177 526,973,047 19.5 63.5 94,6951989 2,967,305,524 529,354,717 17.8 62.2 98,161 1960 1980 2000 20201990 3,037,988,277 576,861,678 19.0 66.0 99,6241991 3,073,798,885 612,565,087 19.9 70.2 99,5891992 100.0 3,083,882,204 618,776,263 20.1 70.9 98,9851993 3,197,191,096 610,291,214 19.1 70.5 99,041 90.01994 3,247,522,388 640,439,832 19.7 73.8 99,1481995 3,353,487,362 673,402,123 20.1 77.4 99,515 80.01996 3,444,187,621 674,728,546 19.6 76.2 100,7841997 3,492,172,283 628,644,171 18.0 71.1 99,716 70.01998 3,620,295,498 673,702,104 18.6 78.2 97,0701999 3,694,809,810 728,254,124 19.7 85.3 97,411 60.0 Nuclear Fuel Share2000 3,802,105,043 753,892,940 19.8 88.1 97,860 (Percent)2001 3,736,643,653 768,826,308 20.6 89.4 98,159 50.02002 3,858,452,252 780,064,087 20.2 90.3 98,657 Capacity Factor2003 3,883,185,205 763,732,695 19.7 87.9 99,209 40.0 (Percent)2004 3,970,555,289 788,528,387 19.9 90.1 99,6282005 4,055,422,744 781,986,365 19.3 89.3 99,988 30.02006 4,064,702,228 787,218,636 19.4 89.6 100,334 20.02007 4,156,744,724 806,424,753 19.4 91.8 100,2662008 4,119,387,760 806,208,435 19.6 91.1 100,755 10.02009 3,950,330,927 798,854,585 20.2 90.3 101,0042010 4,125,059,900 806,968,301 19.6 90.9 101,351 0.02011 4,105,734,000 790,225,000 19.2 89.0 101,351 1960 1980 2000 2020 8
  • 9. Improvements in Current Reactor Fleet  Almost no new US nuclear power generation has been added in the last 25 years.  The increase in nuclear generation has been achieved by a substantial increase in the overall capacity factor of the U.S. plants from about 60% in 1980 to 90% today.  This large increase in capacity factor was achieved by reducing outage durations, extending fuel cycles, using higher burnup fuel, and by reducing unplanned outages and fuel failures. Combined with increases in power in various plants (power uprates), allowed the nuclear power option to maintain and increase its share of electricity generation.  Such an increase in nuclear generation is the equivalent of having built 25-30 nuclear power plants during that period.  The reduced length of the planned outages from 106 days for an average operating plant in 1991 to 38 days in 2008 and the reduced number of unplanned outages improved plant availability and cost. The reduction in planned outage length and the number of unplanned outages represents a significant improvement in the nuclear plant availability, cost and safety of nuclear power plants.  Power uprate, which allows plants to operate at a higher power, and power plant life extension, which extended the operating life of a power plant beyond 40 years allowed more electrical power to be generated at a reduce total production cost and construction cost, respectively. Also, fuel performance has improved to a very high level over the last 20-30 years. 9
  • 10. Status of New Plants in USA Construction / Operating License ApprovalStatus Company Location (Facility) Design # of Units Early Site Permit (ESP) Submittal Docket Date Date Southern Company Burke County, GA (Vogtle 3, 4) AP1000 2 Approved August 2009 3/31/08 5/30/08 2/10/12 Under Construction South Carolina Electric & Jenkinsville, SC (Summer 2, 3) AP1000 2 NA 3/27/08 7/31/08 3/30/12 (5) Gas Tennessee Valley Rhea County, TN (Watts Bar Gen II PWR 1 NA - - - Authority 2)* Detroit Edison Newport, MI (Fermi 3) ESBWR 1 - 9/18/08 11/25/08 Louisa County, VA (North Anna Approved November Dominion APWR 1 11/27/07 1/28/08 3) 2007 Cherokee County, SC (William Duke Energy AP1000 2 - 12/13/07 2/25/08 States Lee 1, 2) Miami-Dade County, FL Florida Power & Light AP1000 2 6/30/09 9/8/09 (Turkey Point 6, 7) Under Active NRC Luminant Glen Rose, TX (Comanche APWR 2 - 9/19/08 12/2/08 Review (10 Peak 3, 4) applications; 16 PPL Corp. / Unistar Luzerne County, PA (Bell EPR 1 - 10/10/08 12/19/08 units) Bend) Progress Energy Wake County, NC (Harris 2, 3) AP1000 2 - 2/19/08 4/17/08 Progress Energy Levy County, FL (Levy 1, 2) AP1000 2 - 7/30/08 10/6/08 South Texas Project Matagorda County, TX (South Nuclear Operating ABWR 2 - 9/20/07 11/29/07 Texas Project 3,4) Company Calvert County, MD (Calvert 1/25/08 & UniStar EPR 1 - 7/13/07 & 3/14/08 Cliffs 3) 6/3/08 Ameren Fulton, MO (Callaway 2) EPR 1 - 7/24/08 West Feliciana Parish, LA Entergy ESBWR 1 - 9/25/08 12/4/08 (River Bend 3) Suspended NRC Claiborne County, MS (Grand Entergy (NuStart ) ESBWR 1 Approved April 2007 2/27/08 4/17/08 Review Gulf) Jackson County, AL TVA (NuStart ) AP1000 2 - 10/30/07 1/18/08 (Bellefonte 3, 4) Oswego County, NY (Nine Mile UniStar EPR 1 - 9/30/08 12/12/08 Point 3) Source: NEI - http://www.nei.org/resourcesandstats/documentlibrary/newplants/graphicsandcharts/newnuclearplantstatus/ 10
  • 11. Status of New Plants in USA (Cont.) Construction / Operating ApprovalStatus Company Location (Facility) Design # of Units Early Site Permit (ESP) License Submittal Docket Date Date Exelon Clinton, IL (Clinton) tbd - Approved March 2007 tbd Early Site Permits Exelon Victoria County, TX tbd - Submitted March 2010 Withdrawn Lower Alloways Creek, NJ PSEG tbd - Submitted May 2010 tbd (Salem/Hope Creek) Amarillo Power / Unistar Amarillo, TX EPR 1 - tbd Ameren / Westinghouse Fulton, MO (Callaway) SMR** tbd Under consideration Blue Castle Holdings, LLC Green River, UT - - - -Under Consideration Southern Company tbd tbd tbd tbd tbd Southern Ohio Clean Piketon, OH - - Under consideration Under consideration Energy Park Alliance TVA / Generation Roane County, TN (Clinch SMR** 6 Under consideration mPower*** River)* TVA suspended construction of Watts Bar 2 in 1985. On July 2008, NRC issued an Order allowing TVAto resume construction.** SMR = small modular reactor, usually 350 or fewer MW*** Generation mPower is a small modular reactor development company formed jointly by Babcock &Wilcox and Bechtel.NRC New Nuclear Plant Review Scheduleshttp://www.nrc.gov/reactors/new-reactors/col.htmlUpdated: 5/12 Source: NEI - http://www.nei.org/resourcesandstats/documentlibrary/newplants/graphicsandcharts/newnuclearplantstatus/ 11
  • 12. STATUS OF NUCLEARPOWER IN THE WORLD 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. World Nuclear Power Reactors July 2012 16
  • 17. World Nuclear Power Reactors July 2012 17
  • 18. World Nuclear Power Reactors July 2012 18
  • 19. World Nuclear Power Reactors July 2012Sources:Reactor data: WNA to 29/6/12 (excluding 8 shut-down German units)IAEA- for nuclear electricity production & percentage of electricity (% e) 13/4/12.WNA: Global Nuclear Fuel Market report Sept 2011 (reference scenario) - for U.Operable = Connected to the grid;Under Construction = first concrete for reactor poured, or major refurbishment under way;Planned = Approvals, funding or major commitment in place, mostly expected in operation within 8-10years;Proposed = Specific program or site proposals, expected operation mostly within 15 years.New plants coming on line are largely balanced by old plants being retired. Over 1996-2009, 43 reactorswere retired as 49 started operation. There are no firm projections for retirements over the period coveredby this Table, but WNA estimates that at least 60 of those now operating will close by 2030, most beingsmall plants. The 2011 WNA Market Report reference case has 156 reactors closing by 2030, and 298new ones coming on line.TWh = Terawatt-hours (billion kilowatt-hours), MWe = Megawatt (electrical as distinct from thermal), kWh= kilowatt-hour. 67,990 tU = 80,181 t U3O8** The world total includes 6 reactors operating on Taiwan with a combined capacity of 4927 MWe, whichgenerated a total of 40.4 billion kWh in 2011 (accounting for 19.0% of Taiwans total electricity generation).Taiwan has two reactors under construction with a combined capacity of 2700 MWe, and one proposed,1350 MWe. It is expected to require 1291 tU in 2012. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Nuclear Share of Elecrtical Generation, Number of reactors in operation,worldwide, 2012-07-02 (IAEA 2012, modified) worldwide, 2012-07-02 (IAEA 2012, modified) 21
  • 22. Number of nuclear reactors worldwide by age as of 2012-07-02 (IAEA 2012) 22
  • 23. Nuclear Units Under Construction WorldwideCountry Reactor Name Reactor Type Total MWe Estimated Start-up YearArgentina (1) Atucha 2 PHWR 692 2012Brazil (1) Angra-3 PWR 1,245 NAChina (26) Changjiang 1 PWR 610 NA Changjiang 2 PWR 610 NA Fangchenggang PWR 1,000 NA Fangjiashan 1 PWR 1,000 NA Fangjiashan 2 PWR 1,000 NA Fuqing 1 PWR 1,000 NA Fuqing 2 PWR 1,000 NA Fuqing 3 PWR 1,000 NA Haiyang 1 PWR 1,000 NA Haiyang 2 PWR 1,000 NA Hongyanhe 1 PWR 1,000 NA Hongyanhe 2 PWR 1,000 NA Hongyanhe 3 PWR 1,000 NA Hongyanhe 4 PWR 1,000 NA Lingao 4 PWR 1,000 NA Ningde 1 PWR 1,000 NA Ningde 2 PWR 1,000 NA Ningde 3 PWR 1,000 NA Ningde 4 PWR 1,000 NA Sanmen 1 PWR 1,000 NA Sanmen 2 PWR 1,000 NA Taishan 1 PWR 1,700 NA Taishan 2 PWR 1,700 NA Yangjiang 1 PWR 1,000 NA Yangjiang 2 PWR 1,000 NA Yangjiang 3 PWR 1,000 NAChina, Taiwan (2) Lungmen 1 ABWR 1,300 NA Lungmen 2 ABWR 1,300 NAFinland (1) Olkiluoto 3 PWR 1,600 NAFrance (1) Flamanville 3 PWR 1,600 2016India (7) Kakrapar 3 PHWR 630 2015 Kakrapar 4 PHWR 630 2015 Kudankulam 1 PWR 917 NA Kudankulam 2 PWR 917 2012 PFBR FBR 470 NA Rajasthan 7 PHWR 630 2016 Rajasthan 8 PHWR 630 2016Japan (2) Ohma ABWR 1,325 NA Shimane 3 ABWR 1,325 NA 23
  • 24. Country Reactor Name Reactor Type Total MWe Estimated Start-up YearPakistan (2) Chasnupp 3 PWR 315 2016 Chasnupp 4 PWR 315 2017Russia (11) Akademik Lomonosov 1 PWR 32 NA Akademik Lomonosov 2 PWR 32 NA Baltiisk 1 PWR 1,082 2017 Beloyarsky 4 FBR 804 NA Kursk 5 LWGR 915 NA Leningrad 2-1 PWR 1,085 NA Leningrad 2-2 PWR 1,085 NA Novovoronezh 2-1 PWR 1,114 NA Novovoronezh 2-2 PWR 1,114 NA Rostov 3 PWR 1,011 NA Rostov 4 PWR 1,011 NASlovak Republic (2) Mochovce 3 PWR 391 2012 Mochovce 4 PWR 391 2013S. Korea (3) Shin-Kori 3 PWR 1,340 NA Shin-Kori 4 PWR 1,340 NA Shin Wolsong 2 PWR 960 NAUkraine (2) Khmelnitski 3 PWR 950 2015 Khmelnitski 4 PWR 950 2016United States (5) Summer 2 PWR 1,154 2017 Summer 3 PWR 1,154 2018 Vogtle 3 PWR 1,154 2016 Vogtle 4 PWR 1,154 2017 Watts Bar 2 PWR 1,165 2015Total (66) 63,849Sources: International Atomic Energy Agency PRIS database; project sponsorshttp://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2/index.htmlUpdated: 5/12ABWR - Advanced Boiling Light-Water-Cooled and Moderated ReactorFBR - Fast Breeder ReactorLWGR - Light-Water-Cooled, Graphite-Moderated ReactorPHWR - Pressurized Heavy-Water-Moderated and Cooled ReactorPWR - Pressurized Light-Water-Moderated and Cooled Reactor 24
  • 25. Generations of Nuclear Plants The generation I reactors refer to the early prototype of power reactors, such as Shippingport, Magnox, Fermi 1, and Dresden. A generation II reactor is a design classification for a nuclear reactor, and refers to the class of commercial reactors built up to the end of the 1990s. Prototypical generation II reactors include the PWR, CANDU, BWR, AGR, and VVER. A generation III reactor is a development of any of the generation II nuclear reactor designs incorporating evolutionary improvements in design developed during the lifetime of the generation II reactor designs. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR). Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6), VVER-1000/392 (PWR), Advanced Heavy Water Reactor are examples of Gen III reactors. The generation III+ reactor designs offer improvements in safety and economics over Generation III advanced reactor designs certified by the NRC in the 1990s. Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR-1000), AP1000, European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR), APR-1400 — an advanced PWR design evolved from the U.S. System 80+, VVER-1200, EU-ABWR are examples of Gen III+ reactor designs. Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. Most of these designs are generally not expected to be available for commercial construction before 2030. Current reactors in operation around the world are generally considered second- or third-generation systems, with many of the first-generation systems having already retired. Research into these reactor types was officially started by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) based on eight technology goals, including to improve nuclear safety, improve proliferation resistance, minimize waste and natural resource utilization, and decrease the cost to build and run such plants. 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Generation IV Reactors 27
  • 28. Advanced Reactors Being Marketed 28
  • 29. Advanced Reactors Being Marketed 29
  • 30. World Nuclear Power Generation and Capacity As of March 2012 2011 Number of Nuclear Nuclear Fuel ShareCountry Units Nuclear Capacity (MW) Nuclear Generation (BkWh) (Percent)Argentina 2 935 5.9 5.0Armenia 1 375 2.4 33.2Belgium 7 5,927 45.9 54.0Brazil 2 1,884 15.6 3.2Bulgaria 2 1,906 16.3 32.6Canada 18 12,604 90.0 15.3China 16 11,816 87.4 1.9Czech RP 6 3,766 26.7 33.0Finland 4 2,736 22.3 31.6France 58 63,130 421.1 77.7Germany 9 12,068 102.3 17.8Hungary 4 1,889 14.7 43.3India 20 4,391 28.9 3.7Iran 1 915 0.1 0.0Japan 50 44,215 156.2 18.1Korea Rep. 23 20,671 147.7 34.6Mexico 2 1,300 9.3 3.6Netherlands 1 482 3.9 3.6Pakistan 3 725 3.8 3.8Romania 2 1,300 11.7 19.0Russia 33 23,643 161.7 17.6Slovakia 4 1,816 14.3 54.0Slovenia 1 688 5.9 41.7South Africa 2 1,830 12.9 5.2Spain 8 7,567 55.1 19.5Sweden 10 9,326 58.0 39.6Switzerland 5 3,263 25.7 40.9Taiwan, China 6 5,018 40.5 19.0U.K. 17 9,703 56.4 15.7U.S.* 104 101,465 790.2 19.3Ukraine 15 13,107 84.8 47.2Total 436 370,461 2,518.1* IAEA and EIA nuclear capacity figures vary slightly.Source: International Atomic Energy Agencyhttp://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2/index.htmlUpdated: 3/12 30
  • 31. Conclusions Capacity factors of the current US nuclear fleet is at an all time high (90%) The post Fukushima era has impacted the completion dates of many reactors, but construction continues at a good pace. New reactors planned worldwide is 160 with 63 currently under construction. 64,000 Mw of Nuclear Generation Power will be added in the next 10 years worldwide. 31