The Current Status And Future Of Nuclear Power C


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The Current Status And Future Of Nuclear Power C

  1. 1. By Joe Miller EDA, Inc.
  2. 2. As of 2004, nuclear power provided 6.5% of the world's energy and 15.7% of the world's electricity, with the U.S. , France , and Japan together accounting for 57% of all nuclear generated electricity. As of 2007 , the IAEA reported there are 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world, operating in 31 different countries.
  3. 4. Status of Commercial Nuclear Power in the USA
  4. 5. <ul><li>The Current USA Reactor Fleet is dominated </li></ul><ul><li>by two reactor types </li></ul><ul><li>Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) </li></ul>
  5. 10. Other Reactor Types in the World <ul><li>PHW Candu: Pressurized Heavy Water Candu </li></ul><ul><li>BLW Candu: Boiling Light Water Candu </li></ul><ul><li>BHWR: Boiling Heavy Water Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>SGHWR: Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>PHWR: Pressure Vessel Heavy Water Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>LWCHWR: Light Water Cooled Heavy Water Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>GCR: Gas Cooled Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNOX: Magnox Type Gas Cooled Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>AGR: Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>HTGR: High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>FBR: Fast Breeder Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>LWBR: Light Water Breeder Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>GCHWR: Gas Cooled Heavy Water Reactor </li></ul><ul><li>LWGR: Light Water Cooled Graphite Reactor </li></ul>
  6. 11. Annual Energy Outlook 2007 with Projections to 2030
  7. 12. Annual Electric Sales <ul><li>Total electricity sales increase by 41 percent from 3,660 billion kilowatt-hours in 2005 to 5,168 billion kilowatt-hours in 2030. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest increase is in the commercial sector (Figure 53), as service industries continue to drive growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity sales, which are strongly affected by the rate of economic growth, are projected to grow by 54 percent to 5,654 billion kilowatt-hours in 2030. </li></ul>
  8. 16. Public Opinion <ul><li>Feb 2005 opinion poll regarding nuclear power in the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue represents people in favor of nuclear power. </li></ul><ul><li>Gray represents undecided. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow represents opposed to nuclear power </li></ul>
  9. 17. U.S. Electricity Production Costs 1995-2006, In 2006 cents per kilowatt-hour Production Costs = Operations and Maintenance Costs + Fuel Costs Source: Global Energy Decisions Updated: 6/07
  10. 18. Factors positively influencing the prospects of constructing new nuclear power plants: Presented in Speech by Chair of NRC in 2008 <ul><li>Support by the President and the Congress for expanding the use of nuclear power, including incentives for the first six plants </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns with the Nation’s energy security </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of oil and natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Low and stable electrical production costs from nuclear </li></ul><ul><li>Low interest rates and inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Renewed interest by utilities in building new nuclear power plants </li></ul><ul><li>NRC’s establishment of an improved licensing process </li></ul>
  11. 19. Factors Negatively influencing the prospects of constructing new nuclear power plants: Presented in Speech by Chair of NRC in 2008 <ul><li>High capital cost of new nuclear power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Financing considerations </li></ul><ul><li>New licensing processes have not yet been fully tested </li></ul>
  12. 20. New infrastructure needed for new nuclear power plants: Presented in Speech by Chair of NRC <ul><li>Improved reactor design and construction </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Well-qualified personnel </li></ul>
  13. 22. Roadmap to Commercial Operation
  14. 23. Click to See Movie on New Licensing Process
  15. 24. Proposed New Reactors in the USA
  16. 28. Advanced Reactors Scheduled for Review by NRC <ul><li>Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) </li></ul><ul><li>Westinghouse AP1000 Advanced Passive Plant </li></ul><ul><li>US-APWR is a 4451 MWt pressurized water reactor designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. </li></ul>
  17. 29. <ul><li>The review process for new reactor designs involves the certification of standard reactor designs by rulemaking (Subpart B of Part 52). </li></ul><ul><li>Design certification applicants must provide the technical information necessary to demonstrate compliance with the safety standards set forth in applicable NRC regulations (10 CFR Parts 20, 50, 73, and 100). </li></ul><ul><li>Applicants must also provide information to close out unresolved and generic safety issues, as well as issues that arose after the Three Mile Island accident. </li></ul>
  18. 30. <ul><li>Currently there are four certified reactor designs that can be referenced in an application for a combined license. They are: </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Boiling Water Reactor design by GE Nuclear Energy (May 1997); </li></ul><ul><li>System 80+ design by Westinghouse (formerly ABB-Combustion Engineering) (May 1997); </li></ul><ul><li>AP600 design by Westinghouse (December 1999); and </li></ul><ul><li>AP1000 design (pictured) by Westinghouse (February 2006). </li></ul>
  19. 31. Advanced Reactors <ul><li>ABWR developed by General Electric Co (GE), USA, together with Hitachi & Toshiba Japan </li></ul><ul><li>APWR developed by Westinghouse (W), USA, together with Mitsubishi, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>BWR 90 developed by ABB Atom, Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>AP1000 Westinghouse </li></ul><ul><li>EPR developed by Nuclear Power International (NPI), a joint company of Framatome, France and Siemens, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>System 80+ developed by ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, USA </li></ul><ul><li>VVER-1000 (V-392) developed by Atomenergo project and Gidropress, Russia </li></ul>
  20. 32. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor <ul><li>ABWR: The U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor design uses a single-cycle, forced circulation, reactor with a rated power of 1,300 megawatts electric (MWe). </li></ul><ul><li>The design incorporates features of the BWR designs in Europe, Japan, and the United States, and uses improved electronics, computer, turbine, and fuel technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The design is expected to increase plant availability, operating capacity, safety, and reliability. </li></ul>
  21. 33. <ul><li>AP1000: This is a larger version of the previously approved AP600 design. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a 1,000 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor that incorporates passive safety systems and simplified system designs. </li></ul><ul><li>It is similar to the AP600 design but uses a longer reactor vessel to accommodate longer fuel, and also includes larger steam generators and a larger pressurizer. </li></ul>
  22. 36. ABB Combustion Engineering System 80+ <ul><li>The System 80+ is a 1300 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor. </li></ul><ul><li>Like previous ABB-CE reactors, the System 80+ reactor coolant system has a two loop configuration, a major feature that has distinguished CE designed units. </li></ul><ul><li>Like other ALWRs, improved safety performance and operability are achieved, owing to sophisticated design features. </li></ul><ul><li>Another interesting feature of System 80+ is that it can run with Plutonium fuel, which could be a very useful mean to dispose the Weapon Graded Plutonium from dismantled nuclear warheads </li></ul>
  23. 37. United States Advanced PWR <ul><li>The US-APWR is a 4451 MWt pressurized water reactor designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an evolutionary design with active safety features. The US-APWR is based on established APWR technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd formally announced its intent to pursue a Design Certification on June 20, 2006 and formally requested a pre-application review of the U.S. APWR on August 31, 2006. </li></ul>
  24. 38. <ul><li>EPR : The EPR is a large pressurized water reactor of evolutionary design, with design output of approximately 1,600 MWe. </li></ul><ul><li>Design features include four 100% capacity trains of engineered safety features, a double-walled containment, and a “core catcher” for containment and cooling of core materials for severe accidents resulting in reactor vessel failure. </li></ul><ul><li>The design does not rely on passive safety features. The first EPR is currently being constructed at the Olkiluoto site in Finland. </li></ul>
  25. 39. UniStar Nuclear will market a standard advanced design called the U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR), a 1,600-megawatt evolutionary power reactor designed for America by AREVA Inc.
  26. 40. <ul><li>Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor ( ESBWR ) </li></ul><ul><li>General Electric requested pre-application review of its design in a letter to the NRC dated April 18, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>General Electric submitted its design certification application for the ESBWR on August 24, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>The staff accepted the application for review in a letter dated December 1, 2005, and expects the certification process to continue through 2010. </li></ul>
  27. 41. Nuclear Plant Design Expectations <ul><li>3-6 Nuclear Plant Applications this year </li></ul><ul><li>15-30 Nuclear Plant Applications in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Shortages of Nuclear Design Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Shortages of Analyst to Perform Calculations for Licensing Evaluations. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Shortage of Review Engineers </li></ul>
  28. 42. Contact EDA, Inc <ul><li>Marketing Department </li></ul><ul><li>EDA, Inc </li></ul><ul><li>2015 Woodford Rd </li></ul><ul><li>Vienna, VA 22182 </li></ul><ul><li>703 356 4149 </li></ul><ul><li>703 597 2459 </li></ul>