Freud v.2


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Freud v.2

  1. 1. By Ted Edinger and Janet Malone
  2. 2. Background info  Freud and Charcot  Freud and Breuer  The conscious, unconscious and preconscious  The hydraulic model  Freud and psychosexuality  Id, ego and superego  Life and death instincts  Defense mechanisms  Freud and art 
  3. 3. Sigismund Schlomo Freud Born May 6, 1856, in Moravia, which is now part of the Czech republic. Died September 23, 1939. Moved with his family to Vienna when he was 4-10 years old, because of money issues and so that Freud, the favorite child, would get a good education. Originally planning to study law, Freud enrolled in medical school and studied under Darwinist professor Karl Claus in 1873
  4. 4. Freud became interested in the biological study  of eels. There was not a lot known at the time of their migration and reproductive habits. He spent 4 weeks dissecting eels looking for the male sex organs  In 1878, Freud changed his name from Sigismund to Sigmund  In 1884, Freud published an article about cocaine use. Freud himself used cocaine as a stimulant to manage his depression and for relaxation. His psychoanalytical theory has been questioned as a byproduct of his cocaine use.
  5. 5. In 1885, Freud spent six months studying  under Jean-Martin Charcot, who was one of the leading neurologists of the time. Charcot had established that hysteria was its own disease, not an aspect of malingering, and that hysteria affects both men and women.
  6. 6. Charcot believed that hysteria, which was  believed to be a mental disorder, was caused by a faulty or weak neurological system. Charcot thought that hysteria and the  causing factor of the neurological system was hereditary. Hysteria could be triggered by a traumatic  event, and once started was progressive and irreversible.
  7. 7. Freud was fascinated with Charcot’s use of  hypnosis on hysterics. Charcot believed that a hypnotic state was similar to a hysterical state, and that only hysterics could be hypnotized.  Charcot hypnotized hysterics to induce their physical symptoms in order to study them.  Freud went on to use hypnosis in his further work, but disagreed with Charcot. Freud believed that a hypnotic state was not a neurological phenomenon, but a psychological state.
  8. 8. After starting his own practice, Freud began a  collaboration with Josef Breuer in 1892.  Breuer believed that childhood traumatic events could affect the adult individual, and that a person’s adult personality was determined by childhood sexual experiences.  Breuer, in 1880, started observing the development of a mental illness in one of his patients, Anna O. Through trial and error, Breuer found that by hypnotizing Anna and letting her talk about fantasies and hallucinations, Anna’s symptoms were slowly disappearing
  9. 9. Because of this process, what Anna called the  “talking cure”, Breuer came to the conclusion that the cause of Anna’s symptoms were in her unconscious and that only after talking through the thoughts, thereby becoming part of the conscious, her symptoms disappeared.  Breuer shared this knowledge with Freud, and together developed this new form of psychotherapy, although Freud eventually gave up the hypnosis, and used free association.
  10. 10. Conscious (small) - The part of the mind that contains  what one is aware of. One can think and talk rationally about things contained here.  Preconscious(medium) - This is where one’s ordinary memory is stored. The memories can be pulled into the conscious mind, but are not stored there.  Unconscious(large) – This is the dumping ground for feelings, urges, and ideas that are unpleasant or unacceptable connected to anxiety, conflict, and pain. Though these are not readily accessible, the unconscious has an underlying influence on our actions and conscious awareness.
  11. 11. Eventually the collaboration and friendship  between Freud and Breuer ended due to an argument about one of Freud’s theories. Freud believed that many of his patients had been “seduced” (sexual abuse or rape) as children. Breuer, who believed that the origins of hysteria were indeed sexual, did not agree with this, claiming that the number of these cases would be too high, and that these patients were only recalling fantasies. Years later, Freud finally realized that Breuer was correct.
  12. 12. Freud redefined sexuality to cover any form  of pleasure that is or can be derived from the body. He described 4 stages of sexuality:   Oral- The stage when an infant gains pleasure through the act of sucking  Anal- The stage when an infant gains pleasure through the act of defecation
  13. 13.  Phallic-The stage when a child “discovers” it’s genital organs as a site of pleasure. This is also the time when the Oedipus complex forms ▪ According to Freud, children go through an Oedipus complex, where the child becomes sexually attracted to the parent of the opposite sex. At the same time, the child begins to feel guilt about their feelings and fear concerning the other parent. ▪ Eventually, around the age of five, the child resolves its conflict by identifying with the parent of the same sex.
  14. 14.  At this point, the child enters a latency period, where sexual motivations are not as important.  Genital- This stage begins at puberty, where the pleasure drive refocused on the genitals.
  15. 15. Id – The id is the only part of our personality  we are born with. The id is part of our unconscious self, and possesses both instinctive and primitive behaviors. These behaviors are driven by the pleasure principle (to immediately gratify all desires, wants, and needs). This is not always possible or acceptable, and will be subdued by the primary process (creating a mental image to substitute what is desired, relieving anxiety).
  16. 16. Ego – The ego deals with reality, and keeps the id in  check. The ego is a part of the conscious, preconscious, and the unconscious mind. The ego works on the reality principle (satisfying the id in a realistic and appropriate way). The reality principle considers the end result of the id’s wants, and allows for the action to be restricted, made, or made at a more appropriate time and place. The secondary process comes into play with the ego. This is when the ego looks for an acceptable real world replacement for the primary image in order to release the anxiety created by restricting the impulse of the id
  17. 17. Superego – The superego contains our moral  standards and ideals that are obtained through our parents and society. It works to create acceptable behavior and suppresses the unacceptable (id issues). The superego gives guidelines for judgment. There are two components to the superego. The ego ideal possesses the rules and guidelines that govern good behavior, and by obeying these, one feels pride/accomplishment. The conscience contains the negative of going against the ego ideal. This leads one to feel guilt and the negative consequences of the actions.
  18. 18. Superego Ego Id The superego represses the ego, which is also under pressure from the id. Because of the pressure, things will escape, like déjà-vu. Neuroses can emerge because of the pressure.
  19. 19. Life Instincts (sexual instincts) - This instinct can  be broken down to survival, pleasure, and reproduction. These are all part of sustaining life and the continuance of a species. The energy created by this is known as libido. Love, cooperation, and other social actions are the behaviors associated with the life instinct.  Death Instincts - Freud believed that all people have an unconscious desire to die. However, their life instincts keep most from focusing or acting out this instinct of death.
  20. 20. Defense Mechanisms are the way one deals with  anxiety. Freud deals with three main types of anxieties. Neurotic anxiety is an unconscious worry that the id’s urges will become uncontrolled. This will result in discipline for poor behavior. Reality anxiety deals with the fear of actual events. The most effective way of dealing with such an anxiety is to avoid the issue that brings fear. Moral anxiety is the fear of going against our own moral compass(superego). Defense Mechanisms are a means of distorting reality(consciously or unconsciously) in order to cope with reality
  21. 21. Denial- Refusing to acknowledge something has occurred or is presently  occurring. Repression- Keeping information from conscious awareness(usually  unconsciously) Suppression- Keeping information from conscious  awareness(consciously) Displacement- Acting out our frustrations, feelings, and impulses on less  threatening people/objects. Sublimation- Channeling our id”ish” impulses into acceptable outlets.  Projection- Placing our own shortcomings onto another.  Intellectualization- Removing the emotional energy from the anxiety and  approaching it logically. Rationalization- Explaining the unacceptable by rational/logical manner  avoiding the truth of the behavior. Regression- Returning to the fixations from the Psychosexual  Development abandoning coping strategies. Reaction Formation- Responding with the opposite  feeling/behavior/impulse.
  22. 22. Freud was fascinated with art. He believed  that artists understand human experience in a different way than scientists could. Was often annoyed at the amount of time  and labor involved in the achieving the psychological understanding that comes instinctively to an artist. Felt that he had to analyze why he was  affected by a particular artwork, what made it call to him.
  23. 23. Freud felt that the thing that drew a viewer to  an artwork was not what others said about the art, but the intention of the artist himself, and whether the artist was able to convey it and make the viewer understand it through analytical means. Freud’s influence can be found in surrealism,  which explores the unconscious mind.
  24. 24. Freud was a strange, strange man.  He had many theories that have made him  famous (Unconscious…, Hydraulic, Id…, Psychosexuality, Defense Mechanisms, Life and Death instincts as well as art) Many of his theories are no longer considered  to be the standard.