Copyright 2014 – Scott Hutcheson
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License.
Get...
Better understand he nature of collaboration
Identify what stage your collaborations are in
Consider ways to move a collab...
Our communities, big and small, are dealing with complex PUBLIC ISSUES
Our communities, big and small, are dealing with complex PUBLIC ISSUES
✔
✔
✔
✔
Better understand he nature of collaboration
Identify what stage your collaborations are in
Consider ways to move a collab...
Answering the Question
A grounded theory exploration
using a sequential mixed method
approach beginning with a
qualitative...
Better understand he nature of collaboration
Identify what stage your collaborations are in
Consider ways to move a collab...
• Evolution of dealing with
community change
• Institutionalization
• Locus of control
• Increasing complexity
• Tools for...
Better understand he nature of collaboration
Identify what stage your collaborations are in
Consider ways to move a collab...
Hierarchy of Complex Systems
•Social Organizations – economics, education,
politics
•Individual Human – language capacity,...
The Extension Economist vs. The Rocket Scientist
12
Hierarchy of Complex Systems
•Social Organizations – economics, education,
politics
•Individual Human – language capacity,...
Hierarchy of Complex Systems
•Social Organizations – economics, education,
politics
•Individual Human – language capacity,...
Hierarchy of Complex Systems
•Social Organizations – economics, education,
politics
•Individual Human – language capacity,...
Dealing with the Complexity
16
Early Models
• 1960s in universities, schools, municipalities (Hamilton, 2007)
• Late 1980s...
Better understand he nature of collaboration
Identify what stage your collaborations are in
Consider ways to move a collab...
Contributing Theories
•Social Innovation
•Strategy Formation
•Collaborative Governance
18
Social Innovation
Social innovations…
• are best designed and implemented in networks
• emerge from heterogeneousness (div...
Strategy Formation
Strategies…
• are formed intuitively
• are iterative
• must be designed to account for unanticipated va...
Collaborative Governance
Collaborative governance…
• takes advantage of network structures
• connects existing assets
• fo...
Better understand he nature of collaboration
Identify what stage your collaborations are in
Consider ways to move a collab...
Insights from the Panel of Experts
The Qualitative Data
• Population of scholars and practitioners who design
curricula, t...
Findings from the Interviews
24
1. Network organization structures
2. Asset-based Frameworks
3. Iterative planning/impleme...
Variables
25
1. Network organization structures
2. Asset-based Frameworks
3. Iterative planning/implementation process
4. ...
Effectiveness
For the effective strategy initiative you have in mind, how
would you describe its level of effectiveness:
•...
Insights from Participants
The Quantitative Data
• Population of individuals who have participated in
economic and communi...
Findings from the Surveys
28
Source: Scott Hutcheson, Distributed under a Creative Commons 3.0 License.
Effective & Ineffe...
Completely
Effective
Completely
Ineffective
Significantly
Effective
Somewhat
Effective
Somewhat
Ineffective
Significantly
...
Findings from the Surveys
30
Source: Scott Hutcheson, Distributed under a Creative Commons 3.0 License.
Correlation Betwee...
Recipe for INEFFECTIVE Strategies
• Have a hierarchical organizational
structure
• Frame strategies primarily around
addre...
Recipe for EFFECTIVE Strategies
• Have a network organizational structure
• Frame strategies primarily around
building on ...
Improving Our Practice
Strategic Doing enables people to form action-
oriented collaborations quickly, move them
toward me...
Strategy
Answers Two
Basic Questions
Strategic Doing Divides the Two Basic Questions into
Four Appreciative Questions
35
Strategic Doing Moves from the
Linear to the Agile
Strategic Doing Is Iterative & Ongoing
http://www.ssireview.org/blog/entry/accelerating_civic_innovation_through_strategic_doing
http://www.choicesmagazine.org/choices-magazine/theme-articles/public-sector-options-for-
creating-jobs/transforming-regio...
• Proceedings of the 2014 International
Research & Development Conference,
Stuttgart, Germany (published)
• Community Deve...
Practicing Strategic Doing
41
In neighborhoods besieged by complex, wicked problems, Strategic Doing
creates hope through the power of taking action wit...
With the pending NASA shuttle shutdown, the Space Coast region of Florida
found itself struggling to define a strategy to ...
• Local & Regional Economic Development
Strategy
• Community Development Strategy
• Cluster Development
• Local/Regional F...
Teaching Strategic Doing
Existing & Emerging University Partnerships
Michigan State University
University of Alaska
Univer...
Teaching Strategic Doing
Scott Hutcheson, Ph.D.
765-479-7704
hutcheson@purdue.edu
www.linkedin.com/in/scotthutcheson/
www.twitter.com/jshutch64
www...
Getting from Here to There: Eight Characteristics of Effective Economic & Community Development Strategy
Getting from Here to There: Eight Characteristics of Effective Economic & Community Development Strategy
Getting from Here to There: Eight Characteristics of Effective Economic & Community Development Strategy
Getting from Here to There: Eight Characteristics of Effective Economic & Community Development Strategy
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Getting from Here to There: Eight Characteristics of Effective Economic & Community Development Strategy

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Getting from Here to There: Eight Characteristics of Effective Economic & Community Development Strategy

  1. 1. Copyright 2014 – Scott Hutcheson This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License. Getting from Here To There: Eight Characteristics of Effective Strategy Economic & Community Development Strategy Scott Hutcheson, Ph.D. Community Development Society Annual Conference Dubuque, IA – July 23, 2014
  2. 2. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level Norfork, Arkansas (pop. 550)
  3. 3. Our communities, big and small, are dealing with complex PUBLIC ISSUES
  4. 4. Our communities, big and small, are dealing with complex PUBLIC ISSUES ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
  5. 5. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level Research Question Why are some strategies for economic and community development successful and others…not so much?
  6. 6. Answering the Question A grounded theory exploration using a sequential mixed method approach beginning with a qualitative phase in which semi- structured interviews resulting were conducted with a purposively sampled panel of experts resulting in data that was open coded using the data spiral analysis method followed by a quasi-experimental quantitative phase in which two contrasted groups of purposefully sampled, randomly assigned participants were surveyed, resulting in data that was analyzed using Spearman’s rho to determine correlation coefficients. 1. Literature review 2. Interviews 3. Surveys
  7. 7. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level Problem Statement • Literature gap regarding factors contributing to effective strategy in the context of community change issues like economic development (Kwon, Berry, & Feiock, 2009). • Civic leaders face daunting tasks of developing and implementing community change strategies (Markey, 2010). • Very little research-based information to guide decisions about effective strategy-development processes.
  8. 8. • Evolution of dealing with community change • Institutionalization • Locus of control • Increasing complexity • Tools for managing community change • Early tools • Evolving tools • Emerging tools • Contributing theories • Strategy formation • Collaborative governance • Social innovation Insights from the Literature Conducted as part of the grounded theory data collection process (McGhee, Marland, and Atkinson, 2007). Conducted to provide contextualization (Dunne, 2011) and orientation to the phenomenon (Pozzebon, Petrini, de Mellow, and Garreau, 2011).
  9. 9. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level Evolution of How We Deal with Public Issues Institutionalization • Pre-institutional (Pre- WW2) • Institutional (1950-1990) • Multi-Institutional (1990 to today) Locus of Control • Control in the hands of the “elite” (Perrucci & Pilisuk, 1970). • Most economic & community development issues are “Type 3 Public Problems” and control is shared by a group of “nonexperts” (Heifitz and Sinder, 1988).
  10. 10. Hierarchy of Complex Systems •Social Organizations – economics, education, politics •Individual Human – language capacity, knowledge accumulation, design and use of tools •Animal – mobility, information processing •Plants – viability •Open Systems – matter, energy •Cybernetics – computers •Clockworks – engines •Frameworks – buildings, cells 11 Complexity Boulding, K. (1956). General systems theory—the skeleton of science. Management Science 2(3): 197-208.
  11. 11. The Extension Economist vs. The Rocket Scientist 12
  12. 12. Hierarchy of Complex Systems •Social Organizations – economics, education, politics •Individual Human – language capacity, knowledge accumulation, design and use of tools •Animal – mobility, information processing •Plants – viability •Open Systems – matter, energy •Cybernetics – computers •Clockworks – engines •Frameworks – buildings, cells 13 Complexity Boulding, K. (1956). General systems theory—the skeleton of science. Management Science 2(3): 197-208.
  13. 13. Hierarchy of Complex Systems •Social Organizations – economics, education, politics •Individual Human – language capacity, knowledge accumulation, design and use of tools •Animal – mobility, information processing •Plants – viability •Open Systems – matter, energy •Cybernetics – computers •Clockworks – engines •Frameworks – buildings, cells 14 Complexity Boulding, K. (1956). General systems theory—the skeleton of science. Management Science 2(3): 197-208.
  14. 14. Hierarchy of Complex Systems •Social Organizations – economics, education, politics •Individual Human – language capacity, knowledge accumulation, design and use of tools •Animal – mobility, information processing •Plants – viability •Open Systems – matter, energy •Cybernetics – computers •Clockworks – engines •Frameworks – buildings, cells 15 Complexity Boulding, K. (1956). General systems theory—the skeleton of science. Management Science 2(3): 197-208.
  15. 15. Dealing with the Complexity 16 Early Models • 1960s in universities, schools, municipalities (Hamilton, 2007) • Late 1980s/Early 1990s first economic development strategic plans (Blackerby & Blackerby, 1995) • Borrowed from industry models (Blair,2004) Evolving Models • Recognition that corporate models are less effective (Bryson and Roering, 1987). • U.S. Economic Development Administration’s CEDS; Cooperative Extension Service’s Take Charge (Hein, Cole, & Ayres, 1990); Asset-Based Community Development, (Kretzmann and McKnight, 1996; Community Capitals, Flora, 1992) Emerging Models • Effectiveness of strategic planning in business questioned (Mintzberg, 1994). • Effectiveness of strategic planning in economic & community development questioned ( Blair, 2004; Robichau, 2010; Morrison, 2012) • Organic Strategic Planning (McNamara, 2010, Open Source Economic Development (Merkel, 2010), Strategic Doing (Hutcheson, 2008;
  16. 16. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level Complexity Community change issues are complex Institutions emerged to deal with the complexity There are lots of institutions No single institution is “in charge” of most community issues Complex environment
  17. 17. Contributing Theories •Social Innovation •Strategy Formation •Collaborative Governance 18
  18. 18. Social Innovation Social innovations… • are best designed and implemented in networks • emerge from heterogeneousness (diversity) • are framed using existing assets • are products of co-creation • are the result of collective action • should have decentralized implementation • ,when implemented should focus on tangible results Bland, Bruk, Kim, and Lee (2010); Bouchard (2012); Mulgan, Ali, Tucker and Sanders (2007); Neumeier (2012); Oliveira and Breda-Vazquez (2012)
  19. 19. Strategy Formation Strategies… • are formed intuitively • are iterative • must be designed to account for unanticipated variables • must take into account contextual values, assumptions, beliefs, and expectations • must be flexible • should be designed collaboratively • and best developed as an intra-organizational activity Feser, 2012; Johanson, 2009; Lindblom, 1959; Mintzberg, 1978; Parnell, 2008; Rindova, Dalpiaz, and Ravasi, 2011; Sminia, 2012; Tapinos, Dyson, and Meadows, 2011
  20. 20. Collaborative Governance Collaborative governance… • takes advantage of network structures • connects existing assets • focuses first on small wins • Requires decision making to be made by consensus • works when there is trust among participants • is efficient • involves successful management of both internal and external stakeholders Ansell and Gash, 2008; Chiclana et al., 2013; Clarke, Huxley, Mountford, 2010; Emerson, Nabatchi, and Balogh, 2012; Gibson, 2011; Johnston, Hicks, Nan, and Auer, 2011; Kwon, Berry, and Feiock, 2009; Merkle , 2010; Olberding, 2009; Ospina and Saz-Carranza, 2010; Pammer, 1998; Poister, 2010
  21. 21. Better understand he nature of collaboration Identify what stage your collaborations are in Consider ways to move a collaborations to the next level These Things Matter • Organizational Structure (hierarchy, network, etc.) • Framework (asset-based, deficit- based) • Processes (planning and Implementation separate and distinct, planning and implementation integrated and iterative, etc.) • Timeframe (focused on longer-term goals, focused on shorter-term goals, etc.) • Implementation (tasks centralized with one organization, tasked disseminated among multiple organizations)
  22. 22. Insights from the Panel of Experts The Qualitative Data • Population of scholars and practitioners who design curricula, teach, and/or practice strategy development for addressing economic and community development issues • Sample: N=12 • Semi-structured interviews (IRB-approved, anonymity) • Verbatim transcripts, data spiral analysis with three levels of coding: open, axial, selective using qualitative analysis software • 56 single-spaced pages/over 31,000 words of data
  23. 23. Findings from the Interviews 24 1. Network organization structures 2. Asset-based Frameworks 3. Iterative planning/implementation process 4. Inclusion of shorter-term goals 5. Decentralized implementation 6. Metrics to learn what is working 7. High levels of trust among participants 8. Readiness for change in community
  24. 24. Variables 25 1. Network organization structures 2. Asset-based Frameworks 3. Iterative planning/implementation process 4. Inclusion of shorter-term goals 5. Decentralized implementation 6. Metrics to learn what is working 7. High levels of trust among participants 8. Readiness for change in community Independent Variables Dependent Variable = Effectiveness
  25. 25. Effectiveness For the effective strategy initiative you have in mind, how would you describe its level of effectiveness: • Completely effective • Significantly effective • Somewhat effective Ineffectiveness For the ineffective strategy initiative you have in mind, how would you describe its level of ineffectiveness: • Somewhat ineffective • Significantly ineffective • Completely ineffective Organizational Structure, etc. Measuring the Variables Hierarchical, with a clear top and bottom Network, with a hub and spokes
  26. 26. Insights from Participants The Quantitative Data • Population of individuals who have participated in economic and community development strategy initiatives • Sample of 300 (plus those reached by use of snowball sample) participants were randomly selected from PCRD contact database (N=209). Assured that Indiana was not over represented • IRB-approved survey constructed using the factors identified in phase 1, participants randomly assigned to two contrasting groups
  27. 27. Findings from the Surveys 28 Source: Scott Hutcheson, Distributed under a Creative Commons 3.0 License. Effective & Ineffective Strategy Initiatives – Mean Responses
  28. 28. Completely Effective Completely Ineffective Significantly Effective Somewhat Effective Somewhat Ineffective Significantly Ineffective Findings from the Survey Effectiveness Continuum DependentVariables Correlation
  29. 29. Findings from the Surveys 30 Source: Scott Hutcheson, Distributed under a Creative Commons 3.0 License. Correlation Between Strategy Initiative Effectiveness and the Eight Independent Variables
  30. 30. Recipe for INEFFECTIVE Strategies • Have a hierarchical organizational structure • Frame strategies primarily around addressing problems or deficits • Have a planning and implementation process that is linear and sequential • Include only long-term, transformational goals • Centralized responsibilities for implementation with one organization • Uses metrics primarily for accountability • Proceed even though there are low levels of trust among participants • Proceed although participants are not ready for change
  31. 31. Recipe for EFFECTIVE Strategies • Have a network organizational structure • Frame strategies primarily around building on existing assets • Have a planning and implementation processes that is iterative • Include short-term, easy-win goals • Decentralize responsibilities for implementation among multiple organization • Use metrics to learn what is working and to make adjustments along the way • Build high levels of trust among participants • Assure that participants are ready to change
  32. 32. Improving Our Practice Strategic Doing enables people to form action- oriented collaborations quickly, move them toward measurable outcomes, and make adjustments along the way.
  33. 33. Strategy Answers Two Basic Questions
  34. 34. Strategic Doing Divides the Two Basic Questions into Four Appreciative Questions 35
  35. 35. Strategic Doing Moves from the Linear to the Agile
  36. 36. Strategic Doing Is Iterative & Ongoing
  37. 37. http://www.ssireview.org/blog/entry/accelerating_civic_innovation_through_strategic_doing
  38. 38. http://www.choicesmagazine.org/choices-magazine/theme-articles/public-sector-options-for- creating-jobs/transforming-regions-through-strategic-doing
  39. 39. • Proceedings of the 2014 International Research & Development Conference, Stuttgart, Germany (published) • Community Development Journal (accepted) • Economic Development Journal (accepted) • Long Range Planning Journal (invited) • The Bridge: Journal of the National Academy of Engineering (invited) • Harvard Business Review (proposed) Recent & Forthcoming Scholarship
  40. 40. Practicing Strategic Doing 41
  41. 41. In neighborhoods besieged by complex, wicked problems, Strategic Doing creates hope through the power of taking action with the assets or gifts that we already possess. In that moment when we combine assets, we begin to tell a new story of opportunity and possibility, and it gives us the power to change our lives, our neighborhoods, and our communities. Bob Brown, Associate Director of University-Community Partnerships Michigan State University We finally broke our “grant addiction.” Flint Community Resident
  42. 42. With the pending NASA shuttle shutdown, the Space Coast region of Florida found itself struggling to define a strategy to respond. They turned to Strategic Doing. In a series of large-scale workshops, a small group of civic leaders on the Space Coast saw the opportunity to launch a new clean energy cluster. Now, Energy Florida is leading the development of new business opportunities and the Space Coast is transforming.
  43. 43. • Local & Regional Economic Development Strategy • Community Development Strategy • Cluster Development • Local/Regional Food Systems • Community Health • Innovation Platform Development • Strategic Alliances • Inter-unit collaboration within a single organization • National Associations Practicing Strategic Doing
  44. 44. Teaching Strategic Doing Existing & Emerging University Partnerships Michigan State University University of Alaska University of Missouri New Jersey Institute of Technology University of Central Florida Stanford University Southhampton Solent University (United Kingdom) University of the Sunshine Coast (Austrailia)
  45. 45. Teaching Strategic Doing
  46. 46. Scott Hutcheson, Ph.D. 765-479-7704 hutcheson@purdue.edu www.linkedin.com/in/scotthutcheson/ www.twitter.com/jshutch64 www.facebook.com/scott.hutcheson http://www.slideshare.net/jshutch/ For More Information & to Connect Copyright 2014 – Scott Hutcheson This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License. Slides available

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