Error Explanations Error Explanation Digraph pronunciation Fluency (awkward phrasing) Spelling (vowel confusion) Word order Verb tense Content vocabulary There are not any spelling exceptions in Spanish, therefore naturally he would separate consonant sounds rather than form a new sound Lack of knowing meaning of words The vowel sounds in Spanish are similar to English, but different vowels are used to make the same sound Spanish places adjectives after the nouns they describe Conjugations in Spanish include knowledge of tense, person, etc. Realm of vocabulary that is not used in typical social conversations
Spanish vs. English Spanish English 27-letter alphabet, including ñ 5 vowels without spelling exceptions Verb conjugation implies tense, person, etc. Word order is flexible Auxiliaries are many times not present Double negatives are used extensively Stress-timed language Exclamation/question marks at end and beginning of sentence 26-letter alphabet 5 vowels with spelling exceptions (long/short) Verb conjugation does not have many implications without surrounding words Word order is not flexible in sentences Auxiliaries are present Double negatives are forbidden Syllable-timed language Exclamation/question marks at end of sentence
Dalby, J. (2006). Vowel errors and sentence intelligibility in spanish-accented english speech. Acoustical Society of America , 119 (5), Retrieved from http://asadl.org/jasa/resource/1/jasman/v119/i5/p3423_s5?bypassSSO=1
Flaitz, J. (2003). Understanding your international students: an education, cultural, and linguistic guide , (Ed.). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.