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L 22 final
 

L 22 final

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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL course material by Prof S S JAHAGIRDAR,NKOCET,SOLAPUR for BE (CIVIL ) students of Solapur university. Content will be also useful for SHIVAJI and PUNE university students

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL course material by Prof S S JAHAGIRDAR,NKOCET,SOLAPUR for BE (CIVIL ) students of Solapur university. Content will be also useful for SHIVAJI and PUNE university students

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    L 22 final L 22 final Presentation Transcript

    • Air Pollution and Control (Elective-I)
    • L-22  Control of pollutant emission at source, alternative fuels, process change, removal methods of particulate, principals of particulate removals. Various types of particulate control equipments(Theory and problems), L-23  Gravity Setting chamber, L- 25 Cyclone separators, L- 26 Fabric filters, L-27 Electrostatic precipitators and L-28 Scrubbers
    •  Process Change or modification - Use of low volatile coal instead of high volatile coal -Wind, Geothermal, Hydroelectric, or Solar Unit instead of Fossil fired Unit.  Change in Fuel or changes in operational practices - e.g. Use of Low Sulfur Fuel, instead of High Sulfur fuel.
    •  Good - Operating Practices Good Housekeeping Maintenance Plant Shutdown.  Replacement or modification of the process equipment. -Use of vapour recovery system:- use of absorbers, condensers and compressors may be used to control vapour losses 
    •   The control of particulate matter is an important aspect of industrial air pollution engineering. Particles are collected by a combination of several mechanisms.
    •  1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The six available mechanisms are GRAVITATIONAL SETTLING, CENTRIFUGAL IMPACTION, INERTIAL IMPACTION, DIRECT INTERCEPTION, DIFFUSION AND THE ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION.
    • Particles in still air have two forces acting on them; (1) a gravitational force downward and (2) the air resistance (or drag) force upward.  When particles begin to fall, they quickly reach a terminal settling velocity, which represents the constant velocity of a falling particle when the gravitational force downward is balanced by the air resistance (or drag) force upward. 
    • High velocity
    •  Consider a high velocity gas stream revolving, because of centrifugal action particulates are separated from gas stream as their self weight is more than that of gas molecules.
    • 4 .Diffusion
    •   Brownian diffusion becomes the dominant collection mechanism for particles less than 0.3 micrometer and is especially significant for particles in the 0.01 to 0.1 micrometer size range. Very small particles in a gas stream deflect slightly when gas molecules strike them. Transfer of kinetic energy from the rapidly moving gas molecule to the small particle causes this deflection, called Brownian diffusion. These small particles are captured when they impact a target (e.g. liquid droplet) as a result of this random movement.
    • 5. Inertial Impaction
    •  Due to inertia, a particle moving in a gas stream can strike slowly moving or stationary obstacles (targets) in its path. As the gas stream deflects around the obstacle, the particle continues toward the object and impacts it. The obstacle may be a water droplet as shown in the Figure above.
    • 6. Interception
    •  Inertial impaction occurs when obstacles (e.g. water droplets) are directly in the path of the particle moving in the gas stream. Sometimes the obstacle or target is offset slightly from the direct path of the moving particle. In this instance, as the particle approaches the edge of the obstacle, the obstacle may collect the particle through a process called interception.
    • There are five basic types of dust collectors in use and forces/mechanisms responsible are: i) gravity settling chambers - Gravity force ii) cyclones – Centrifugal separation iii) fabric filters- Combination of many mechanisms iv) electrostatic precipitators- electrostatic action v) Scrubbers - Combination of many mechanisms 
    •  Wall collection devices *Gravity settlers *Centrifugal separators (cyclones) *Electrostatic precipitators  Dividing collection devices *Bag house filter *Scrubbers
    •  In all cases, the efficiency of PM control is based on the mass percent of the incoming PM that is collected or removed from the gas stream. That is, collection efficiency is calculated as:
    • Ci Co
    • Ci Co = Inlet concentration = Outlet concentration Note: The smaller the particle, the lower is efficiency of removal.
    • Air pollution control devices operate on a continuously flowing stream of contaminated air or exhaust gas.  The dusty gas flows into the device, and most of the particles are separated from the gas stream and collected as solids, while the entire air flow continues through the equipment 
    •  A cyclone operates removes 75% of particulate matter fed to it. The filter is then fed to an ESP which operates with 90% efficiency. What is the overall efficiency of this particulate system?
    • Step 1: Assuming an initial feed of 100%, determine the percentage of the stream fed to the ESP. 100% - (100% x 0.75) = 25%  Step 2: Determine final composition after ESP. 25% - (25% x 0.9) = 2.5%  Step 3: Determine overall efficiency Ƞoverall = (initial – final)/ initial = [(100% - 2.5%)/100% ] = 97.5% 
    • Q1. Match the pairs Equipment Force responsible Gravity settler Electrostatic Cyclone Gravity ESP Interception, Impaction and diffusion Fabric filter Centrifugal
    • Q2. Use of Low Sulfur Fuel, instead of High Sulfur fuel is example of _________________________________. Q3. In general efficiency of particulate control equipment is given by _______________. Q4. If particulate control equipments are connected in series , overall efficiency ___________________.
    • Q1. Explain different particulate collection mechanisms with neat sketches. Q2. Write a short note on ‘Air pollution control Techniques Without Using Emissions Control Devices’