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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL course material by Prof S S JAHAGIRDAR,NKOCET,SOLAPUR for BE (CIVIL ) students of Solapur university. Content will be also useful for SHIVAJI and PUNE university students

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  1. 1. L-3 Sources of Air Pollution Air Pollution and Control (Elective(Elective-I)
  2. 2. Contents of unit-II • L-3  Sources of Air Pollution : Natural and artificial. artificial. • Classification of pollutant. pollutant. • L-4  Classification of pollutants, Quantity and composition of particulate & gaseous pollutant. pollutant. • Units of measurement. measurement. • L5 Problems on unit (ppm to µg/m3 and vice versa) conversion • TEST-1 on Unit-I and Unit- II TESTUnitUnit-
  3. 3. Fundamental Causes of Air Pollution • During the last couple of centuries we witnessed an emergence of several fundamental trends that became the major forces behind the dramatic levels of air pollution worldwide. worldwide. • Industrialization set in motion the widespread use of fossil fuels which are now the main drivers of pollution as we know it. it.
  4. 4. • Population growth causes the demand for food and other goods to go up, which is met by expanded production and use of natural resources. This then leads to higher levels of atmospheric pollution. • Globalization has in a way become a facilitator of air pollution. Big industry takes advantage of lapses environmental controls in developing nations and moves its manufacturing facilities to such “pollution havens” from where air pollution travels around the world without any obstacles.
  5. 5. When we say air pollutants and sources, above picture comes to our mind
  6. 6. Air Pollutants • Any substance occurring in the atmosphere that may have adverse effects on humans, animals, plant life, and/or inanimate materials. • Air pollutants have known or suspected harmful effects on human health and environment.
  7. 7. • A source of air pollution is any activity that causes pollutants to be emitted into the air. • Natural sources of air pollution, also known as biogenic sources. sources. • Human-generated pollutants or Humananthropogenic sources. sources.
  8. 8. Classification of sources of air pollutant sources- 1st way 1) Natural Sources - forest fires (CO2, ash) - volcanic eruptions (sulfur, mercury) - Biological decay - Disintegration of rocks
  9. 9. 2) Artificial Sources - Vehicular pollution - cooking - Industries etc
  10. 10. Natural Artificial
  11. 11. Classification of sources of air pollutant sources2nd way Total sources Stationary Point sources Eg:- 1. Industrial processing 2. Power plants 3. Volcano Area sources Eg:- 1. Domestic heating of coal and gas 2.Onsite incineration Mobile Line sources Area sources Eg:- 1. Highway vehicles 2. Railways Eg:- 1. Railway station 2. Bus stand 3. Air ports
  12. 12. Line source Area source source Point source Volcano Open burning
  13. 13. Mobile sources • "Mobile sources" is a term used to describe a wide variety of vehicles, engines, and equipment that generate air pollution and that move, or can be moved, from place to place. • Mobile sources are classified as OnOnroad and Non-road sources. Non-
  14. 14. • "On-road" or highway sources include vehicles On-road" used on roads for transportation of passengers or freight. On-road sources include light-duty vehicles Onlight(LDVs, also referred to as passenger cars), heavyheavyduty vehicles (HDVs), and motorcycles that are used for transportation on the road. On-road vehicles may Onbe fuelled with gasoline, diesel fuel, or alternative fuels, such as alcohol or natural gas.
  15. 15. • "Non-road" sources include gasoline and Non-road" diesel powered vehicles, engines, and equipment used for construction, agriculture, transportation, recreation, and many other purposes. These sources emit both criteria pollutants and other hazardous air pollutants.
  16. 16. • Mobile sources pollute the air through combustion and fuel evaporation. These emissions contribute greatly to air pollution nationwide and are the primary causes of air pollution in many urban areas. Combustion is the process of burning. • Motor vehicles and equipment typically burn fuel in an engine to create power. • Petrol, Gasoline and diesel fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons, which are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms.
  17. 17. Difference between perfect combustion and typical engine combustion • Perfect Combustion Fuel (hydrocarbons) + Air (oxygen and nitrogen) Carbon dioxide (CO2) + water (H2O) + unaffected nitrogen • Typical Engine Combustion Fuel + Air Unburned Hydrocarbons + Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) + Carbon monoxide (CO) + (NOx) Carbon dioxide + water
  18. 18. Classification of air pollutants:Based on states of mater Air pollutant Gaseous pollutants Eg :- CO, NOx, SOx etc Particulate pollutant Eg :- Fumes, mist, fog, smoke, dust etc
  19. 19. Gaseous pollutants • Gaseous pollutants are those pollutants which gets mixed with the air and do not normally settle out. out.
  20. 20. Particulate pollutants • Which comprise of finely divided solids or liquids and often exists in colloidal state as aerosols
  21. 21. Classification of air pollutants:- Based on Chemical Composition Air pollutant Organic pollutants Eg :-1. Aldehydes, 2. Ketones, 3. Alcohols 4. Hydrocarbons Inorganic pollutant Eg :- 1. Carbon compounds- CO, CO2 2. Nitrogen Compounds – NOx, NH3 3. Sulphur compounds- SOx, H2s,H2SO4 4.Oxidising afents – O3 5. Halogens- HF, HCl
  22. 22. Organic and inorganic pollutants • Organic :- Contains H-C (hydrocarbons) :H• Inorganic :- Do not contain hydrocarbons :-
  23. 23. Classification of air pollutants:- Based on Origin Air pollutant Primary pollutants Secondary pollutant Eg :- CO, NO2, SO2,SPM, Halogen compounds Eg :- O3, PAN, Smog, PBN, Formaldehyde
  24. 24. Primary pollutants • Primary air pollutants are those which are emitted from identifiable sources. sources.
  25. 25. Secondary air pollutants • Secondary air pollutants are those which are produced in the air by the interaction among two or more primary pollutants or by reaction with normal atmospheric constituents with or without photo activation
  26. 26. Primary Pollutants CO CO2 SO2 NO NO2 Secondary Pollutants SO3 Most hydrocarbons Most suspended particles Natural Sources Mobile HNO3 H2O2 H2SO4 O3 PANs – Most NO3 and SO2 – salts 4 Stationary
  27. 27. Objective questions Q1. _____________or ______________ sources include vehicles used on roads for transportation of passengers or freight. Q2. ______________sources include gasoline and diesel powered vehicles, engines, and equipment used for construction, agriculture, transportation, recreation, and many other purposes. Q3. ________________ pollutants are emitted from identifiable sources. Q4. Ozone is __________________ pollutant.
  28. 28. Q5. Secondary air pollutants need ___________________ for formation. Q6. ___________ sources pollute the air through combustion and fuel evaporation. Q7. Natural sources of air pollution, also known as _______________________. _______________________. Q8. Human-generated pollutants are also known as Human__________________________. Q9. Air port can be categorized under ______________ sources. Q10. Domestic cooking is _________________ type of source
  29. 29. Theory questions Q1. Explain classification of sources of air pollution with suitable examples. Q2. Write detailed classification of air pollutants. Q3. Define by giving examples 1. Primary air pollutants 2. Secondary air pollutants 3. On-road sources On4. Non-road sources Non-
  30. 30. AIR POLLUTION AND SOURCES Video clip-1
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