AIR POLLUTION CONTROL L 10

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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL course material by Prof S S JAHAGIRDAR,NKOCET,SOLAPUR for BE (CIVIL ) students of Solapur university. Content will be also useful for SHIVAJI and PUNE university students

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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL L 10

  1. 1. L-10 Global warming Air Pollution and Control (Elective-I)
  2. 2. What’s the difference between “global warming” and “climate change”?
  3. 3. Difference GLOBAL WARMING is the increase of the Earth’s average surface temperature due to a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. CLIMATE CHANGE is a broader term that refers to long-term changes in climate, including average temperature and precipitation.
  4. 4. MUMBAI RAINS
  5. 5. What’s the proof that global warming is taking place?
  6. 6. Portage Glacier • Alaska 1914 Photos: NOAA Photo Collection and Gary Braasch – WorldViewOfGlobalWarming.org 2004
  7. 7. Colorado River • Arizona June 2002 Dec 2003
  8. 8. Why is global warming happening?
  9. 9. • Among the most important naturally occurring and man-induced greenhouse gases are: 1. Carbon dioxide 2. Water vapour 3. Methane 4. Nitrous oxide 5. Ozone There are natural concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which work to keep the planet warm.
  10. 10. Burning of Fossil Fuels Pollution from coal, natural gas, and oil
  11. 11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Power Plants 40% of carbon dioxide emissions stem from the burning of fossil fuels for the purpose of electricity generation Cars 20% of carbon dioxide emissions comes from the burning of gasoline in internal-combustion engines of cars and light trucks with poor gas mileage contribute the most to global warming
  12. 12. Greenhouse effect 103 Watt per m3 240 Watt per m3 343 Watt per m3 Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  13. 13. How Global Warming Works Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
  14. 14. Example of the Greenhouse Effect The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s windshield. This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and cannot pass back through the windshield, causing the inside of the car to warm up.
  15. 15. Sun Greenhouse Effect
  16. 16. Here is how this process works • The Earth receives its original supply of shortwave radiation from the Sun • The Earth then reflects 30% of this solar radiation back into space in its original shortwave form • The Earth absorbs the remaining 70% of this solar energy and then re-radiates it back into space in the long wave form (infrared radiation)
  17. 17. Earth’s Atmospheric Gases Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Argon (Ar) >99% NonGreenhouse Gases Water (H2O) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Greenhouse <1% Gases
  18. 18. Per-capita Carbon –dioxide emission (Metric Tons) Country in metric tons USA Europe 20.01 9.40 Japan China Russia India World average 9.87 3.60 11.71 1.02 4.25
  19. 19. How Much Temperature Increase? • Some models propose up to 9°C increase this century • Two studies put the minimum at 1.5°C and maximum at 4.5°C or 6.2°C • Another study puts the minimum at 2.5°C
  20. 20. Wildlife Effects • Polar Bears • Require pack ice to live • Might eventually go extinct in the wild • Sea turtles • Breed on the same islands as their birth • Could go extinct on some islands as beaches are flooded • Other species may go extinct as rainfall patterns change throughout the world
  21. 21. NOT FAR……….
  22. 22. Environmental Effects of Global Warming Rising Sea Level Habitat Damage and Species Affected Increased Temperature Changes in Water Supply
  23. 23. Effect on Humans • Fewer deaths from cold, more from heat • Decreased thermohaline circulation • Cooler temperatures in North Atlantic • CO2 fertilization effect • Precipitation changes • Droughts and famine (some areas) • Expanded desert in Canada, Soviet Union
  24. 24. Mitigation of Global Warming • Conservation • Reduce energy needs • Recycling • Alternate energy sources • • • • • • Nuclear Wind Geothermal Hydroelectric Solar Fusion?
  25. 25. What Can be Done: Alternatives Renewable Energy Sources Solar Energies Wind Power Biomass Geothermal Changes In Vehicle Systems Hybrid Fuel Cell BatteryElectric
  26. 26. We can stop global warming!
  27. 27. Simple Things To Do Turn off your computer or the TV when you’re not using it. Take shorter showers. Heating water uses energy. Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds, shades, or curtains. Turn off the lights when you leave a room. Use compact fluorescent bulbs.
  28. 28. Be Bulb Smart—Use CFLs Smart— Incandescent What’s the difference? Compact Fluorescent saving of coal •CO2 pollution avoided •Money saved
  29. 29. Simple Things To Do Dress lightly when it’s hot instead of turning up the air conditioning. Or use a fan. Dress warmly when it’s cold instead of turning up the heat. keep the air filters on your AC and furnace clean. Walk short distances instead of asking for a ride in the car. Recycle. Plant a tree.
  30. 30. Kyoto Protocol • 1997, Kyoto, Japan  developed countries agreed to specific targets for cutting their emissions of greenhouse gases • Industrialized countries committed to an overall reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases to 5.2% below 1990 levels for the period 2008 - 2012 • Objective is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system
  31. 31. So Think and act
  32. 32. Objective Questions Q1. The earth radiates heat radiation in the form of ____________________ radiations. Q2. _____ is main green house gas. Q3. Burning of ______________ is main source of green house gases. Q4. Use of __________ lamps reduces electricity. Q5. Under __________________ protocol developed countries agreed to specific targets for cutting their emissions of greenhouse gases
  33. 33. Theory Questions Q1. Write a note on ‘global warming’. Q2. What are causes of green house effect? How you can minimize the same?
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