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Examining the Link between Perception and Production: Practical Applications

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This presentation shows how teachers can use a freely available Internet-based speech-perception diagnostic tool to improve their students' pronunciation of English on an individualized basis by ...

This presentation shows how teachers can use a freely available Internet-based speech-perception diagnostic tool to improve their students' pronunciation of English on an individualized basis by examining problems in speech perception, without using a lot of precious instruction time.

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    Examining the Link between Perception and Production: Practical Applications Examining the Link between Perception and Production: Practical Applications Presentation Transcript

    • Examining the Link between Perception and Production: Practical Applications
      Justin R. Shewell
      TESOL International 2011
      New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
      March 18, 2011, 7:30 – 8:15
      Convention Center, Room 206
      jshewell@asu.edu
      http://jshewell.com/cv
    • Overview
      • Why Perception?
      • What is the role of perception in acquisition of English pronunciation skills
      • Is perception teachable?
      • The POSE Test
      • the overall format and rationale
      • sample items
      • Diagnosing problems
      • Practice activities
      • Q & A
    • Why Perception?
      • Research suggests that accurate perception of segmentals leads to more accurate production of these sounds
      • Flege and Eefting, 1987
      • Schneiderman, Bourdages, and Champagne, 1988
      • Ingram and Park, 1997
      • Chan, 2001
      • No research available for suprasegmentals
      • see Trofimovich& Baker, 2006;Chun, 2002
    • Why Perception?
      • Research also indicates that training in speech perception leads to improvement in both perception and production of English sounds
      • de Bot, 1983
      • Cenoz and Lecumberri, 1999
      • Champane-Muzar,Schneiderman, andBourdages, 1993
    • Why Perception?
      • Students must take responsibility for their production mistakes in order to improve (Acton, 1984; Morley, 1991).
      • Perception plays animportant role in self-monitoring speechproduction (Shewell, 2004;Zheng et. al, 2009)
    • What is the POSE Test?
      • The Perception of Spoken English Test
      • Consists of five areas
      • Vowels
      • Consonants
      • Word Stress
      • Intonation (2 sections)‏
      • Sentence Stress(2 sections)‏
    • What is the POSE Test?
      • Each item involves listening to a recorded sentence/word and then choosing from listed options the choice that best matches what was heard on the recording
      • Each item uses minimal-pair sentences to helpdiagnose problems
    • Why Minimal-Pair Sentences?
      • Comparable to communicative environment in the “real world”
      • Stress, intonation and other linguistic features remain the same (except for substituted word or suprasegmental feature) (Mora, 1998)
    • Vowels and Consonants
      • Items chosen based on functional load (Catford, 1987)
      • Consonants: focused only on syllable initial/final contrasts (no medial contrasts)‏
      • Images were used to helpovercome possible problemswith reading skills.
      • Images and items camefrom Pronunciation Matters(Henrichsen et. al, 1999)or were original
    • Vowels and Consonants
      • Vowels: 38 total items (11 contrasts with up to 4 items per contrast)
      • Consonants: 84 total items (25 contrasts with up to 4 items each)
      • Some contrasts only have 2 items
      • Arabic (Islamic) version has some items removed, leaving 37 and78 respectively
    • Vowels: Example Item
    • Consonants: Example Item
    • Word Stress
      • Items contained two to five syllables
      • Items represented different parts of speech
      • Presented in isolation to avoidproblems with grammar andother linguistic features beingused to determine answer
    • Word Stress: Example Item
    • Intonation
      • Two sections (item types)‏
      • Question/Statement
      • Tag Questions
      • Both focus on rising/falling intonation
      • Items came from a testdeveloped by Amber Paugaand Brent Green at BYU-Hawaii or were original
    • Intonation Section 1: Example Item
    • Intonation Section 2: Example Item
    • Sentence Stress
      • Two sections
      • Stressed word
      • Thought groups (Gilbert, 2005) or pauses
      • Items were original or taken from Pronunciation Matters (Henrichsen et. al)‏
      • Each item presented with arejoinder that distinguished the difference in meaning on thescreen but not in the audio file
    • Sentence Stress Section 1: Example Item
    • Sentence Stress Section 2: Example Item
    • Diagnosing Problems:Vowels & Consonants
    • Diagnosing Problems:Vowels & Consonants
      • Count up the number of correct, incorrect and “I don’t know” answers for each contrast
      • 2 or 4 items for each contrast
      • consonant contrasts could be in either initial or final position (marked on the results page)
      • If the majority of responsesfor that contrast areincorrect or “I don’t know”,then intervention maybe needed
    • Practice Activities:Vowels & Consonants
      • Raise Awareness & Build Confidence
      • Minimal Pair Sentences
      • Pronunciation Matters (Cards)
      • http://www.pronunciationmatters.com
      • Write sentences on cards, draw pictures on cards or on chalkboard
      • one person randomly readsone of the sentences in thepair, the learners points tothe correct card or picture
      • repeat until the learnerindicates the correct cardor picture every time
    • Diagnosing Problems:Word Stress
    • Diagnosing Problems:Word Stress
      • Count up the number of correct, incorrect and “I don’t know” answers
      • results page shows patterns:
      • o o O o (4 syllables, 3rd syllable is stressed)
      • o O (2 syllables, 2nd syllable is stressed)
      • o o O o o (5 syllables, 3rd syllable is stressed)
      • may notice more incorrect or “I don’t know” responses for a particular pattern
    • Practice Activities:Word Stress
      • Raise Awareness & Build Confidence
      • Marking Stress
      • use a clear method (like big circle, little circle)
      • have students practice marking stress in dictations or while doing listening exercises
      • Focus on word stress in vocabulary
      • have students sort vocabularywords by stress patterns andsyllable patterns
      • discuss the word stress of newvocabulary words as theyare introduced
    • Diagnosing Problems:Intonation
    • Practice Activities:Intonation
      • Raise Awareness & Build Confidence
      • Perception Practice
      • have someone say a sentence ending with either rising or falling intonation
      • student points to the sentence they heard
      • Production Practice
      • have student say a sentence withrising or falling intonation
      • teacher/tutor points to the onethey heard
    • Diagnosing Problems:Sentence Stress
    • Practice Activities:Sentence Stress
      • Raise Awareness & Build Confidence
      • Perception Practice
      • have someone say the same sentence varying the stress
      • student points to the sentence they heard
      • Production Practice
      • limmericks (recordings)
      • sentences with unimportantwords missing
    • Questions?
    • References
      Acton, W. (1984). Changing fossilized pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, 18 (1), 71-85.
      Catford, J.C. (1987). "Phonetics and the teaching of pronunciation", in Morley, J. (Ed.) Current perspectives on pronunciation: Practices anchored in theory. Washington D.C.: TESOL. pp. 83-100.
      Cenoz, J. & Lecumberri, L. G. (1999). The effect of training on the discrimination of English vowels. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 36(4), 261-275.
      Champagne-Muzar, C., Schneiderman, E. I., & Bourdages, J. S. (1993). Second language accent: The role of the pedagogical environment. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 143-160.
      Chan, C. (2001). The perception (and production) of English word-initial consonants by native speakers of Cantonese. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6, 26-44.
      Chun, D. M. (2002). Discourse intonation in L2: From theory and research to practice. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
      de Bot, K. (1983). Visual feedback of intonation I: Effectiveness and induced practice behavior. Language and Speech, 26, 331-350.
      Flege, J. E. & Eefting, W. (1987). Production and perception of English stops by native Spanish speakers. Journal of Phonetics, 15, 67-83.
      Gilbert, J. (2005). Clear speech: Pronunciation and listening comprehension in North American English (3rd ed., Student’s Book). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • References
      Henrichsen, L., Green, B., Nishitani, A., & Bagley, C. (1999) Pronunciation matters: Communicative, story-based activities for mastering the sounds of North American English. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
      Ingram, J. C. L. & Park, S. G. (1997). Cross-language vowel perception and production by Japanese and Korean learners of English. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 343-370.
      Mora, J. K. (1998). Teaching phonemic awareness & pronunciation with minimal contrast pairs. Retrieved March 7, 2006, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/MinimalPairsMMdl/Default.htm
      Morely, J. (1991). The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of other languages. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 481-520.
      Schneiderman, E., Bourdages, J., & Champagne, C. (1988). Second-language accent: The relationship between discrimination and perception in acquisition. Language Learning, 38, 1-19.
      Shewell, J. (2004). Hearing the difference: A computer-based speech-perception diagnostic tool for non-native speakers of English. Unpublished masters thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.
      Trofimovich, P. & Baker, W. (2006). Learning second language suprasegmentals: Effect of L2 experience on prosody and fluency characteristics of L2 speech. SSLA, 28, 1-30.
      Zheng, Z. Z., Munhall, K. G., Johnsrude, I. S. (2009). Functional overlap between regions involved in speech perception and in monitoring one’s own voice during speech production. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(8), 1770-1781.