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Examining the Link between Perception and Production: Practical Applications<br />Justin R. Shewell<br />TESOL Internation...
Overview<br /><ul><li>Why Perception?
What is the role of perception in acquisition of English pronunciation skills
Is perception teachable?
The POSE Test
the overall format and rationale
sample items
Diagnosing problems
Practice activities
Q & A</li></li></ul><li>Why Perception?<br /><ul><li>Research suggests that accurate perception of segmentals leads to mor...
Flege and Eefting, 1987
Schneiderman, Bourdages, and Champagne, 1988
Ingram and Park, 1997
Chan, 2001
No research available for suprasegmentals
see Trofimovich& Baker, 2006;Chun, 2002</li></li></ul><li>Why Perception?<br /><ul><li>Research also indicates that traini...
de Bot, 1983
Cenoz and Lecumberri, 1999
Champane-Muzar,Schneiderman, andBourdages, 1993</li></li></ul><li>Why Perception?<br /><ul><li>Students must take responsi...
Perception plays animportant role in self-monitoring speechproduction (Shewell, 2004;Zheng et. al, 2009)</li></li></ul><li...
Consists of five areas
Vowels
Consonants
Word Stress
Intonation (2 sections)‏
Sentence Stress(2 sections)‏</li></li></ul><li>What is the POSE Test?<br /><ul><li>Each item involves listening to a recor...
Each item uses minimal-pair sentences to helpdiagnose problems</li></li></ul><li>Why Minimal-Pair Sentences?<br /><ul><li>...
Stress, intonation and other linguistic features remain the same (except for substituted word or suprasegmental feature) (...
Consonants: focused only on syllable initial/final contrasts (no medial contrasts)‏
Images were used to helpovercome possible problemswith reading skills.
Images and items camefrom Pronunciation Matters(Henrichsen et. al, 1999)or were original</li></li></ul><li>Vowels and Cons...
Consonants: 84 total items (25 contrasts with up to 4 items each)
Some contrasts only have 2 items
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Examining the Link between Perception and Production: Practical Applications

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This presentation shows how teachers can use a freely available Internet-based speech-perception diagnostic tool to improve their students' pronunciation of English on an individualized basis by examining problems in speech perception, without using a lot of precious instruction time.

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Transcript of "Examining the Link between Perception and Production: Practical Applications"

  1. 1. Examining the Link between Perception and Production: Practical Applications<br />Justin R. Shewell<br />TESOL International 2011<br />New Orleans, Louisiana, USA<br />March 18, 2011, 7:30 – 8:15<br />Convention Center, Room 206<br />jshewell@asu.edu<br />http://jshewell.com/cv<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br /><ul><li>Why Perception?
  3. 3. What is the role of perception in acquisition of English pronunciation skills
  4. 4. Is perception teachable?
  5. 5. The POSE Test
  6. 6. the overall format and rationale
  7. 7. sample items
  8. 8. Diagnosing problems
  9. 9. Practice activities
  10. 10. Q & A</li></li></ul><li>Why Perception?<br /><ul><li>Research suggests that accurate perception of segmentals leads to more accurate production of these sounds
  11. 11. Flege and Eefting, 1987
  12. 12. Schneiderman, Bourdages, and Champagne, 1988
  13. 13. Ingram and Park, 1997
  14. 14. Chan, 2001
  15. 15. No research available for suprasegmentals
  16. 16. see Trofimovich& Baker, 2006;Chun, 2002</li></li></ul><li>Why Perception?<br /><ul><li>Research also indicates that training in speech perception leads to improvement in both perception and production of English sounds
  17. 17. de Bot, 1983
  18. 18. Cenoz and Lecumberri, 1999
  19. 19. Champane-Muzar,Schneiderman, andBourdages, 1993</li></li></ul><li>Why Perception?<br /><ul><li>Students must take responsibility for their production mistakes in order to improve (Acton, 1984; Morley, 1991).
  20. 20. Perception plays animportant role in self-monitoring speechproduction (Shewell, 2004;Zheng et. al, 2009)</li></li></ul><li>What is the POSE Test?<br /><ul><li>The Perception of Spoken English Test
  21. 21. Consists of five areas
  22. 22. Vowels
  23. 23. Consonants
  24. 24. Word Stress
  25. 25. Intonation (2 sections)‏
  26. 26. Sentence Stress(2 sections)‏</li></li></ul><li>What is the POSE Test?<br /><ul><li>Each item involves listening to a recorded sentence/word and then choosing from listed options the choice that best matches what was heard on the recording
  27. 27. Each item uses minimal-pair sentences to helpdiagnose problems</li></li></ul><li>Why Minimal-Pair Sentences?<br /><ul><li>Comparable to communicative environment in the “real world”
  28. 28. Stress, intonation and other linguistic features remain the same (except for substituted word or suprasegmental feature) (Mora, 1998)</li></li></ul><li>Vowels and Consonants<br /><ul><li>Items chosen based on functional load (Catford, 1987)
  29. 29. Consonants: focused only on syllable initial/final contrasts (no medial contrasts)‏
  30. 30. Images were used to helpovercome possible problemswith reading skills.
  31. 31. Images and items camefrom Pronunciation Matters(Henrichsen et. al, 1999)or were original</li></li></ul><li>Vowels and Consonants<br /><ul><li>Vowels: 38 total items (11 contrasts with up to 4 items per contrast)
  32. 32. Consonants: 84 total items (25 contrasts with up to 4 items each)
  33. 33. Some contrasts only have 2 items
  34. 34. Arabic (Islamic) version has some items removed, leaving 37 and78 respectively</li></li></ul><li>Vowels: Example Item<br />
  35. 35. Consonants: Example Item<br />
  36. 36. Word Stress<br /><ul><li>Items contained two to five syllables
  37. 37. Items represented different parts of speech
  38. 38. Presented in isolation to avoidproblems with grammar andother linguistic features beingused to determine answer</li></li></ul><li>Word Stress: Example Item<br />
  39. 39. Intonation<br /><ul><li>Two sections (item types)‏
  40. 40. Question/Statement
  41. 41. Tag Questions
  42. 42. Both focus on rising/falling intonation
  43. 43. Items came from a testdeveloped by Amber Paugaand Brent Green at BYU-Hawaii or were original</li></li></ul><li>Intonation Section 1: Example Item<br />
  44. 44. Intonation Section 2: Example Item<br />
  45. 45. Sentence Stress<br /><ul><li>Two sections
  46. 46. Stressed word
  47. 47. Thought groups (Gilbert, 2005) or pauses
  48. 48. Items were original or taken from Pronunciation Matters (Henrichsen et. al)‏
  49. 49. Each item presented with arejoinder that distinguished the difference in meaning on thescreen but not in the audio file</li></li></ul><li>Sentence Stress Section 1: Example Item<br />
  50. 50. Sentence Stress Section 2: Example Item<br />
  51. 51. Diagnosing Problems:Vowels & Consonants<br />
  52. 52. Diagnosing Problems:Vowels & Consonants<br /><ul><li>Count up the number of correct, incorrect and “I don’t know” answers for each contrast
  53. 53. 2 or 4 items for each contrast
  54. 54. consonant contrasts could be in either initial or final position (marked on the results page)
  55. 55. If the majority of responsesfor that contrast areincorrect or “I don’t know”,then intervention maybe needed</li></li></ul><li>Practice Activities:Vowels & Consonants<br /><ul><li>Raise Awareness & Build Confidence
  56. 56. Minimal Pair Sentences
  57. 57. Pronunciation Matters (Cards)
  58. 58. http://www.pronunciationmatters.com
  59. 59. Write sentences on cards, draw pictures on cards or on chalkboard
  60. 60. one person randomly readsone of the sentences in thepair, the learners points tothe correct card or picture
  61. 61. repeat until the learnerindicates the correct cardor picture every time</li></li></ul><li>Diagnosing Problems:Word Stress<br />
  62. 62. Diagnosing Problems:Word Stress<br /><ul><li>Count up the number of correct, incorrect and “I don’t know” answers
  63. 63. results page shows patterns:
  64. 64. o o O o (4 syllables, 3rd syllable is stressed)
  65. 65. o O (2 syllables, 2nd syllable is stressed)
  66. 66. o o O o o (5 syllables, 3rd syllable is stressed)
  67. 67. may notice more incorrect or “I don’t know” responses for a particular pattern</li></li></ul><li>Practice Activities:Word Stress<br /><ul><li>Raise Awareness & Build Confidence
  68. 68. Marking Stress
  69. 69. use a clear method (like big circle, little circle)
  70. 70. have students practice marking stress in dictations or while doing listening exercises
  71. 71. Focus on word stress in vocabulary
  72. 72. have students sort vocabularywords by stress patterns andsyllable patterns
  73. 73. discuss the word stress of newvocabulary words as theyare introduced</li></li></ul><li>Diagnosing Problems:Intonation<br />
  74. 74. Practice Activities:Intonation<br /><ul><li>Raise Awareness & Build Confidence
  75. 75. Perception Practice
  76. 76. have someone say a sentence ending with either rising or falling intonation
  77. 77. student points to the sentence they heard
  78. 78. Production Practice
  79. 79. have student say a sentence withrising or falling intonation
  80. 80. teacher/tutor points to the onethey heard</li></li></ul><li>Diagnosing Problems:Sentence Stress<br />
  81. 81. Practice Activities:Sentence Stress<br /><ul><li>Raise Awareness & Build Confidence
  82. 82. Perception Practice
  83. 83. have someone say the same sentence varying the stress
  84. 84. student points to the sentence they heard
  85. 85. Production Practice
  86. 86. limmericks (recordings)
  87. 87. sentences with unimportantwords missing</li></li></ul><li>Questions?<br />
  88. 88. References<br />Acton, W. (1984). Changing fossilized pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, 18 (1), 71-85.<br />Catford, J.C. (1987). "Phonetics and the teaching of pronunciation", in Morley, J. (Ed.) Current perspectives on pronunciation: Practices anchored in theory. Washington D.C.: TESOL. pp. 83-100.<br />Cenoz, J. & Lecumberri, L. G. (1999). The effect of training on the discrimination of English vowels. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 36(4), 261-275.<br />Champagne-Muzar, C., Schneiderman, E. I., & Bourdages, J. S. (1993). Second language accent: The role of the pedagogical environment. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 143-160.<br />Chan, C. (2001). The perception (and production) of English word-initial consonants by native speakers of Cantonese. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6, 26-44.<br />Chun, D. M. (2002). Discourse intonation in L2: From theory and research to practice. Amsterdam: Benjamins.<br />de Bot, K. (1983). Visual feedback of intonation I: Effectiveness and induced practice behavior. Language and Speech, 26, 331-350.<br />Flege, J. E. & Eefting, W. (1987). Production and perception of English stops by native Spanish speakers. Journal of Phonetics, 15, 67-83.<br />Gilbert, J. (2005). Clear speech: Pronunciation and listening comprehension in North American English (3rd ed., Student’s Book). New York: Cambridge University Press.<br />
  89. 89. References<br />Henrichsen, L., Green, B., Nishitani, A., & Bagley, C. (1999) Pronunciation matters: Communicative, story-based activities for mastering the sounds of North American English. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.<br />Ingram, J. C. L. & Park, S. G. (1997). Cross-language vowel perception and production by Japanese and Korean learners of English. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 343-370.<br />Mora, J. K. (1998). Teaching phonemic awareness & pronunciation with minimal contrast pairs. Retrieved March 7, 2006, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/MinimalPairsMMdl/Default.htm<br />Morely, J. (1991). The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of other languages. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 481-520.<br />Schneiderman, E., Bourdages, J., & Champagne, C. (1988). Second-language accent: The relationship between discrimination and perception in acquisition. Language Learning, 38, 1-19.<br />Shewell, J. (2004). Hearing the difference: A computer-based speech-perception diagnostic tool for non-native speakers of English. Unpublished masters thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.<br />Trofimovich, P. & Baker, W. (2006). Learning second language suprasegmentals: Effect of L2 experience on prosody and fluency characteristics of L2 speech. SSLA, 28, 1-30.<br />Zheng, Z. Z., Munhall, K. G., Johnsrude, I. S. (2009). Functional overlap between regions involved in speech perception and in monitoring one’s own voice during speech production. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(8), 1770-1781.<br />

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