Assessment Primer
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  • 1. Tools forAssessment Approaches
  • 2. Basic Principles for Alternative & Deeper Assessment Source: MacArthur 21st Century Learning & Assessment Project 1.   Is  the  assessment  built  around  central  problems  in  an  academic  domain  or  profession?2.   Does  the  assessment  assess  what  learners  can  do  in  contexts  of  applica;on  of  their  skills  and  knowledge?3.   Does  the  assessment  measure  mul;ple  variables  and  relate  them  in  clear  and  ac;onable  ways?4.   Is  the  assessment  developmental  in  the  sense  that  it  provides  informa;on  relevant  to  students’  learning   cross  ;me?5.   Does  the  assessment  provide  ac;onable  informa;on?6.   Does  the  assessment  examine  students’  prepara;on  for  future  learning?7.   Does  the  assessment  engage  learners  with  tasks  that  require  them  to  engage  with  tools  and  technologies  in   real  situa;ons  and  in  collabora;on  with  other  people?8.   Does  the  assessment  assess  learners’  ability  to  create,  innovate,  and  produce?9.   Does  the  assessment  assess  21st  Century  Skills?10.  Is  the  assessment  clear  about  what  forms  of  instruc;on  and  learning  it  will  encourage,  support,  or  lead  to?11.  Does  the  assessment  and  not  undermine  the  learning  process?12.  Is  the  assessment  equitable,  that  is,  does  the  assessment  take  into  considera;on  the  resources  students   must  have  had  to  perform  well?13.  How  closely  does  the  assessment  integrate  learning  and  assessment? Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 3. Principles of Assessment Practice Source: Changing Assessment Practice: Process, Principles and Standards by John Gardner, Wynne Harlen, Louise Hayward & Gordon Stobart, Assessment Reform Group, 2008 “A major first step in establishing a common language to use in the context of assessment by teachers is the identification of principles that are widely held.”1. Assessment  of  any  kind  should  ul;mately  improve  learning.2. Assessment  methods  should  enable  progress  in  all  important  learning  goals  to  be  facilitated  and  reported.3. Assessment  procedures  should  include  explicit  processes  to  ensure  that  informa;on  is  valid  and  is  reliable  as   necessary  for  its  purpose.4. Assessment  should  promote  public  understanding  of  learning  goals  relevant  to  students’  current  and  future   lives.5. Assessment  of  learning  outcomes  should  be  treated  as  approxima;ons,  subject  to  unavoidable  errors.6. Assessment  should  be  part  of  the  process  of  teaching  that  enables  students  to  understand  the  aims  of  their   learning  and  how  the  quality  of  their  achievement  will  be  judged.7. Assessment  methods  should  promote  the  ac;ve  engagement  of  students  in  their  learning  and  its  assessment.8. Assessment  should  enable  and  mo;vate  students  to  show  what  they  can  do.9. Assessment  should  combine  informa;on  of  different  kinds,  including  students’  self-­‐assessments,  to  inform   decisions  about  students’  learning  and  achievements.10. Assessment  methods  should  meet  standards  that  reflect  a  broad  consensus  on  quality  at  all  levels  from   classroom  prac;ce  to  na;onal  policy. Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 4. ing t ns d red en n ere my ed sio D pp ssm en e sig nte ssm ed no is sig nt ssm anc es Ub Ma ts xo ev t De Ce se dd De Ce se gr en As rm Ta ’s R n m As ct- Pro e- As be rfo ulu om nc tru ve Em ing se Pe ide ric ati Blo ns arn r rm Co Ev Cu Le FoTeacher RequiresOriented Complexity Interdisciplinary Collaboration Note: This is not meant to be a true depiction of how these approaches and their relation, but rather a general display of what we’re exploring. In reality, there is a lot of overlap and integration between the approaches. Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 5. BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY
  • 6. BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Cognitive Process Dimension Knowledge Dimension Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Factual Conceptual Procedural Metacognitive1. Define the Learning Objective(s) of the Game:2. Describe activities that serve as evidence:3. Place these on the chart. Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 7. CONSTRUCT-CENTERED DESIGN Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Identify the Define the Define the Outline the Define the construct. cognitive claim. evidence. learning task activity. and the assessment task. Review & Revise Step 6 Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 8. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTWriting Performance Objectives 1. State each general objective so that it clearly describes the skill or product to be assessed. 2. List specific performance outcomes for each objective that are most relevant to a successful performance or a satisfactory product. 3. List enough specific performance outcomes to clarify what is meant by an effective performance. 4. State the specific performance outcomes in terms of observable dimensions of the skill or product. 5. State the specific performance outcomes so that they are clear to students. Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 9. Scoring Ideas1. Systematic observation and anecdotal records2. Checklists3. Rating Scales4. Scoring Rubrics Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 10. ChecklistsA list of measurable dimensions of a performance or a product
  • 11. Rating ScalesSimilar to a checklist and serves somewhat the same purpose injudging procedures and products--the main difference is that therating scale provides and opportunity to mark the degree to which anelement is present.
  • 12. Rating Scales
  • 13. RubricsSimilar to a checklist and serves somewhat the same purpose injudging procedures and products--the main difference is that therating scale provides and opportunity to mark the degree to which anelement is present.
  • 14. Steps to Constructing a Performance Assessment1.   Define  the  purpose  of  your  assessment.   What do you plan to use the results for? What aspects of student performance do you want to know about?2.   Set  the  primary  instruc7onal  goals.   What do you want your students to be able to accomplish in a unit? What should they be able to do at the completion of a unit?3.   Determine  priority  outcomes.   What outcomes are you trying to achieve?4.   Select/construct  the  task. Does the task match the specific instructional intentions? (in other words, does the task force the learner to engage in the cognitive dynamics of the instructional goals?) Does the task adequately represent the content and skills you expect students to attain? Does the task enable students to demonstrate their progress and capabilities? Does the assessment use authentic, real-world tasks? Does the task lend itself to an interdisciplinary approach? Can the task be structured to provide measures of several goals? Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 15. Task Description Outcomes / Description Learning Goals Discussion of game dynamics supporting this Instructions Assessment Groups? Individuals? Administration Materials? Equipment? Process Help allowed? Time allowed? Format Task Audience Description Options available Student Directions Scoring Procedures Rubric/Criteria? Scoring Use of scores Interpreting the Evidence Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 16. CONSTRUCT-CENTERED DESIGN The construct might be a concept (evolution or plate tectonics), theme (e.g. size and Identify the 1 construct scale or consistency and change), or a scientific practice (learning about the natural world in a scientific way). Basing it on expert knowledge of the discipline and related learning research, this Define the 2 construct means explicitly identifying concepts that are critical for developing understanding of a particular construct and defining the successive targets students would reach in the course of their schooling, as they progress toward full understanding of the construct. Develop the claims about the construct—claims identify the reasoning or cognitive 3 Create claims actions students would do to demonstrate their understanding of the construct. Specify the way students will be expected to use the understanding that has been identified and articulated. What sorts of evidence will constitute proof that students have gained the knowledge and skills described? A claim might be used at more than one level because understanding 4 Specify Evidence is expected to develop sequentially across grades. Thus, it is the specification of the evidence that makes clear the degree and depth of understanding that are expected at each level. For example, the evidence appropriate at a less advanced level, say for middle school students, would be less sophisticated. Design Learning Specify the learning and assessment tasks that students need to demonstrate, based 5 Assessment on the elaborated description of the knowledge and skills students need. Examples of tasks are given in the figure below. Such a review might include internal quality checks conducted by the developers, as 6 Review & Revise well as feedback from teachers or from content or assessment experts. Pilot tests and field trials provide essential information, and review is critical to success. Jennifer Groff 2012
  • 17. CONSTRUCT-CENTERED DESIGN 1 Critical Idea Cognitive 2 Activity 2 Claim 3 Evidence Task/ 4 Assessment Jennifer Groff 2012