Basic Principles for Alternative & Deeper Assessment Source: MacArthur 21st Century Learning & Assessment Project 1. Is the assessment built around central problems in an academic domain or profession?2. Does the assessment assess what learners can do in contexts of applica;on of their skills and knowledge?3. Does the assessment measure mul;ple variables and relate them in clear and ac;onable ways?4. Is the assessment developmental in the sense that it provides informa;on relevant to students’ learning cross ;me?5. Does the assessment provide ac;onable informa;on?6. Does the assessment examine students’ prepara;on for future learning?7. Does the assessment engage learners with tasks that require them to engage with tools and technologies in real situa;ons and in collabora;on with other people?8. Does the assessment assess learners’ ability to create, innovate, and produce?9. Does the assessment assess 21st Century Skills?10. Is the assessment clear about what forms of instruc;on and learning it will encourage, support, or lead to?11. Does the assessment and not undermine the learning process?12. Is the assessment equitable, that is, does the assessment take into considera;on the resources students must have had to perform well?13. How closely does the assessment integrate learning and assessment? Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
Principles of Assessment Practice Source: Changing Assessment Practice: Process, Principles and Standards by John Gardner, Wynne Harlen, Louise Hayward & Gordon Stobart, Assessment Reform Group, 2008 “A major first step in establishing a common language to use in the context of assessment by teachers is the identification of principles that are widely held.”1. Assessment of any kind should ul;mately improve learning.2. Assessment methods should enable progress in all important learning goals to be facilitated and reported.3. Assessment procedures should include explicit processes to ensure that informa;on is valid and is reliable as necessary for its purpose.4. Assessment should promote public understanding of learning goals relevant to students’ current and future lives.5. Assessment of learning outcomes should be treated as approxima;ons, subject to unavoidable errors.6. Assessment should be part of the process of teaching that enables students to understand the aims of their learning and how the quality of their achievement will be judged.7. Assessment methods should promote the ac;ve engagement of students in their learning and its assessment.8. Assessment should enable and mo;vate students to show what they can do.9. Assessment should combine informa;on of diﬀerent kinds, including students’ self-‐assessments, to inform decisions about students’ learning and achievements.10. Assessment methods should meet standards that reﬂect a broad consensus on quality at all levels from classroom prac;ce to na;onal policy. Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
ing t ns d red en n ere my ed sio D pp ssm en e sig nte ssm ed no is sig nt ssm anc es Ub Ma ts xo ev t De Ce se dd De Ce se gr en As rm Ta ’s R n m As ct- Pro e- As be rfo ulu om nc tru ve Em ing se Pe ide ric ati Blo ns arn r rm Co Ev Cu Le FoTeacher RequiresOriented Complexity Interdisciplinary Collaboration Note: This is not meant to be a true depiction of how these approaches and their relation, but rather a general display of what we’re exploring. In reality, there is a lot of overlap and integration between the approaches. Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY
BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMY Cognitive Process Dimension Knowledge Dimension Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Factual Conceptual Procedural Metacognitive1. Define the Learning Objective(s) of the Game:2. Describe activities that serve as evidence:3. Place these on the chart. Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
CONSTRUCT-CENTERED DESIGN Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Identify the Define the Define the Outline the Define the construct. cognitive claim. evidence. learning task activity. and the assessment task. Review & Revise Step 6 Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTWriting Performance Objectives 1. State each general objective so that it clearly describes the skill or product to be assessed. 2. List specific performance outcomes for each objective that are most relevant to a successful performance or a satisfactory product. 3. List enough specific performance outcomes to clarify what is meant by an eﬀective performance. 4. State the specific performance outcomes in terms of observable dimensions of the skill or product. 5. State the specific performance outcomes so that they are clear to students. Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
Scoring Ideas1. Systematic observation and anecdotal records2. Checklists3. Rating Scales4. Scoring Rubrics Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
ChecklistsA list of measurable dimensions of a performance or a product
Rating ScalesSimilar to a checklist and serves somewhat the same purpose injudging procedures and products--the main diﬀerence is that therating scale provides and opportunity to mark the degree to which anelement is present.
RubricsSimilar to a checklist and serves somewhat the same purpose injudging procedures and products--the main diﬀerence is that therating scale provides and opportunity to mark the degree to which anelement is present.
Steps to Constructing a Performance Assessment1. Deﬁne the purpose of your assessment. What do you plan to use the results for? What aspects of student performance do you want to know about?2. Set the primary instruc7onal goals. What do you want your students to be able to accomplish in a unit? What should they be able to do at the completion of a unit?3. Determine priority outcomes. What outcomes are you trying to achieve?4. Select/construct the task. Does the task match the specific instructional intentions? (in other words, does the task force the learner to engage in the cognitive dynamics of the instructional goals?) Does the task adequately represent the content and skills you expect students to attain? Does the task enable students to demonstrate their progress and capabilities? Does the assessment use authentic, real-world tasks? Does the task lend itself to an interdisciplinary approach? Can the task be structured to provide measures of several goals? Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
Task Description Outcomes / Description Learning Goals Discussion of game dynamics supporting this Instructions Assessment Groups? Individuals? Administration Materials? Equipment? Process Help allowed? Time allowed? Format Task Audience Description Options available Student Directions Scoring Procedures Rubric/Criteria? Scoring Use of scores Interpreting the Evidence Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
CONSTRUCT-CENTERED DESIGN The construct might be a concept (evolution or plate tectonics), theme (e.g. size and Identify the 1 construct scale or consistency and change), or a scientific practice (learning about the natural world in a scientific way). Basing it on expert knowledge of the discipline and related learning research, this Define the 2 construct means explicitly identifying concepts that are critical for developing understanding of a particular construct and defining the successive targets students would reach in the course of their schooling, as they progress toward full understanding of the construct. Develop the claims about the construct—claims identify the reasoning or cognitive 3 Create claims actions students would do to demonstrate their understanding of the construct. Specify the way students will be expected to use the understanding that has been identified and articulated. What sorts of evidence will constitute proof that students have gained the knowledge and skills described? A claim might be used at more than one level because understanding 4 Specify Evidence is expected to develop sequentially across grades. Thus, it is the specification of the evidence that makes clear the degree and depth of understanding that are expected at each level. For example, the evidence appropriate at a less advanced level, say for middle school students, would be less sophisticated. Design Learning Specify the learning and assessment tasks that students need to demonstrate, based 5 Assessment on the elaborated description of the knowledge and skills students need. Examples of tasks are given in the figure below. Such a review might include internal quality checks conducted by the developers, as 6 Review & Revise well as feedback from teachers or from content or assessment experts. Pilot tests and field trials provide essential information, and review is critical to success. Jennifer Groﬀ 2012
CONSTRUCT-CENTERED DESIGN 1 Critical Idea Cognitive 2 Activity 2 Claim 3 Evidence Task/ 4 Assessment Jennifer Groﬀ 2012