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Chapter2

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  • 1. Chapter 2: The Founding of America
  • 2. Review:
    Evidence that supports Elite Theory?
    Evidence that supports Pluralist Theory?
    Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    2
  • 3. Critically Analyzing the “Founding Fathers”
    Option 1: “a group of self-interested wealthy men” (a “bad” thing)
    Option 2: “a group of wealthy men of similar backgrounds & similar interests”
    Not judging “goodness or badness”
    Purely descriptive to explain/understand
    Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    3
  • 4. Overview
    Background on pre-Revolution America
    Early American government
    Early demographics
    Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    4
  • 5. 5
    The Colonial Background
    Religious Freedom:
    Separatists broke with the Church of England
    Puritans & Quakers
    The irony…
    Economic Motivations:
    Entrepreneurs & the poor
    Varied by colony
    (The Granger Collection)
  • 6. Early British Colonization
    First permanent colony at Jamestown, VA (1607)
    First representative assembly, Virginia’s House of Burgesses (1619)
    By 1732, 13 colonies with governing institutions
    6
  • 7. How the Colonies Were Governed
    Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    7
  • 8. French & Indian Wars (1756–1763)
    North American theater of Seven Years War
    France vs. Britain (+allies)
    Colonists
    Britain won, but costly
    New territory & financing of war
    Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    8
  • 9. 9
    British Restrictions & Colonial Grievances
    In 1763, the British Parliament began to pass laws that treated the colonies as a unit.
    (National Portrait Gallery)
  • 10. Economic Consequences of Interference
    Cost of defending colonies & war debt lead to unpopular taxes
    Renewed Enforcement of the Navigation Acts (limits trade)
    10
  • 11. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    11
    English Colonists Respond: the First Continental Congress
    • FOCUS: restore the political structure prior to interference by Parliament
    • 12. “benign neglect”
    • 13. With a compromise, future conflict may have been averted
    • 14. April, 1775: hostilities begin!
  • Declaration of Independence (1776)
    Purpose: declare war & rally support
    Asserts natural rights & equality
    Social contract
    12
  • 15. 13
    Second Continental Congress
    Established an army
    Put Washington in charge
    Directed the War
    1/3 Rebelled, 1/3 Loyal, 1/3 Indifferent
    Painting by John Trumbull, 1819, Library of Congress
  • 16. Revolutionary War (1775–1783)
    14
  • 17. Refresher
    Key question of the day:
    What is the worst 3-D movie idea currently out there?
    Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    15
  • 18. USA, Version 1.0: Articles of Confederation (1781-1789)
    Recognized states as sovereign
    Citizens loyal to their state
    limits powers of central govt.
    No common currency or national army
    Hampered interstate commerce & tax collection
    16
  • 19. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    17
    The Confederal Government Structure Under the Articles of Confederation
  • 20. Shay’s Rebellion (1786-1787)
    High state taxation
    High interstate trade competition led to high prices of goods
    Rising personal debt
    18
    © Bettmann/Corbis
  • 21. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    19
    Weaknesses of the Articles
    No way to resolve disputes between states
    Need to organize the states for the collective good
    Cooperative trade policy & national army
    Addresses causes of and protects from outbreaks of rebellion
  • 22. 20
    Accomplishments Under the Articles
    Articles established to:
    Organize the states so they could defeat the British forces
    Gain independence from Britain
  • 23. Amending the Articles
    Constitutional Convention (1787), called to amend the Articles
    created new governing document instead
    21
  • 24. 22
  • 25. Class Breakdown of Early America
    Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    23
  • 26. 24
  • 27. Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    25
  • 28. 26
  • 29. Conclusion:
    Framers shared similar backgrounds & interests
    Limited diversity in U.S.
    Past experience shapes new system:
    Too much, too little power
    Copyright © 2009 Cengage Learning
    27

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