Shallow Ecology Linked with Liberalism<br />Individual liberty harms others <br />Utilitarianism: environmental problems hurt overall utility<br />Libertarianism: even Nozick argues govt. needed for “negative externalities”<br /><ul><li>All justify societal intervention</li></li></ul><li>Shallow Ecology Linked with Conservatism<br />Individualism environmental harm to society overall<br />Shared concern for scientific rationality devoid of concern for virtue<br />Results in community harm<br />Environment linked to tradition & community (preservation)<br />Community part of identity<br />
Shallow Ecology Linked With Socialism<br />Rampant capitalism exploits individuals & environment<br />Monopoly over environmental resources especially hurts the poor<br />Environmental harm often in poorer regions<br />
Deep Ecology<br />Intrinsic value in nature<br />Link<br />Key figures:<br />Aldo Leopold (1887-1948): U.S. Forester <br />Arne Næss (1912-2009): Norwegian philosopher<br />Peter Singer (b. 1946): Australian Bioethicist<br />
Leopold’s Land Ethic <br />Land not a mere object or resource<br />Food chains conduct the energy ↑ from the soil, death/decay returns the energy<br />The flow of energy relies on a complex structure of relations between living/non-living things<br />Native species keep ‘energy circuit’ open<br />Human interference large disruption<br />
More on the Land Ethic<br />Humans: Members, not masters<br />Duty to preserve (stewardship)<br />“Holistic” ethics<br />Nature has moral standing<br />“A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise” ~~Leopold, 1949<br />
Philosophy of Arne Næss<br />Humans are “knots in a biospherical net” (part of a whole) <br />Killing, exploitation, & suppression are inevitable <br />still, must respect all life & minimize our impact<br />limit scientific &“developmental” disturbance<br />be aware of the full effects of environmental policy<br />
More on Næss<br />favors decentralized, locally controlled communities <br />self-sufficiency (thus greater connection between the human & non-humans in that community)<br />“Self-realization!”: awareness of interconnectedness of humans & nature<br />Ex: antibiotics & yogurt<br />
Do Animals Have Moral Standing?<br />What rational arguments can you think of that conclude it is unacceptable to cause harm to humans, but it is acceptable to cause harm to animals? <br />Babies? Mentally-disabled? <br />
Singer’s Utilitarian Perspective<br />Question not of “can they reason?”, but “do they suffer”?<br />Apply same standard of pain/suffering<br />
Is Deep Ecology Just Utopianism?<br />"We shall never achieve harmony with land, any more than we shall achieve absolute justice or liberty for people. In these higher aspirations the important thing is not to achieve, but to strive.”~~Aldo Leopold (1949)<br />
Summing up Deep Ecology<br />“In short, a land ethic changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land community to plain member and citizen of it. It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such.”~~Aldo Leopold (1949)<br />
Summary<br />Shallow Ecology builds on existing value systems and rational self-interest, while Deep Ecology relies on a new or distinct value system.<br />
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