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Acids and bases ppt notes Acids and bases ppt notes Presentation Transcript

  • Acids and Bases Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Hydroxide
  • When we think of acids and bases we tend to think of science labs and chemicals…but did you know
    • Acids cause:
      • Lemons to be sour
      • Acid rain to eat away at sculptures
      • Framed paintings to be damaged
      • Cavities in your teeth
      • Food to digest in your stomach
      • Ants and bees use it to sting
    Acids and Bases
  • Acids and Bases View slide
  • Acids and Bases View slide
  • Properties of Acids and Bases
    • Acids
      • turn blue litmus red
      • taste sour
      • Acids corrode metals
      • positively charged hydrogen ions (H + )
    • Bases
      • turn red litmus blue
      • taste bitter
      • Negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH – )
      • Feel slippery
      • Most hand soaps and drain cleaners are bases
      • Strong bases are caustic
  • Understanding the pH Scale
      • pH stands for (presence of Hydrogen)
      • Numbered from 0 to 14.
      • The lower the pH number – the higher Acid
        • That means more Hydrogen Ions (H+)
      • The higher the pH - the higher the Base
        • That means less Hydrogen Ions (H+)
  • Acids and Bases
    • Animated explanation
  • Electrolytes
    • Mixture of chemicals that use H+ ions to conduct an electrical current.
    • Fluid that regulates the flow of nutrients into and waste products out of cells.
      • Where to find Electrolytes
      • Car battery
        • Lemon
        • Pickle
  • Several Types of Acids
    • Hydrochloric Acid.
      • Stomach acid - has the sour taste of acid.
    • Acetic Acid
      • An ingredient in vinegar.
    • Citric Acid
      • Citrus fruits such as lemons, grapefruit, oranges, and limes have citric acid in the juice.
    • Lactic Acid
      • Sour milk, sour cream, yogurt, and cottage cheese have lactic acid.
  • Strong Acids
    • Nitric acid (HNO 3 )
    • Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
    • Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 )
    • Strong Acids
      • are acids that has many hydrogen ions (many H + ). 
  • Weak Acids
    • Weak acids
      • Are acids that have fewer hydrogen ions (fewer H + ).
    • Examples
      • acetic acid
      • boric acid
        • sea-water, in plants and especially in fruits
      • carbonic acid
        • Found in our blood
      • citric acid
  • Properties of Bases
    • Turn red litmus
    • taste bitter
    • Negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH–)
    • Feel slippery
    • Bases neutralize acids
    • Poisonous and can cause severe burns
    • Strong Bases are Caustic.
  • Some Common Bases
    • Ammonia
      • The most widely used base
      • Used in household cleaning materials
      • Used as fertilizer
    • Calcium hydroxide
      • Used  to make mortar and plaster
      • Used to help neutralize acid soil
    • Sodium hydroxide
      • One of the strongest bases
      • Used in oven cleaners and drain cleaners
  • Strong Bases
    • Strong bases
      • Are bases that produce many hydroxide ions (OH - ) when it is dissolved in water.
      • Are Caustic
    • Examples
      • Lithium hydroxide (LiOH)
      • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
      • Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
  • Weak Bases
    • Weak bases
      • Are bases that produce few hydroxide ions (OH - ) when it is dissolved in water. .
    • Examples
      • Aluminum hydroxide
  • Quiz - Acids and Bases
    • Please list two properties of Acids.
    • Please list two properties of Bases.
    • True or False A strong Acid has many OH-
    • Please name one type of Acid
    • Why should you wear gloves when using strong Bases?