Acids and bases ppt notes

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Acids and bases ppt notes

  1. 1. Acids and Bases Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Hydroxide
  2. 2. When we think of acids and bases we tend to think of science labs and chemicals…but did you know <ul><li>Acids cause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lemons to be sour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid rain to eat away at sculptures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framed paintings to be damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavities in your teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food to digest in your stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ants and bees use it to sting </li></ul></ul>Acids and Bases
  3. 3. Acids and Bases
  4. 4. Acids and Bases
  5. 5. Properties of Acids and Bases <ul><li>Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turn blue litmus red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>taste sour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acids corrode metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positively charged hydrogen ions (H + ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turn red litmus blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>taste bitter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH – ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel slippery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most hand soaps and drain cleaners are bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong bases are caustic </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Understanding the pH Scale <ul><ul><li>pH stands for (presence of Hydrogen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbered from 0 to 14. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lower the pH number – the higher Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That means more Hydrogen Ions (H+) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the pH - the higher the Base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That means less Hydrogen Ions (H+) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Acids and Bases <ul><li>Animated explanation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Electrolytes <ul><li>Mixture of chemicals that use H+ ions to conduct an electrical current. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid that regulates the flow of nutrients into and waste products out of cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to find Electrolytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Car battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lemon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pickle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Several Types of Acids <ul><li>Hydrochloric Acid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach acid - has the sour taste of acid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acetic Acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ingredient in vinegar. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citric Acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citrus fruits such as lemons, grapefruit, oranges, and limes have citric acid in the juice. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sour milk, sour cream, yogurt, and cottage cheese have lactic acid. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Strong Acids <ul><li>Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrochloric acid (HCl) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are acids that has many hydrogen ions (many H + ).  </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Weak Acids <ul><li>Weak acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are acids that have fewer hydrogen ions (fewer H + ). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acetic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sea-water, in plants and especially in fruits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbonic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found in our blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>citric acid </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Properties of Bases <ul><li>Turn red litmus </li></ul><ul><li>taste bitter </li></ul><ul><li>Negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH–) </li></ul><ul><li>Feel slippery </li></ul><ul><li>Bases neutralize acids </li></ul><ul><li>Poisonous and can cause severe burns </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Bases are Caustic. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some Common Bases <ul><li>Ammonia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most widely used base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in household cleaning materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calcium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used  to make mortar and plaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to help neutralize acid soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sodium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the strongest bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in oven cleaners and drain cleaners </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Strong Bases <ul><li>Strong bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are bases that produce many hydroxide ions (OH - ) when it is dissolved in water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Caustic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium hydroxide (KOH) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Weak Bases <ul><li>Weak bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are bases that produce few hydroxide ions (OH - ) when it is dissolved in water. . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum hydroxide </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Quiz - Acids and Bases <ul><li>Please list two properties of Acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Please list two properties of Bases. </li></ul><ul><li>True or False A strong Acid has many OH- </li></ul><ul><li>Please name one type of Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Why should you wear gloves when using strong Bases? </li></ul>

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