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Approximately one-half of individuals with DS have congenital heart disease.
The Atlanta Down Syndrome Project is the largest population-based study. This study shows that 44% had congenital heart defects in which 45% had atrioventricular septal defect and 35% had ventricular septal defect.
It’s been found that some asymptomatic adolescents & adults without structural heart disease go on to develop valve abnormalities. 46% developed mitral valve prolapse in one study and 17% developed mitral valve regurgitation in another study.
Ongoing evaluation for CHD in consultation with a pediatric cardiologist
Health Promotion/Disease Prevention: nutrition, exercise, cardiac health
AAI with or without subluxation has been reported in as many as 10-30% of individuals with Down syndrome
Symptomatic AAI is relatively uncommon, occurring in only 2.6 percent of patients with Down syndrome in one study
AAP Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness recommends annual neuro evals for SXS consistent with spinal cord injury such as loss of motor skills, loss of bowel or bladder control, neck pain, neck stiffness
Symptomatic children need to have:
an MRI to assess degree of spinal cord compression
appropriate surgical consultation for definitive diagnosis and management
Side note: Special Olympics requires screening neck radiographs in children with DS before participation
American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Genetics (2007). Health Supervision for Children With Down Syndrome.Pediatrics, 107 (2), pp. 442-449. http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;107/2/442
American Congress of Obstetrics & Gynecology (2007). New Recommendations for Down Syndrome: Screening Should Be Offered to All Pregnant Women. Accessed on February 4, 2011 from http://www.acog.org/from_home/publications/press_releases/nr01-02-07-1.cfm
Barss, V.A., Messerlian, G.M., & Canick, J.A. (2009). Overview of prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome. Accessed via UptoDate on January 31, 2011 from http://www.uptodate.com/online/content/topic.do?topicKey=antenatl/16784&source=see_link&anchor=H4#H4
Association for Children with Down Syndrome www.acds.org
Davidson, M.A. (October 2008). Primary Care for Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome Pediatric Clinics of North America - Volume 55, Issue 5 - DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2008.07.001
Heinzman, D. and Khan, S. (July 2010). Down Syndrome. Accessed via FirstConsult on January 31, 2011 from http://phstwlp1.partners.org:2872/das/pdxmd/body/234610672-3/0?type=med&eid=9-u1.0-_1_mt_1014362
March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/Down_Syndrome.cfm
Murray, J., Ryan-Krause, P. (2010). Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome: Background and Recommendations for Management. Pediatric Nursing, 36(6):314-319. Accessed via Medscape on Feb. 2, 2011 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/734672_4
National Association for Down Syndrome ( www.nads.org )
National Down Syndrome Congress ( www.ndsccenter.org )
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ( www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/Down_Syndrome.cfm )
National Library of Medicine www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/downsyndrome.html
Roizen, N.J. and Stark, A.R. (Oct. 2009). Management of Down syndrome. Accessed via UpToDate on January 31, 2011 from http://www.uptodate.com/online/content/topic.do?topicKey=dis_chld/7271&source=related_link
Van Cleve, S.N., and Cohen, W.I. (2006). Part I: Clinical Practice Guidelines With Down Syndrome From Birth to 12 Years. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 20 (1):47-54. Retrieved on January 31, 2011 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/521906