A rhetorical device is a linguistic device used primarily to influence beliefs and attitudes and behavior. It uses language to establish a belief or feeling that may or may not be linked to any logical support.
A figure of speech (more specifically a trope) that compares two distinct and unlike things by using words such as like or as to link the comparison. The comparison can be used to create a visual image or add power to the speaker’s original point.
“ The Governor was reaching for any explanation that would justify his actions, like a drowning man clutching at a piece of driftwood.”
A loaded question is a question that makes one or more unwarranted or unjustified assumptions.
“ Hey AJ, do you still cheat on exams?” is a loaded question. The question assumes that AJ has cheated in the past. If AJ has never cheated (fat chance), the assumption is unwarranted, and so the question is loaded because the damage is done.
If I say: “So Lauren, who are you dating this week?” I’m suggesting that Lauren goes through boyfriends like Kleenex(even though we know Lauren is a sweet, pure young lady )
A proof surrogate is an expression that is used to suggest that there is evidence for a claim without actually citing any such evidence.
Saying “Experts say that teaching causes baldness.”
-without saying who the experts are and how it is known that what they say is true is an example of proof surrogate.
Another example is “Studies show that girls who wear ponytails suffer from arrested social development” without specifying which studies, and who did them, and according to what standards they were conducted.
Or, “It is obvious that President Obama practices reverse racism.” when the claim might not be obvious at all .