Session 2 Film Basic Visual Units: Film Appreciation Course (Hum 3)

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Session 2: Film Basic Visual Unit

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Session 2 Film Basic Visual Units: Film Appreciation Course (Hum 3)

  1. 1. Film Visual UnitsFilm Visual Units Mass Communication Humanities Division Bong S. Eliab
  2. 2. Class Websites Online Readings and Materials eliab.tripod.com/film Online Announcements and Assignments hum3.blogspot.com Banyuhay.multiply.com
  3. 3. Frame a single photographic image printed on a length of film smallest discernible unit of film
  4. 4. Frame not part of viewers’ perception seldom has meaning In text, equivalent to letters of the alphabet Reel of Film
  5. 5. ShotShot  A shot is a single uninterrupted action of a camera. Some shots last only one or two frames, although such short shots appear rarely in commercial films.
  6. 6. Shot  Although longer shots are "standard," few last over thirty seconds.  The average shot runs from about two to thirty seconds.
  7. 7. TakeTake A take is also a single uninterrupted action of a camera, but a take is the unedited footages Seen from the point of view of the filmmaker rather than of the viewer.
  8. 8. Take  A take will frequently be shortened at both ends, and perhaps another shot or two will be cut into the middle creating three, four, five or more shots out of a single take.  Can be cut into several shots
  9. 9. Shot basic perceivable and functional unit of film from 2 sec to 30 sec frames run at 24 fps NTSC - 29.97 fps PAL/SECAM - 25 fps Categorized according to apparent closeness of camera to subject Sex and Lucia
  10. 10. NTSC  NTSC is a color TV standard developed in the US in 1953 by the National Television System Committee.  the first colour tv broadcast system  Used in America, Canada, Asia, including Japan
  11. 11. NTSC or 525/60  refers to a NTSC analog TV signal.  Has 486 horizontal lines in its Active Area, a NTSC video signal also includes extra vertical sync lines, which are basically just filler timed to allow the electron guns in a CRT television time to reposition themselves at the top of the screen.  There are 39 vertical sync lines, resulting in a total of 525 lines (486 + 39).  60 is a reference to NTSC's Fieldrate of approximately 60 Fields per second, resulting in 29.97 (30 / 1.001) Interlaced frames per second.
  12. 12. PAL  Used in Western Europe and Australia  PAL, or phase alternating line format  PAL was developed in the early 1960's  the increased bandwidth allows for better picture quality
  13. 13. PAL or 625/50  625/50 refers to a PAL or SECAM analog TV signal  Has 576 horizontal lines in its Active Area, a PAL video signal also includes extra vertical sync lines, which are basically just filler timed to allow the electron guns in a CRT television time to reposition themselves at the top of the screen  There are 49 vertical sync lines, resulting in a total of 625 lines (576 + 49).  50 is a reference to PAL's Fieldrate of 50 fields per second, resulting in 25 Interlaced frames per second.
  14. 14. SECAM  Eastern Europe and France use SECAM  Sequential Couleur Avec Memoire (sequential color with memory)  SECAM uses the same bandwidth as PAL but transmits the colour information sequentially
  15. 15. Types of Format Type Lines Horizontal Freq Vertical Freq NTSC 525/60 15.734 kHz 60Hz PAL-N 625/50 15.625 kHz 50Hz PAL-M 525/60 15.750 kHz 60Hz PAL 625/50 15.625 kHz 50Hz SECAM 625/50 15.625 kHz 50Hz
  16. 16. Shots ELS - Extreme Long Shot LS - Long Shot MLS - Medium Long Shot MS - Medium Shot/ Mid Shot CU - Close Up MCU - Medium Close Up BCU - Big Close Up ECU - Extreme Close Up
  17. 17. Extreme Long Shot (ELS) camera at its farthest distance from subject emphasize background context establishing shot Sex and Lucia
  18. 18. Types of Long Shot  Extreme Long Shot  Long Shot  Medium Long Shot  Medium Shot Gael Garcia Bernal
  19. 19. Long Shot (LS) showing all or most of the subject and much of the surroundings emphasis is more on the size or height of subject vis-a-vis background
  20. 20. Long Shot
  21. 21. Medium Long Shot (MLS) Emphasis on the physique of subject frame cuts off feet and ankles The Road Home
  22. 22. Medium Long Shot (MLS) Emphasis on the physique of subject frame cuts off feet and ankles
  23. 23. Medium Shot (MS) subject and setting occupy roughly equal areas in the frame Enough space for hand gestures viewer's attention more on the subject than on the setting but a clear relationship between the two. Angelina Jolie, UNHCR Ambassador
  24. 24. Medium Shot (MS) lower frame passes through waist of subject relatively poor at showing facial expressions but work well to show body language used to represent importance and power Monicca Bellucci
  25. 25. Medium Close Shot (MCS)  frequently used for the tight presentation of two actors  setting can be seen  lower frame passes through chest of subject Sex and Lucia
  26. 26. Types of Close Up Shots  Medium Close Up (MCU)  Close Up (CU)  Extreme Close Up (ECU) Ludivine Sagnier
  27. 27. Medium Close Up (MCU) head and shoulders Sex and Lucia
  28. 28. Medium Close Up (MCU)
  29. 29. Close Up (CU) Shows a character’s face in great detail Face fills the screen Used to distinguish main characters; major characters are often given a close-up when they are introduced as a way of indicating their importance The Road Home
  30. 30. Close Up (CU) Shot  Does not show the subject in the broad context of its surroundings  If overused, may leave viewers uncertain as to what they are seeing
  31. 31. Close Up (CU) Shot  Often used as cutaways from a more distant shot to show detail, such as characters' emotions, or some intricate activity with their hands  Close cuts to characters' faces are used far more often in television than in movies; they are especially common in soap operas.
  32. 32. Big Close Up (BCU) forehead to chin
  33. 33. Extreme Close Up (ECU) reveals only a small part of the face
  34. 34. Extreme Close Up
  35. 35. Summary
  36. 36. Camera Movement
  37. 37. Low-Angle Shot  A shot from a camera positioned low on the vertical axis, often at knee height, looking up  to illustrate which character holds the higher position of power
  38. 38. Worm’s Eye Vew  Audience looking up at the character or situation  Character is made to seem very powerful or situation may seem insurmountable
  39. 39. High Angle Shot  camera is located high (often above head height)and the shot is angled downwards  used sometimes in scenes of confrontation and fights to show which person has the higher power
  40. 40. High Angle Shot  subject of a high angle shot looks vulnerable or insignificant  if the shot represents a character's point of view, the shot can also be used to make the character tall, more powerful or threatening Do the Right Thing, Spike Lee, USA, 1989
  41. 41. Bird’s Eye View  Scene is observed from the above as the audience is on top of a building looking down  Dramatizes a threatening situation by suggesting characters are at a disadvantage, at the mercy of people and events
  42. 42. Straight-on Shot
  43. 43. Canted (Oblique) Shot  Horizon in shot is tilted to create an impression that everything is off- balance  Effectively express psychological imbalance, instability, motion, tension, pain or danger
  44. 44. Point-of-View (POV) Shows a view from the subject's perspective. This shot is usually edited in such a way that it is obvious whose POV it is
  45. 45. POV Shots Wide Shot POV POVOSS
  46. 46. Scene A scene is a series of shots that the viewer perceives as taken at the same location during a rather brief period of time Sex and Lucia
  47. 47. Scene
  48. 48. Types of Scenes  Master scenes - which are the key scenes to the bulk of the plot.  Flashback scenes - where the audience is taken into the past to reveal crucial story points. Jan Dara (2001)
  49. 49. Types of Scenes  Introduction scenes - where characters are introduced for the first time.  Static Scenes - where there is very little motion of the subject or camera Jan Dara (2001)
  50. 50. Three Unities of A Scene  The unity of action: a scene should have one main action that it follows, with no or few subplots.  The unity of place: a scene should cover a single physical space and should not attempt to compress geography, nor should it represent more than one place.  The unity of time: the action in a scene should take place over no more than 24 hours. Anna Paquin
  51. 51. Sequence composed of a series of scenes scenes related in location, time, generating action, point of view, or cast set off by strong punctuation marks (transition devices) such as the fade-out and fade-in

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